Coulterville is a census-designated place in Mariposa County, California. It is located at an elevation of 1699 feet. Coulterville had a population of 201 at the 2010 census, it is a mining town located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. The ZIP Code is 95311; the community is inside area code 209. The place was settled in 1850 by George W. Coulter, for whom it is named. For a time Coulter lived in a tent flying the American Flag, prompting local Mexicans to call the place Banderita; the Maxwell's Creek post office opened in 1852 and changed its name to Coulterville in 1853. The name Maxwell honors George Maxwell, with whom Coulter cast lots to determine the name of the town. Coulterville is registered as California Historical Landmark #332. A large portion of the downtown was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Coulterville Main Street Historic District; the intersection of California State Route 49 and California State Route 132, where the Hotel Jeffery sits, appears in the movie Road Queen.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 3.2 square miles, 99.98% of it land, 0.02% of it water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Coultervillle had a population of 201; the population density was 47.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Coultervillle was 181 White, 0 African American, 5 Native American, 1 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 0 from other races, 14 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20 persons; the Census reported that 201 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 95 households, out of which 19 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 34 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 9 had a female householder with no husband present, 11 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 8 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 1 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 32 households were made up of individuals and 11 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.12. There were 54 families; the population was spread out with 30 people under the age of 18, 15 people aged 18 to 24, 35 people aged 25 to 44, 77 people aged 45 to 64, 44 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.9 years. For every 100 females there were 116.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.8 males. There were 130 housing units at an average density of 30.8 per square mile, of which 65 were owner-occupied, 30 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.6%. 134 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 67 people lived in rental housing units. In the California State Legislature, Coulterville is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, in the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. In the United States House of Representatives, Coulterville is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom McClintock. Coulterville, along with its neighboring communities of Greeley Hill and Lake Don Pedro comprise County Supervisorial District 3 of the county of Mariposa.
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Midpines is a census-designated place in Mariposa County, California. It is located 12 miles southwest of El Portal, at an elevation of 2585 feet, it lies among the Sierra Nevada foothills of the central part of the state, 6 to 10 miles north of Mariposa, the county seat. It is composed of scattered residential areas along both sides of State Route 140, one of three principal routes to Yosemite National Park, some 30 miles to the east of Midpines; the population was 1,204 at the 2010 census. Midpines began as a resort, founded by Newell D. Chamberlain, in 1926; the first post office opened in 1929. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 24.55 square miles all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Midpines had a population of 1,204; the population density was 49.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Midpines was 990 White, 4 African American, 63 Native American, 7 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 97 from other races, 43 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 208 persons. The Census reported that 1,204 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 511 households, out of which 126 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 244 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 37 had a female householder with no husband present, 32 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 28 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 159 households were made up of individuals and 60 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36. There were 313 families; the population was spread out with 229 people under the age of 18, 79 people aged 18 to 24, 285 people aged 25 to 44, 389 people aged 45 to 64, 222 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.8 males.
There were 627 housing units at an average density of 25.5 per square mile, of which 318 were owner-occupied, 193 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.5%. 728 people lived in 476 people lived in rental housing units. Full-size photo of "The Dragon"
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time by a whole number of hours, but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes; some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones; this creates a permanent daylight saving time effect. Before clocks were first invented, it was common practice to mark the time of day with apparent solar time – for example, the time on a sundial –, different for every location and dependent on longitude; when well-regulated mechanical clocks became widespread in the early 19th century, each city began to use some local mean solar time.
Apparent and mean solar time can differ by up to around 15 minutes because of the elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis. Mean solar time has days of equal length, the difference between the two sums to zero after a year. Greenwich Mean Time was established in 1675, when the Royal Observatory was built, as an aid to mariners to determine longitude at sea, providing a standard reference time while each city in England kept a different local time. Local solar time became inconvenient as rail transport and telecommunications improved, because clocks differed between places by amounts corresponding to the differences in their geographical longitudes, which varied by four minutes of time for every degree of longitude. For example, Bristol is about 2.5 degrees west of Greenwich, so when it is solar noon in Bristol, it is about 10 minutes past solar noon in London. The use of time zones accumulates these differences into longer units hours, so that nearby places can share a common standard for timekeeping.
