Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c
Lake Temagami spelled as Lake Timagami, is a lake in Nipissing District in northeastern Ontario, situated 80 km north of North Bay. The lake's name comes from Te-mee-ay-gaming, which means "deep water by the shore" in the Ojibwa language; the lake is irregularly shaped with long north and southwest arms, shorter northwest and south arms and several smaller bays. The town of Temagami is located at the end of the northeast arm of the lake, it extends 50 km from north to south and about 35 km from east to west. There are 1,259 islands, the largest of, Temagami Island; the lake's outflow is the Temagami River. A number of peninsulas are associated with the lake, such as the McLean and Joan peninsulas, as well as Sand Point, which separates the Northwest Arm from the rest of the lake; the lands surrounding the lake are part of the Canadian Shield, one of the largest single exposure of Precambrian rocks in the world which were formed after the Earth's crust cooled. Part of Lake Temagami lies in the Temagami Magnetic Anomaly, an egg shaped geologic structure stretching from Lake Wanapitei in the west to Bear Island.
It has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin, one of the richest mining camps in the world. The hills in the Temagami area are remnants of the oldest mountain ranges in North America, that date back during the Precambrian era; these enormous mountains were taller than any. The uplifting was accomplished as enormous pressure caused the earth to buckle in a process called folding. Other processes, such as volcanic activity and geologic faulting in which the earth cracks open contributed to the formation of these mountains. Over millions of years, these enormous mountains were eroded to the land as we know it today in Temagami; the rocks that form Temagami to this day are igneous and sedimentary. The area has good potential to host diamondiferous kimberlites and more diamond bearing kimberlites may continue to be discovered in the area; the Temagami area contains some pillow lava about 2 billion years old, indicating that great submarine volcanoes existed during the early stages of the formation of the Earth's crust.
The northeast arm of Lake Temagami is underlain by a strong fault zone of sheared felsic to intermediate metavolcanic rocks, 1,200 m wide. This fault zone, known as the Northeast Arm Deformation Zone, the associated metavolcanic rocks are associated with the Temagami Greenstone Belt, an Archean greenstone belt characterized by felsic-mafic volcanic rocks. Lake Temagami and its surrounding lakes provide endless opportunities for canoe camping. There are over 2,000 km of interconnecting canoe routes; the region contains some of the largest remaining stands of old growth red and white pine forests in Ontario. In 1834, the Hudson's Bay Company opened a fur trading post on the lake, which operated during the 19th century; the Forest Reserves Act of 1898 established the Temagami Forest Reserve on the shores and adjacent lands of the lake in 1901. It was created to reserve the forests for future logging by restricting settlement. In 1904 it was increased to 15,000 km2; as a result of this reserve, the building of cottages and resorts was only permitted on the lake's islands.
This restriction is still in force today. Lake Temagami is popular for cottage vacationing: the number of cottages on Lake Temagami are estimated between 630 and 746. In addition there are 9 youth camps, 12 commercial lodges. Keewaydin Canoe Camp is based on Devil Island, in the shadow of Devil Mountain and across from Granny Bay in the northern section of the lake. Keeywaydin, founded in 1892, is one of several camps on Lake Temagami whose focus is on wilderness canoe trips using traditional equipment such as cedar and canvas canoes and wannigans. Since it began running trips in Ontario in 1902, it is the earliest known private business on Temagami besides for the HBC post on Bear Island. A large passenger steamboat, Belle of Temagami, operated on Lake Temagami from the 1900s to the 1940s. Camp Wigwasati, on the southwest arm, began running canoe trips in the Temagami wilderness in 1930. Wigwasati is now known as Camp Temagami. Located on an island in the hub of the lake, Camp Wabun has run canoe trips in the area since 1933, including trips to Hudson's Bay, became the first camp on the lake to be co-ed, has been co-ed since 1977.
