Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
The Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of California. The separate Rogue River and Siskiyou National Forests were administratively combined in 2004. Now, the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest ranges from the crest of the Cascade Range west into the Siskiyou Mountains, covering 1.8 million acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon; the former Rogue River portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of five counties in southern Oregon and northern California. In descending order of land area they are Jackson, Douglas and Josephine counties, with Siskiyou County being the only one in California, it has a land area of 628,443 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Ashland, Butte Falls, Grants Pass and Prospect; the former Siskiyou portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of four counties in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. In descending order of land area they are Curry and Coos counties in Oregon and Del Norte County in California.
It has a land area of 1,094,726 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Cave Junction, Gold Beach, Powers. Nearly all of the national forest is mountainous and includes parts of the Southern Oregon Coast Range, the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range; the largest river in the national forest is the Rogue River, which originates in the Cascade Range and flows through the Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. The Illinois River is a major tributary of the Rogue in the Klamath Mountains, while the Sixes, Pistol and Winchuck rivers drain the Coast Range directly to the Pacific Ocean; the Siskiyou National Forest was established on October 5, 1906. On July 1, 1908, it absorbed other lands. Rogue River National Forest traces its establishment back to the creation of the Ashland Forest Reserve on September 28, 1893, by the General Land Office; the lands were transferred to the Forest Service in 1906, it became a National Forest on March 4, 1907. On July 1, 1908, Ashland was combined with other lands from Cascade and Siskiyou National Forests to establish Crater National Forest.
On July 18, 1915, part of Paulina National Forest was added, on July 9, 1932, the name was changed to Rogue River. On September 9, 1942, an airplane dropped bombs on Mount Emily in the Siskiyou National Forest, turned around, flew back over the Pacific Ocean; the bombs exploded and started a fire, put out by several forest service employees. Bomb fragments were said to have Japanese markings. Stewart Holbrook vividly described this event in his essay "First Bomb", it was confirmed that the plane was indeed Japanese, the incident became known as the Lookout Air Raid. It was the first bombing of the continental United States by an enemy aircraft; the national forest is home to some stands of old growth, including Port Orford cedar and Douglas fir in the Copper Salmon area. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 345,300 acres some of which occurs in the Red Buttes Wilderness. Blue oak, Quercus douglasii, Canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepis occur in the Siskiyou National Forest.
For the California endemic Blue Oak, the disjunctive stands are occurring near the northern limit of its range, which occur no farther north than Del Norte County. The world's tallest pine tree is located in the national forest. In 2002, the massive Biscuit Fire burned nearly 500,000 acres, including much of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness; the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest contains all or part of eight separate wilderness areas, which together add up to 565,900 acres: High Cascades Complex Fires List of U. S. National Forests List of old growth forests Media related to Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is the system of public lands and waters set aside to conserve America's fish and plants. Since President Theodore Roosevelt designated Florida's Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge as the first wildlife refuge in 1903, the system has grown to over 562 national wildlife refuges and 38 wetland management districts encompassing more than 150,000,000 acres; the mission of the refuge system is "To administer a national network of lands and waters for the conservation and where appropriate, restoration of fish and plant resources and their habitats within the United States for the benefit of the present and future generations of Americans". The system maintains the biological integrity and environmental health of these natural resources and enables for associated public enjoyment of these areas where compatible with conservation efforts.
National Wildlife Refuges manage a full range of habitat types, including wetlands, prairies and marine areas, temperate and boreal forests. The management of each habitat is a complex web of controlling or eradicating invasive species, using fire in a prescribed manner, assuring adequate water resources, assessing external threats such as development or contamination. Among these, hundreds of national refuges are home to some 700 species of birds, 220 species of mammals, 250 reptile and amphibian species, more than 1000 species of fish. Endangered species are a priority of National Wildlife Refuges in that nearly 60 refuges have been established with the primary purpose of conserving 280 threatened or endangered species. National Wildlife Refuges are places where visitors can participate in a wide variety of outdoor recreational activities; the National Wildlife Refuge System welcomes nearly 50 million visitors each year. The system manages six wildlife-dependent recreational uses in accordance with the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, including hunting, birding, environmental education, environmental interpretation.
Hunters visit more than 350 hunting programs on refuges and on about 36,000 waterfowl production areas. Opportunities for fresh or saltwater fishing are available at more than 340 refuges. At least one wildlife refuge is in each of the 50 states. National Wildlife Refuge System employees are responsible for planning, biological monitoring and habitat conservation, contaminants management, visitor services and environmental education, heavy equipment operation, law enforcement, fire management; the National Wildlife Refuge System is dealing with such issues as urban intrusion/development, habitat fragmentation, degradation of water quantity and quality, climate change, invasive species, increasing demands for recreation, increasing demands for energy development. The system has had numerous successes, including providing a habitat for endangered species, migratory birds and numerous other valuable animals, implementation of the NWRS Improvement Act and protection of key critical inholdings, establishing leadership in habitat restoration and management.
