Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation
Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation is one of seven American Indian reservations in the U. S. state of Montana. Established by an act of Congress on September 7, 1916, it was named after Ahsiniiwin, the chief of the Chippewa band, who had died a few months earlier, it was established for landless Chippewa Indians in the American West, but within a short period of time many Cree and Métis were settled there. Today the Cree outnumber the Chippewa on the reservation; the Bureau of Indian Affairs recognizes it as the Chippewa Cree Reservation. The reservation is located in Hill and Chouteau counties in north central Montana, about 40 miles from the Canada–U. S. Border, it has a total land area of 171.4 square miles, which includes extensive off-reservation trust lands. The reservation is reported to have 3,323 enrolled members, 55% of the total 6,177 enrolled members in the tribe; the reservation was established by congressional statute on September 7, 1916, to provide land for the Rocky Boy's Band of Chippewa Indians, forced out of territory in Minnesota and were landless.
The Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation is located in the Bears Paw Mountains in north central Montana. According to the map of Montana, the reservation takes in land within the boundaries of Hill and Chouteau counties, about 40 miles south of the Canada–United States border, it is the smallest reservation in the state in terms of land area, with a total land area of 171.4 square miles, which includes extensive off-reservation trust lands. The population was 3,323 at the 2010 census, an increase of 24 percent compared to 2000. Three other reservations of the seven in the state had population growth during this period; the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Labor Force Report of 2005 reported 5,656 enrolled members in the tribe. The largest community of the reservation is Box Elder, although a small part of Box Elder extends off reservation lands. More than 80% of the tribal enrolled members are classifiable as "adoptees" under the tribal constitution, as they have non-Chippewa tribal origin. Rocky Boy's unusual name was derived from the English mistranslation of the name of the tribal chief, Ahsiniiwin.
His name was closer in meaning to "Stone Child". The Chippewa who are descendants of Chief Rocky Boy say his name is Asiniweyin, meaning "Stone Being", or "Being of Stone"; the Department of Interior refers to the Chippewa-Cree Tribe as being the recognized tribe on the reservation, but this is a term of convenience. The Chippewa and Cree peoples are distinct tribes among the several that are part of the larger Anishinaabe family. Chief Rocky Boy wrote to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and to President Theodore Roosevelt on January 14, 1902, asking the U. S. government for land and education for his band of Chippewa Indians, made up of 130 men and children. They were landless. Among landless Indians in Montana were a band of Cree. Chief Rocky Boy worked with Republican Senator Joseph M. Dixon, writer Frank Bird Linderman, other influential individuals in Montana, including painter Charles Russell, to achieve his goal, he lived in north central Montana, although he traveled to southwestern and western areas of the state.
The Rocky Boy Band was listed at 75 in a 1908 census, certified by the Department of the Interior. Another 39 were listed separately as affiliated persons but not Chippewa, by agent Thralls B. Wheat, responsible for land allotments. In 1908, Montana passed the Land Acts; the Swan Valley Massacre of 1908 in the northwest part of the state aroused outrage among Native Americans. A small Pend d'Oreilles hunting party, which included women and elders, was attacked by state officials while they were hunting off reservation in their traditional territory; this right was protected by treaties with the US government, but the state thought they had the power to regulate it. An armed game warden confronted the party when he thought they had not moved out of their camp enough, shot at members. Gunfire was exchanged, a total of four Pend d'Oreille were killed in the incident, as was the game warden. In November 1909, over 100 landless Chippewa-Cree from southwestern and western Montana and northern Idaho gathered near Helena to be relocated to a new homeland on the Blackfeet Reservation, closer to their traditional home.
With the new Chippewa-Cree Reservation approved and set aside, the government redirected the Chippewa-Cree to the Chippewa band's new home. The new reservation was located between St. Mary and the Canada–US border, it was first called the Babb Reservation. Chief Little Bear soon followed Rocky Boy with his own band, arriving with about 200 Cree from Canada after the North-West Rebellion. According to knowledgeable Blackfeet, the name plates are still discernible, showing the effort to relocate the Chippewa there. Anishinaabe leaders feared they would lose the land and forced the Chippewa away, as they were not Blackfeet people and were not entitled to allotments; the US Army had allowed the Chippewa and other landless Indians, including Cree refugees, to settle at Fort Assinniboine in Hill County. By 1912-1913 nearly 600 Chippewa and Cree were living on the large Fort Assinniboine Military Reservation; the Rocky Boy Reservation, formed in part by land ceded by the Army from Fort Assinniboine. Most of those settled in the area were Cree refugees from Canada in the U.
S. under terms of asylum. Rocky Boy had supervi
Western Montana is the western region of the U. S. state of Montana. The most restrictive definition limits western Montana only to the parts of the state west of the Continental Divide. Other common definitions add in the mountainous areas east of the divide including Beaverhead, Jefferson and Clark, Park Counties; the region is sometimes considered to be part of the Inland Northwest. Western Montana is dominated by the Rocky Mountains. Most of Western Montana is covered in forest, prominent species being Ponderosa pine and Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir. Common fauna include the black bear, moose and coyote; the grizzly bear lives in Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Bob Marshall Wilderness and surrounding areas. Precipitation is lower in the valleys, which are semiarid and receive 8 to 25 inches of precipitation in snow, higher in the mountains, some areas of which qualify as temperate rainforest in the northwest around Glacier National Park and Libby. Winters are cold, sometimes bitterly cold, summers are warm.
