New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Shades of Death Road
Shades of Death Road, sometimes referred to locally as just "Shades", is a two-lane rural road of about 7 miles in length in central Warren County, New Jersey. It runs in a north-south direction through Liberty and Independence townships turns more east-west in Allamuchy Township north of the Interstate 80 crossing. South of I-80 it offers access to it at several points; the road is the subject of folklore and numerous local legends. According to Weird NJ, these rumors have drawn more visitors to the area, to the annoyance of residents, who have in the past gone so far as to smear the pole holding the street sign at the road's southern end with grease or oil to prevent theft; the road in New Jersey is not the only one with this unusual name. Another Shades of Death Road exists in Washington County, Pennsylvania north of Avella between Bethel Ridge Road and Cole School Road. Shades of Death's southern end is at County Route 611, or Hope Road, in Liberty Township one mile north of the junction with County Route 617 and two miles north of where Hope splits off from U.
S. Route 46 at Marble Hill, just west of Great Meadows. From that point it meanders along between the base of the Jenny Jump ridge and the low-lying flatlands of the Pequest River valley. About half a mile north of the interstate, in Allamuchy, it turns to the east and enters those flatlands, continuing all the while to weave back and forth through some sharp turns, until it reaches its northern terminus at Long Bridge Road. Weird New Jersey suggests several theories for the road's macabre name; some focus on the road's southern half, where the adjoining forest with its aged trees provides much actual shade from the sun on the brightest days. Highwaymen or other bandits would lay in wait for victims in these shadows often cut their throats after taking what they had, or they would engage in fights to the death among themselves over women. Or, it is said, the local populace would take revenge against these highwaymen by lynching them and leaving the bodies dangling from low-hanging tree branches as a warning to others criminally inclined.
In the 1920s and 1930s, there were three brutal murders along the road, one was a robbery in which a man was hit over the head with a tire jack over some gold coins, a second in which a woman beheaded her husband and buried the head and the body on different sides of the street, lastly one in which a local resident, Bill Cummins, was shot and buried in a mudpile. It was never solved; the twists and turns of the road have led to suggestions that it has led to an inordinate number of fatal car accidents, the reflective guard rails along the road indicate where that has happened. However, the road had earned its name well. Bear Swamp nearby was known as either Cat Hollow or Cat Swamp, because of packs of vicious wild cats that lived there who and lethally attacked travelers along the road. A final explanation points to the Pequest lowlands and nearby Bear Swamp, used today for sod farming. In 1850, malaria-carrying insects were discovered nesting in a cliff face along the road, they flourished in the nearby wetlands of Bear Swamp.
The high mortality rates due to the remoteness of the area from effective medical treatment cut a swath through so many families that a street once called Shade or Shades Road due to its tree cover took on the name Shades Of Death out of black humor. The problem was so widespread, that in 1884 a state-sponsored project drained the swamps, ending the threat. According to Weird New Jersey, ghosts or other supernatural phenomena are said to have been reported at points along the road. Ghost Lake is just off the road, in the state forest south of the I-80 overpass, it was created in the early 20th century when two wealthy local men dammed a creek that ran through the narrow valley between houses they had just built. They gave it its name from the wraithlike vapor formations they saw rising off it on cooler mornings, they further named the pass Haunted Hollow. Weird NJ writes that visitors have told them that no matter what time of night they visit the lake at, the sky above it always seems as bright as if it were still twilight and several have reported ghosts in the area in a deserted old cabin across the lake from the road victims of the murders once believed to have given the road its name.
To the right of Ghost lake, there is a small cave, once used by the Lenape. Weird NJ says that though the cave is now accessible, covered in graffiti, archaeologists who surveyed the area in 1918 found pottery shards and broken arrow heads. From their findings, the archaeologists concluded that "The Fairy Hole" was not visited, it may have been used as a simple resting point for traveling or hunting Lenape, but with its close proximity to several known burial sites, it is said to be a sacred or religiously important site. This survey was conducted before the creation of Ghost Lake. Lenape Lane is an unpaved one-lane dead-end street about three-quarter mile in length running eastward off Shades just north of I-80, it ends at a farmhouse for which it is little more than a driveway, but halfway down there is space to park or turn around next to a wooden structure described as looking like an abandoned stable. Weird New Jersey writes that visitors to this stable site at night have reported local fogs surrounding it and seeing apparitions in it, or sometimes in clear weather, c
Warren County, New Jersey
Warren County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 106,798, making it the 19th-most populous of the state's 21 counties, representing a decrease of 1.7% from the 108,692 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, in turn having increased by 6,255 from 102,437 counted at the 2000 Census, Its county seat is Belvidere. It is part of the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area and is considered the eastern border of the Lehigh Valley, it is considered part of the New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, shares its eastern border with the New York City Metropolitan Area, with its northwestern section bordering The Poconos. The most populous place was Phillipsburg, with 14,950 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hardwick Township, covered 37.92 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. Warren County was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 20, 1824, from portions of Sussex County.
At its creation, the county consisted of the townships of Greenwich, Knowlton, Mansfield and Pahaquarry. The county was named for Joseph Warren, an American Revolutionary War hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 362.86 square miles, including 356.92 square miles of land and 5.94 square miles of land. Warren County has rolling hills, with the Kittatinny Ridge in the west. Allamuchy Mountain and Jenny Jump Mountain are part of the New York – New Jersey Highlands known as the Reading Prong. Around 450 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands collided with proto North America; the chain of islands went over the North American plate, thus the Highlands were created from the island rock and so was the Great Appalachian Valley. The Highlands is the Jenny Jump Mountains. Thus, Warren County was born. Around 400 million years ago, a small continent, long and thin collided with proto North America; this created the Kittatinny Mountains. The quartzite, lying in a shallow sea over top of the Martinsburg shale and faulted due to pressure and heat.