The first adoption of a standard time was on December 1, 1847, in Great Britain by railway companies using GMT kept by portable chronometers. The first of these companies to adopt standard time was the Great Western Railway in November 1840; this became known as Railway Time. About August 23, 1852, time signals were first transmitted by telegraph from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Though 98% of Great Britain's public clocks were using GMT by 1855, it was not made Britain's legal time until August 2, 1880; some British clocks from this period have two minute hands—one for the local time, one for GMT. Improvements in worldwide communication further increased the need for interacting parties to communicate mutually comprehensible time references to one another; the problem of differing local times could be solved across larger areas by synchronizing clocks worldwide, but in many places that adopted time would differ markedly from the solar time to which people were accustomed. On November 2, 1868, the British colony of New Zealand adopted a standard time to be observed throughout the colony, was the first country to do so.
It was based on the longitude 172°30′ East of Greenwich, 11 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT. This standard was known as New Zealand Mean Time. Timekeeping on the American railroads in the mid-19th century was somewhat confused; each railroad used its own standard time based on the local time of its headquarters or most important terminus, the railroad's train schedules were published using its own time. Some junctions served by several railroads had a clock for each railroad, each showing a different time. Charles F. Dowd proposed a system of one-hour standard time zones for American railroads about 1863, although he published nothing on the matter at that time and did not consult railroad officials until 1869. In 1870 he proposed four ideal time zones, the first centered on Washington, D. C. but by 1872 the first was centered with geographic borders. Dowd's system was never accepted by American railroads. Instead, U. S. and Canadian railroads implemented a version proposed by William F. Allen, the editor of the Traveler's Official Railway Guide.
The borders of its time zones ran through railroad stations in major cities. For example, the border between its Eastern and Central time zones ran through Detroit, Pittsburgh and Charleston, it was inaugurated on Sunday, November 18, 1883 called "The Day of Two Noons", when each railroad station clock was reset as standard-time noon was reached within each time zone. The zones were named Intercolonial, Central and Pacific. Within a year 85% of all cities with populations over 10,000, about 200 cities, were using standard time. A notable exception was Detroit which kept local time until 1900 tried Central Standard Time, local mean time, Eastern Standard Time before a May 1915 ordinance settled on EST and was ratified by popular vote in August 1916; the confusion of times came to an end when Standard zone time was formally adopted by the U. S. Congress in the Standard Time Act of March 19, 1918; the first known person to conceive of a worldwide system of time zones was the Italian mathematician
Pacific Time Zone
The Pacific Time Zone is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, western Mexico. Places in this zone observe standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time. During daylight saving time, a time offset of UTC−07:00 is used. In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called the "Pacific Time Zone". Time in this zone is referred to as "Pacific Standard Time" when standard time is being observed, "Pacific Daylight Time" when daylight saving time is being observed. In Mexico, the corresponding time zone is known as the Zona Noroeste and observes the same daylight saving schedule as the U. S. and Canada. The largest city in the Pacific Time Zone is Los Angeles; the zone is two hours ahead of the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone, one hour ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone, two hours behind the Central Time Zone, three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone, four hours behind the Atlantic Time Zone.
Only one Canadian territory is in the Pacific Time Zone: YukonOne Canadian province and one territory are split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: British Columbia – all, except for the Highway 95 corridor in the southeast, Tumbler Ridge, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek in the northeast Northwest Territories – Tungsten In Mexico, the Zona Noroeste, which corresponds to Pacific Time in the United States and Canada, includes: Baja California Colima – Clarion Island Two states are contained in the Pacific Time Zone: California WashingtonThree states are split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: Idaho – Idaho Panhandle Nevada – all, except for West Wendover and Jackpot, Mountain City and Jarbidge. Oregon – all, except for the majority of Malheur CountyOne state is split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Alaska Time Zone: Alaska – Hyder Through 2006, the local time changed to daylight time at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the first Sunday in April, returned at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the last Sunday in October.