The agency has created Comprehensive Conservation Plans for each refuge, developed through consultation with private and public stakeholders. These began a review process by stakeholders beginning in 2013; the CCPs must be consistent with the Fish and Wildlife Service goals for conservation and wildlife management. The CCPs outline conservation goals for each refuge for 15 years into the future, with the intent that they will be revised every 15 years thereafter; the comprehensive conservation planning process requires several phases, including a scoping phase, in which each refuge holds public meetings to identify the public’s main concerns. Each CCP is required to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act and must contain several potential alternatives to habitat and wildlife management on the refuge, identify their possible effects on the refuge. Additionally, NEPA requires FWS planners and refuge staff to engage the public in this planning process to assist them with identifying the most appropriate alternative.
Completed CCPs can be found on the FWS website. Comprehensive wildlife and habitat management demands the integration of scientific information from several disciplines, including understanding ecological processes and monitoring status of fish and plants. Important is an intimate understanding of the social and economic drivers that impact and are affected by management decisions and can facilitate or impede implementation success. Service strategic habitat conservation planning and delivery efforts are affected by the demographic and cultural changes of population growth and urbanization, as well as people’s attitudes and values toward wildlife. Consideration of these factors contributes to the success of the service’s mission to protect wildlife and their habitats; the refuge system works collaboratively internally and externally to leverage resources and achieve effective conservation. It works with other federal agencies, state fish and wildlife agencies, nongovernmental organizations, local landowners, community vo
Deschutes National Forest
The Deschutes National Forest is a United States National Forest located in parts of Deschutes, Klamath and Jefferson counties in central Oregon. It comprises 1.8 million acres along the east side of the Cascade Range. In 1908, the Deschutes National Forest was established from parts of the Blue Mountains and Fremont National Forests. In 1911, parts of the Deschutes National Forest were split off to form the Ochoco and Paulina National Forests, parts of the Cascade and Oregon National Forests were added to the Deschutes. In 1915, the lands of the Paulina National Forest were rejoined to the Deschutes National Forest. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest is the Newberry National Volcanic Monument, containing cinder cones, lava flows, lava tubes; the Deschutes National Forest as a whole contains in excess of 250 known caves. The forest contains five wilderness areas, six National Wild and Scenic Rivers, the Oregon Cascade Recreation Area, the Metolius Conservation Area.
Forest headquarters are located in Oregon. There are local ranger district offices in Bend and Sisters. Recreational activities in Deschutes National Forest include boating, wildlife watching, hiking, as well as mountain biking on an extensive system of trails. Hiking and skiing can be done on a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range. There are five designated wilderness areas within Deschutes National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. All of them are shared administratively with neighboring National Forests. Diamond Peak Wilderness Mount Jefferson Wilderness Mount Thielsen Wilderness (mostly in Winema NF or in Umpqua NF Mount Washington Wilderness Three Sisters Wilderness Deschutes River Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway The National Forest Foundation's Conservation Plan for the Deschutes National Forest Deschutes National Forest from the U. S. Forest Service
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is an agency of the US Federal Government within the US Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish and natural habitats. The mission of the agency is "working with others to conserve and enhance fish, wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people." Aurelia Skipwith is Trump's nominee. Among the responsibilities of the FWS are enforcing federal wildlife laws. Sub-units of the FWS include: National Wildlife Refuge System—560 National Wildlife Refuges and thousands of small wetlands and other special management areas covering over 150 million acres Division of Migratory Bird Management Federal Duck Stamp National Fish Hatchery System—70 National Fish Hatcheries and 65 Fish and Wildlife Conservation Offices Endangered Species program—86 Ecological Services Field Stations International Affairs Program National Conservation Training Center USFWS Office of Law Enforcement Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory Landscape Conservation CooperativesThe vast majority of fish and wildlife habitat is on non-federal state or private land.
Therefore, the FWS works with private groups such as Partners in Flight and Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council to promote voluntary habitat conservation and restoration. The FWS employs 9,000 people and is organized into a central administrative office in Falls Church, eight regional offices, nearly 700 field offices distributed throughout the United States; the FWS originated in 1871 as the United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries, more referred to as the United States Fish Commission, created by the United States Congress with the purpose of studying and recommending solutions to a noted decline in the stocks of food fish. Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed its first commissioner. In 1903, the Fish Commission was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries. In 1885–1886, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy was established within the United States Department of Agriculture. In 1896 it became the Division of Biological Survey, its early work focused on the effect of birds in controlling agricultural pests and mapping the geographical distribution of plants and animals in the United States.