Keeywaydin and Wabun were boys camps when founded but have since all become co-ed. Appleby College's northern campus is located on Rabbit Nose island, opened in the mid 1970s it provides a launching point for their Northward Bound program which takes place in January, February and June. A copper mine opened on Temagami Island in 1954 called Temagami Mine, it was considered to mine the purest copper ore in Canada. The mine closed in 1972. Lakes of Temagami List of islands of Lake Temagami Ottertooth.com: Temagami's online magazine Macdonald, Historical Map of Temagami, 1985 Temagami Integrated Planning Background Information, 2005, ISBN 0-7794-7060-5, Online version Municipality of Temagami: Background and Facts and Figures about Temagami Hap Wilson, Temagami Canoe Routes, 7th edition 1992, ISBN 0-9693258-1-9 Back, Brian "The Keewaydin Way" 1982 Ottertooth.com: Temagami's online magazine Friends of Temagami MyTemagami. CA Temagami - The Land of Deep Water
The Joan Peninsula is a peninsula in Northeastern Ontario, situated in the central portion of Lake Temagami. It is surrounded by three portions of Lake Temagami; the peninsula is connected to the mainland in the northwest. The Joan Peninsula is the namesake of Joan Township, a geographic township that includes the Joan Peninsula. Cynthia Peninsula McLean Peninsula
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Teme-Augama Anishnabai is the Aboriginal community of the Temagami First Nation. The TAA have hunted animals in the Temagami region of Canada for over 5,000 years. Bear Island on Lake Temagami is home to the Aboriginal community. In 1973, The Teme-Augama Anishnabai exercised a land caution against development on the Crown land of 10,000 square kilometres-most of the Temagami area; the attorney-general of Ontario pursued legal action against the Band for this caution. The TAA lost this court case in 1984 and the Band proceeded with an Appeal to the Supreme Court; the Band lost this Appeal and the Caution was lifted. In 1988, the Ontario Minister of Natural Resources, Vince Kerrio approved the expansion of the Red Squirrel logging road, directly through Anishinaabe territory; this prompted a series of roadblocks by the TAA and by environmentalists in 1988-1989. In 1991, the TAA and the Ontario government created the Wendaban Stewardship Authority to decide what to do with the four counties near the logging road.
The committee dissolved. White Bear Forest
The term township means the district or area associated with a town. However, in some systems, no town needs to be involved; the specific use of the term to describe political subdivisions has varied by country to describe a local rural or semi-rural government within the country itself. In eastern Canada a township is one form of the subdivision of a county. In Canadian French, it is called a canton; the a historic colony of Nova Scotia used the term township as a subdivision of counties. In Prince Edward Island's case, the colonial survey of 1764 established 67 townships, known as lots, 3 royalties, which were grouped into parishes, hence into counties. In New Brunswick, parishes have taken over as the present-day subdivision of counties, whereas present-day Nova Scotia uses districts where appropriate. In Ontario, there are both geographic townships and township municipalities. Geographic townships are the original historical administrative subdivisions surveyed and established in the 1800s.
These are used for geographic purposes, such as land surveying, natural resource exploration and tracking of phenomena such as forest fires or tornados. Township municipalities called "political townships", are areas that have been incorporated and are a lower-tier municipality or single-tier municipality. A township municipality may consist of a portion of one or more geographic townships united as a single entity with a single municipal administration, they consist of one or more communities that are not incorporated for various reasons. Rural counties are subdivided into townships. In some places if the township is in a county rather than in a regional municipality, the head of a political township is called a reeve, not a mayor. However, this distinction is changing as many rural townships are replacing the title Reeve with the mayor to reduce confusion. A few townships keep both titles and designate mayor as the head of the municipal council and use the title Reeve to denote the representative to the upper tier council.
The term "geographic township" is used in reference to former political townships which were abolished or superseded as part of municipal government restructuring. In Quebec, townships are called cantons in French and can be political and geographic, similar to Ontario, although the geographic use is now limited or not used at all, they were introduced after the British conquest as a surveying unit. They were designated and cover most of the unattributed territory in Eastern Quebec and what is now known as the Eastern Townships, used in surveying the Outaouais and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean regions. Townships served as the territorial basis for new municipalities, but township municipalities are no different from other types such as parish or village municipalities. In the Prairie provinces and parts of British Columbia, a township is a division of the Dominion Land Survey. Townships are 6-by-6-mile squares – about 36 square miles in area; these townships are not political units, but exist only to define parcels of land in a simple way.