Effective in the U. S. in 2007 as a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the local time changes from PST to PDT at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the second Sunday in March and the time returns at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the first Sunday in November. The Canadian provinces and territories that use daylight time each adopted these dates between October 2005 and February 2007. In Mexico, beginning in 2010, the portion of the country in this time zone uses the extended dates, as do some other parts; the vast majority of Mexico, still uses the old dates. Effects of time zones on North American broadcasting The Official NIST US Time Official times across Canada World time zone map U. S. time zone map History of U. S. time zones and UTC conversion Canada time zone map Time zones for major world cities
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont or Fremont was an American explorer and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led five expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. During the Mexican–American War, Frémont, a major in the U. S. Army, took control of California from the California Republic in 1846. Frémont was convicted in court-martial for mutiny and insubordination over a conflict of, the rightful military governor of California. After his sentence was commuted and he was reinstated by President Polk, Frémont resigned from the Army. Frémont led a private fourth expedition, which cost ten lives, seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849. Afterwards, Frémont settled in California at Monterey while buying cheap land in the Sierra foothills; when gold was found on his Mariposa ranch, Frémont became a wealthy man during the California Gold Rush, but he was soon bogged down with lawsuits over land claims, between the dispossession of various land owners during the Mexican–American War and the explosion of Forty-Niners immigrating during the Rush.
These cases were settled by the U. S. Supreme Court allowing Frémont to keep his property. Frémont's fifth and final funded expedition, between 1853 and 1854, surveyed a route for a transcontinental railroad. Frémont became one of the first two U. S. senators elected from the new state of California in 1850. Frémont was the first presidential candidate of the new Republican Party, carrying most of the North, he lost the 1856 presidential election to Democrat James Buchanan. Democrats warned. During the American Civil War, he was given command of Department of the West by President Abraham Lincoln. Although Frémont had successes during his brief tenure as Commander of the Western Armies, he ran his department autocratically, made hasty decisions without consulting Washington D. C. or President Lincoln. After Frémont's emancipation edict that freed slaves in his district, he was relieved of his command by President Lincoln for insubordination. In 1861, Frémont was the first commanding Union general who recognized in Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant an "iron will" to fight and promoted him commander at the strategic base near Cairo, Illinois.
Defeating the Confederates at Springfield, Frémont was the only Union General in the West to have a Union victory for 1861. After a brief service tenure in the Mountain Department in 1862, Frémont resided in New York, retiring from the Army in 1864; the same year Frémont was a presidential candidate for the Radical Democracy Party, but he resigned before the election. After the Civil War, Frémont's wealth declined after investing and purchasing an unsuccessful Pacific Railroad in 1866, lost much of his wealth during the Panic of 1873. Frémont served as Governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881 appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Frémont retired from politics and died destitute in New York City in 1890. Historians portray Frémont as controversial and contradictory; some scholars regard him as a military hero of significant accomplishment, while others view him as a failure who defeated his own best purposes. The keys to Frémont's character and personality may lie in his being born illegitimately, his ambitious drive for success, self-justification, passive-aggressive behavior.
Frémont's published reports and maps produced from his explorations contributed to massive American emigration overland into the West starting in the 1840s. In June 1846, Frémont's and his army expedition's return to California, spurred the formation of the California Battalion, his military advice led to the capture of Sonoma, the formation of the Bear Flag Republic. Many people during his lifetime believed his court martial by General Kearny in 1848 was unjustified, his biographer Allan Nevins in 1939 believed that Frémont lived a dramatic lifestyle, one of remarkable successes, one of dismal failures. John Charles Frémont was born on January 21, 1813, the son of Charles Frémon, a French-Canadian immigrant school-teacher, Anne Beverley Whiting, the youngest daughter of prominent Virginia planter Col. Thomas Whiting. At age 17, Anne married a wealthy Richmond resident in his early 60s. In 1810, Pryor hired Frémon to tutor his young wife Anne. Pryor confronted Anne when he found out she was having an affair with Frémon.
Anne and Frémon fled to Williamsburg on July 10, 1811 settling in Norfolk, taking with them household slaves Anne had inherited. The couple settled in Savannah, where she gave birth to their son Frémont out of wedlock. Pryor published a divorce petition in the Virginia Patriot, charged that his wife had "for some time past indulged in criminal intercourse"; when the Virginia House of Delegates refused Anne's divorce petition, it was impossible for the couple to marry. In Savannah, Anne took in boarders while Frémon taught dancing. A woman enslaved in the household, Black Hannah, helped raise young John. On December 8, 1818, Frémont's father Frémon died in Norfolk, leaving Anne a widow to take care of John and several young children alone on a limited inherited income. Anne and her family moved to South Carolina. Frémont, knowing his origins and coming from modest means, grew up a proud, restless loner who although self-disciplined, was ready to prove himself and unwilling to play by the rules.
The young Frémont was considered to be "precious and daring," having the a