Clinton Hart Merriam headed the Bureau for 25 years and became a national figure for improving the scientific understanding of birds and mammals in the United States. Jay Norwood Darling was appointed Chief of the new Bureau of Biological Survey in 1934. Under Darling's guidance, the Bureau began an ongoing legacy of protecting vital natural habitat throughout the country; the FWS was created in 1940, when the Bureaus of Fisheries and Biological Survey were combined after being moved to the Department of the Interior. In 1959, the methods used by FWS's Animal Damage Control Program were featured in the Tom Lehrer song "Poisoning Pigeons in the Park"; the FWS governs six US National Monuments: Hanford Reach National Monument in Washington state. Pursuant to the eagle feather law, Title 50, Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service administers the National Eagle Repository and the permit system for Native American religious use of eagle feathers.
These exceptions only apply to Native Americans that are registered with the federal government and are enrolled with a federally recognized tribe. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the FWS began to incorporate the research of tribal scientists into conservation decisions; this came on the heels of Native American traditional ecological knowledge gaining acceptance in the scientific community as a reasonable and respectable way to gain knowledge of managing the natural world. Additionally, other natural resource agencies within the United States government, such as the USDA, have taken steps to be more inclusive of tribes, native people, tribal rights; this has marked a transition to a relationship of more co-operation rather than the tension between tribes and government agencies seen historically. Today, these agencies work with tribal governments to ensure the best conservation decisions are made and that tribes retain their sovereignty. Federal law enforcement in the United States Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini
Mount Hood National Forest
The Mount Hood National Forest is 62 miles east of the city of Portland and the northern Willamette River valley. The Forest extends south from the Columbia River Gorge across more than 60 miles of forested mountains and streams to the Olallie Scenic Area, a high lake basin under the slopes of Mount Jefferson; the Forest is named after Mount Hood, a stratovolcano. The Forest encompasses some 1,067,043 acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated; the Forest is divided into four separate districts - Barlow, Clackamas River, Hood River, Zigzag. In descending order of land area the National Forest is located in parts of Clackamas, Hood River, Multnomah and Jefferson counties. Mount Hood National Forest was first established as the Bull Run Forest Reserve in 1892, it was expanded in 1893. It was named Oregon National Forest; the name was changed again to Mount Hood National Forest in 1924. The 1952 film Bend of the River was shot in Mount Hood National Forest.
In 2010, Mount Hood National Forest was honored with its own quarter under the America the Beautiful Quarters program. The Mount Hood National Forest is one of the most-visited National Forests in the United States, with over four million visitors annually. Less than five percent of the visitors camp in the forest; the forest contains 170 developed recreation sites, including: Timberline Lodge, built in 1937 high on Mount Hood Lost Lake Burnt Lake Trillium Lake Timothy Lake Rock Creek Reservoir The Old Oregon Trail, including Barlow RoadOther common recreational activities in the Mount Hood National Forest include fishing, hiking, rafting, horseback riding, mountain biking, berry-picking, mushroom collecting. A portion of the Pacific Crest Trail passes through the National Forest on the flanks of the mountain. Mount Hood is a popular destination for mountain climbers. Several nonprofits lead free hikes into the National Forest to build support for further protection from logging and off-road vehicle use, including BARK and Oregon Wild.
Mount Hood National Recreation Area was established within Mount Hood National Forest on March 30, 2009. The recreation area comprises three separate units. There are eight designated wilderness areas within Mount Hood National Forest collectively adding up to 311,448 acres that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Acreages are as of 2011. Badger Creek Wilderness at 29,057 acres Bull of the Woods Wilderness at 36,731 acres Clackamas Wilderness at 9,181 acres Lower White River Wilderness at 1,743 acres not counting 1,063 acres on BLM land Mark O. Hatfield Wilderness at 65,822 acres Mount Hood Wilderness at 63,177 acres includes the peak and upper slopes of Mount Hood Roaring River Wilderness at 36,768 acres Salmon–Huckleberry Wilderness at 62,455 acres The Olallie Scenic Area is a roaded lake basin that offers a primitive recreational experience. A campaign which began in 2004 and is still running as of December 31st 2016. Mt. Hood has attempted at becoming a National Park since the early 20th century.