The quartzite lifted, thus the Kittatinny Mountain was born. The final collision was; this was the final episode of the building of the Appalachian Mountains. The African plate tore away from North America; the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern part of the county from 21,000 to 13,000 BC. This glacier covered the top of Kittatinny Mountain and carved the terrain in the northern part of the county; the terminal moraine runs from north of Belvidere to south of Great Meadows to north of Hackettstown, to north of Budd Lake. Blairstown Township, Hope Township, half of Independence Township, part of White Township, all of Allamuchy Township was covered by the Glacier; when the glacier melted, a lake was formed at Great Meadows. The lake drained leaving a large flat area filled with organic material; the county is drained by three rivers. All three rivers are narrow, they are fresh water rivers. The Paulins Kill drains the western portion of the county; the river flows from Newton to Blairstown Township, through Knowlton Township where it drains into the Delaware River.
The Pequest River drains the middle of the county flowing from Andover Township through Allamuchy to Independence Township where it turns west and flows through White Township and empties into the Delaware River at Belvidere. The third river is the Musconetcong. Starting at Lake Musconetcong, the river divides the county from Hunterdon; this river drains the southern portion of the county and empties into the Delaware River near Warren Glen. Warren County is located in two valleys of the Great Appalachian Valley; the first is the Kittatinny Valley, in the northern part of the county, the Lehigh Valley, in the southern part of the county. The Lehigh Valley starts at the terminal moraine of the Wisconsin Glacier north of Belvidere, it extends from the Delaware River south to where the Musconetcong River goes into the Delaware River, northeast to the Jenny Jump Mountains and along Route 80 to the Allamuchy Mountains to the terminal moraine near Hackettstown. The Kittatinny Valley is north of the terminal moraine.
Towns such as Blairstown, Johnsonburg and Allamuchy are in the Kittatinny Valley The highest elevation is 1,600 feet above sea level on the Kittatinny Ridge, at two areas just south of Upper Yards Creek Reservoir, west of Blairstown. The lowest point is the confluence of the Delaware and Musconetcong rivers at the county's southern tip, at 160 feet of elevation; the highest elevation on Allamuchy Mountain is 1,240 feet on the ridge northeast of Allamuchy. On Jenny Jump Mountain the highest point is 1,134 feet east of the Shiloh area or south of Interstate 80. Sunfish Pond has an elevation of 1,379 feet and upper Yards Creek Reservoir is at 1,555 feet. Warren County has a Humid Continental Climate. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Belvidere have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −17 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 101 °F was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.77 inches in February to 4.65 inches in July.
Sussex County, New Jersey – nort
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
The Pequest River is a 35.7-mile-long tributary of the Delaware River in the Skylands Region in northwestern New Jersey in the United States. The Pequest, Native American for "open land," drains an area of 162.62 square miles across Sussex and Warren counties, consisting of ten municipalities. The Pequest starts at Stickles Pond, Newton in Sussex County and flows southward through Springdale and Huntsville, about 3.5 miles, where it starts to turn southwest. Flowing through Tranquility, it runs along the northwestern side of the Allamuchy Mountain ridge near Allamuchy, where it meets Trout Brook, it now joins Bear Creek in Bear Swamp and passes through the reclaimed swampy area known as the Great Meadows, lying between the ridges of Jenny Jump Mountain and Cat Swamp Mountain. Shades Of Death Road runs along the foot of Jenny Jump Mountain on the north side of the valley here; some of the land here was drained for cultivation by excavation and clearing of the Pequest and its tributaries. It exits the Great Meadows in a long loop through the gap between Cat Swamp Mountain and Danville Mountain and resumes its course along the southeastern side of Mount Mohepinoke, entering the Pequest Wildlife Management Area.
Furnace Brook empties into it as it descends into a small gorge cut between Mt. Mohepinoke and an outlying spur of the Scotts Mountain massif, it turns west, Mountain Lake Brook enters the stream just above Buttzville, where it exists the Pequest WMA. It passes west through Bridgeville, turns towards the north, meets Beaver Brook as it turns southwest again, it tumbles down to Belvidere in a series of falls. Beaver Brook Mountain Lake Brook Furnace Brook Bear Creek Trout Brook List of rivers of New Jersey Armstrong, William C. Pioneer Families of Northwestern New Jersey. Cawley, James S. and Cawley, Margaret. Exploring the Little Rivers of New Jersey. ISBN 0-8135-0684-0 Chambers, Theodore Frelinghuysen; the early Germans of New Jersey: Their History and Genealogies, passim. Cummings, Warren D. Sussex County: A History. NO ISBN Documents Relating to the Colonial and Post-Revolutionary History of the State of New Jersey. Archives of the State of New Jersey, 1st-2nd series. 47 volumes.. NO ISBN Honeyman, A. Van Doren.
Northwestern New Jersey—A History of Somerset, Hunterdon and Sussex Counties Volume 1.. NO ISBN Schrabisch, Max. Indian habitations in Sussex County, New Jersey Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 13.. NO ISBN Schrabisch, Max. Archaeology of Warren and Hunterdon counties Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 18.. NO ISBN Snell, James P. History of Sussex and Warren Counties, New Jersey, With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers.. NO ISBN Stickney, Charles E. Old Sussex County families of the Minisink Region from articles in the Wantage Recorder Allamuchy Mountain State Park Pequest Trout Hatchery U. S. Geological Survey: NJ stream gaging stations