Townships are divided into 36 equal 1-by-1-mile square parcels known as sections. In Saskatchewan, a political unit called a rural municipality in general is 3 townships by 3 townships in size, or 18 miles squared – about 324 square miles. Three municipalities in British Columbia, Langley and Spallumcheen, have "township" in their official names, but hold the status of district municipalities. List of townships in Ontario List of townships in Prince Edward Island List of townships in Quebec
Northern Ontario is a primary geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario. Most of the core geographic region is located on part of the Superior Geological Province of the Canadian Shield, a vast rocky plateau located north of Lake Huron, the French River, Lake Nipissing, the Mattawa River; the statistical region extends south of the Mattawa River to include all of the District of Nipissing. The southern section of this district lies on part of the Grenville Geological Province of the Shield which occupies the transitional area between Northern and Southern Ontario; the extended federal and provincial administrative regions of Northern Ontario have their own boundaries further south in the transitional area that vary according to their respective government policies and requirements. Ontario government departments and agencies such as the Growth Plan for Northern Ontario and the Northern Ontario Heritage Fund Corporation define Northern Ontario as all areas north of, including, the districts of Parry Sound and Nipissing for political purposes, while the federal government, but not the provincial includes the district of Muskoka.
The statistical region has a land area of 806,000 km2 and constitutes 88 per cent of the land area of Ontario, but with just 780,000 people it contains only about six per cent of the province's population. The climate is characterized by extremes of temperature cold in winter and hot in summer; the principal industries are mining and hydroelectricity. For some purposes, Northern Ontario is further subdivided into Northeastern and Northwestern Ontario; when the region is divided in this way, the three westernmost districts constitute "Northwestern Ontario" and the other districts constitute "Northeastern Ontario." Northeastern Ontario contains two thirds of Northern Ontario's population. In the early 20th century, Northern Ontario was called "New Ontario", although this name fell into disuse because of its colonial connotations; those areas which formed part of New France in the pays d'en haut the watersheds of the Ottawa River, Lake Huron and Lake Superior, had been acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris and became part of Upper Canada in 1791, the Province of Canada between 1840 and 1867.
At the time of Canadian Confederation in 1867, the portion of Northern Ontario lying south of the Laurentian Divide was part of Ontario, while the portion north of the divide was part of the separate British territory of Rupert's Land. The province's boundaries were provisionally expanded northward and westward in 1874, while the Lake of the Woods region remained subject to a boundary dispute between Ontario and Manitoba; the region was confirmed as belonging to Ontario by decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884, confirmed by the Canada Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which set the province's new northern boundary at the Albany River. The remaining northernmost portion of the province, from the Albany River to Hudson Bay, was transferred to the province from the Northwest Territories by the Parliament of Canada in the Ontario Boundaries Extension Act, 1912; this region was established as the District of Patricia, but was merged into the Kenora District in 1927.
The Province of Canada began creating judicial districts in sparsely populated Northern Ontario with the establishment of Algoma District and Nipissing District in 1858. These districts had no municipal function. Nipissing had no district seat until 1895. Up until that date, registry office and higher court services were available at Pembroke in Renfrew County. Nipissing Stipendiary Magistrate and land registrar William Doran established his residence at North Bay in 1885. Following the hotly contested district town election in 1895, North Bay earned the right to become the district seat in the new Provisional District of Nipissing. After the creation of the province of Ontario in 1867, the first district to be established was Thunder Bay in 1871 which until had formed part of Algoma District; the Ontario government was reluctant to establish new districts in the north because the northern and western boundaries of Ontario were in dispute after Confederation. Ontario's right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and confirmed by the Canada Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
By 1899 there were seven northern districts: Algoma, Muskoka, Parry Sound, Rainy River, Thunder Bay. Five more northern districts were created between 1907 and 1922: Cochrane, Sudbury and Patricia; the Patricia District was merged into the Kenora District in 1927. Unlike the counties and regional municipalities of Southern Ontario, which have a government and administrative structure and jurisdiction over specified government services, a district lacks that level of administration. Districts are too sparsely populated to maintain a county government system, so many district-based services are provided directly by the provincial government. For example, districts have provincially maintained secondary highways instead of county roads. Statistically, the districts in Northern Ontario are Rainy River, Thunder Bay, Timiskaming, Sudbury and Manitoulin. The