Mount Hood National Forest - US Forest Service Mount Hood National Forest - Wildernet.com Hiking Mount Hood National Forest - GORP Mount Hood National Park Campaign - MHNPC
Row River National Recreation Trail
Row River National Recreation Trail is a rails to trails conversion in the U. S. state of Oregon. It follows the Row River for 16.2 miles between Cottage Grove and Culp Creek, passing by Dorena Lake, provides access to many forest trails of Umpqua National Forest. The rail line was built to serve the gold and silver mining of the Bohemia mining district well up the Row River; the mines were closing by the time the rail line was complete, but the region's old-growth timber attracted many logging operations and communities that kept the rail line busy. The Oregon Pacific & Eastern Railway abandoned the line in 1994. A timber sale default resulted in the Bureau of Land Management taking the rail corridor in exchange for payment. There are three historic covered bridges near the trail: the Mosby Creek Bridge of 1920, Currin Bridge of 1925, the Dorena Bridge of 1949. Several movies have been filmed along the route, including 1926's The General with Buster Keaton, 1974's Emperor of the North with Lee Marvin and Ernest Borgnine, 1986's Stand by Me with Keifer Sutherland and River Phoenix
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located in the states of Washington and Oregon. The National Historic Site consists of two units, one located on the site of Fort Vancouver in modern-day Vancouver, Washington; the two sites were separately given national historic designation in the 1940s. The Fort Vancouver unit was designated a National Historic Site in 1961, was combined with the McLoughlin House into a unit in 2003; the visitor center at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was built in 1966 as a part of the National Park Service's Mission 66 Program. Today, the visitor center is co-operated by the both the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service. Recent renovations to the visitor center transformed the historic building as an information center for both Fort Vancouver National Historic Site and the Gifford Pinchot National Forest; the visitor center features rotating archaeological exhibits from the national historic site and art exhibits from local native artists.
The building has a theater that shows 3 films from the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service: Fort Vancouver - One place Across Time, Vancouver Kaiser Shipyards Documentary, Mount St. Helens - Eruption of Life; the main unit of the site, containing Fort Vancouver, is located in Vancouver, just north of Portland, Oregon. Fort Vancouver was an important Hudson's Bay Company fur trading post, established in 1824. Operations until 1845 were overseen by Chief Factor John McLoughlin, it was the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's fur trade activity on the Pacific coast and its influence stretched from the Rocky mountains in the east, to Alaska in the north, Alta California in the south, to the Kingdom of Hawaii in the Pacific. Ratified in 1846, the Treaty of Oregon was signed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States, thereby ending the decades long Oregon boundary dispute; the treaty permitted the Hudson's Bay Company to continue to operate at Fort Vancouver, now within the Oregon Territory.
On June 14, 1860, Fort Vancouver was abandoned by the Hudson's Bay Company in favor of their stations in British Columbia, such as Fort Victoria. In 1849, the United States Army constructed the Vancouver Barracks adjacent to the British trading post. A fire destroyed the Hudson's Bay Company fort in 1866, but the Army facility continued in operation in various forms until to the present. Fort Vancouver was separated from the Army's barracks and became a national monument in 1948. Congress re-designated the site as a National Historic Site. For some years after its addition to the National Park System, the National Park Service was reluctant to begin reconstruction of the fort walls or buildings, preferring to manage it as an archaeological site as provided by its standing policies. However, in 1965, with the urging of the local community, Congress directed reconstruction to begin. All fort structures seen today are modern replicas, albeit placed on the original locations. In response to concerns about the designation of reconstructed structures, the Park Service designated the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Historic District to encompass reconstructed buildings as well as historic Army and Mission 66 era Park Service structures.
The National Park Service operates the Pearson Air Museum on the fort grounds. An earth-covered pedestrian land bridge was built over the Lewis and Clark Highway, as part of the Confluence Project, in 2007, it connects the site with the Columbia River. The McLoughlin House unit consists of the homes of McLoughlin, of Dr. Forbes Barclay, an explorer and associate of McLoughlin's, they are located adjacent to each other on a bluff overlooking the Willamette River in Oregon City, Oregon, on a plot of land set aside for public use by McLoughlin in the 1840s. In 1846, McLoughlin left the employ of Hudson's Bay Company, purchased from the company a land claim located on the Willamette River in Oregon City. McLoughlin constructed the house there, lived there until his death in 1857; the house, a two-style colonial mansion, is typical of East Coast residences from the time. After McLoughlin's death in 1857, his widow lived there; the home soon became a bordello known as the Phoenix Hotel. In 1908, the paper mill that owned the property wished to expand and the house was threatened with demolition, but preservationists saved it the next year, raising over $1,000 and overcoming a referendum.
The house was moved from the riverfront to its current location on a bluff overlooking downtown Oregon City in 1910. It sat there for twenty-five years, until being restored in 1935-1936 under the auspices of the Civil Works Administration, opened as a museum; the Barclay House was built in 1849 by Portland carpenter and pioneer John L. Morrison, occupied by Dr. Barclay and his family. Barclay died in 1874. Today, the Barclay House contains a gift shop; the McLoughlin House became a National Historic Site in 1941, both homes were added to the National Park System in 2003, becoming part of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. The McLoughlin House unit lies on the Oregon National Historic Trail, a part of the National Trails System; the graves of McLoughlin and his wife are on the