Western Montana was inhabited by the Salish, Shoshone and Kalispel people. In the late 19th century non-indigenous people arrived and established mines and additional cities in the mountains and valleys. Gold was discovered in Last Chance Gulch in the 1860s and soon the city of Helena was born. Today Helena is the State capitol of Montana. Helena still has much of the charm of a 19th-century mining town. Many of the old buildings have been renovated, hundreds of 19th-century Victorian homes and mansions fill Helena's old neighborhoods. Helena is one of the best-preserved mining towns on the Western frontier. Copper was discovered In Butte and the surrounding areas in the 1870s. Vast quantities of copper were mined, leaving behind the largest Superfund cleanup site in the history of the nation. Copper is still mined at Berkeley Pit in Butte. Missoula is the second-largest in the state after Billings. Western Montana, though faring better than much of the nation, was the portion of the state hit hardest by the current economic downturn.
The closing of Smurfit-Stone Container in 2009 alone caused the loss of over 2000 jobs through 2012. Much of western Montana has felt the effects of a housing bust as well. Missoula, Montana Butte, Montana Kalispell, Montana Bozeman, Montana North Idaho
Bibliography of Montana history
The following works deal with the cultural, economic, military and geologic history of pre-territorial Montana, Montana Territory and the State of Montana. Aarstad, Rich. Montana Place Names From Alzada to Zortman. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. Retrieved 22 July 2014. Bancroft, Hubert Howe; the History of Washington and Montana Vol XXXI. San Francisco, CA: The History Company. Burlingame, Merrill G.. A History of Montana. New York, NY: Lewis Historical Pub. Co. Cheney, Roberta Carteek. Names on the Face of Montana. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press. ISBN 0-87842-150-5. Egan, Ken Jr.. Montana 1864-Indians and Gold in the Territorial Year. Helena, Montana: Riverbend Publishing. ISBN 9781606390764. Fogarty, Kate Hammond; the Story of Montana. New York: A. S. Barnes Company. Fritz, Harry. Murphy, Mary. Montana Legacy: Essays on History and Place. Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-917298-90-5. Graetz, Rick; this is Montana-A Geography-Geographic History of Montana. Helena, MT: Northern Rockies Publishing.
ISBN 1891152181. Hamilton, James McClellan. From Wilderness to Statehood: A History of Montana, 1805-1900. Bindfords & Mort. Howard, Joseph Kinsey. Montana: High and Handsome. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Archived from the original on 2012-07-29. Retrieved 2017-08-24. Howard, Joseph Kinsey, ed.. Montana Margins-a state anthology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Judson, Katherine Berry. Montana-Land of Shining Mountains. Chicago, IL: A. C. McClurg & Co. Leeson, Michael A.. History of Montana, 1739-1885. A History Of Its Discovery And Settlement, Social And Commercial Progress, Mines And Miners, Agriculture And Stock-Growing, Schools And Societies, Indians And Indian Wars, Courts Justice, Newspaper Press, Railroads And Statistics, Histories Of Counties, Villages And Mining Camps. Chicago: Warner Beers and Company. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2018-11-06. MacDonald, Douglas H.. Montana Before History-11,000 Years of Hunter-Gatherers in the Plains. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company.
ISBN 0878425853. Malone, Michael P.. Montana-A History of Two Centuries. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97129-0; the standard scholarly history Miller, Joaquin. An Illustrated History of the State of Montana Containing a History of the State of Montana from the Earliest Period of the Discovery to the Present Time, Together With Glimpses of its Auspicious Future and Full-Page Portraits of Some of it. Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co. Montana Historical Society, ed.. Not In Precious Metals Alone-A Manuscript History of Montana. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society. ISBN 0917298012. Pace, JNO W.. W. eds.. The Montana Bluebook-Biographical and Statistic book of reference. Helena, Montana: Journal Publishing. Robison, Ken. Montana Territory and the Civil War: A Frontier Forged on the Battlefield. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 1626191751. Sanders, Helen Fitzgerald. A History of Montana. Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishing Company. Smith, Duane A. Rocky Mountain Heartland: Colorado and Wyoming in the 20th Century 305pp Stout, Tom.
Montana Its Story and Biography--A History of Aboriginal and Territorial Montana and Three Decade of Statehood. Chicago: American Historical Society. Retrieved 2009-06-24. Toole, K. Ross. Montana: An Uncommon Land. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1890-3. Classic populist history from longtime University of Montana professor of History. Toole, K. Ross. 20th Century Montana: A State of Extremes. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1826-0. Update to Toole's previous works. WPA Federal Writers Project. Montana: A State Guide Book classic guide to history and every town online free Parry, Ellis Robert. Montana Dateline. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 156044956X. Smith, Jeffrey J.. Montana Book of Days-365 Days-365 Stories-The Short Course in Montana History. Missoula, MT: Historic Montana Publishing. ISBN 0966335562. "Contributions Vol. 1". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 1. 1876. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 2". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana.
2. 1896. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 3". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 3. 1900. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 4". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 4. 1903. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 5". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 5. 1904. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 6". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 6. 1907. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 7". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 7. 1910. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 8". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 8. 1917. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 9". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 9. 1923. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Contributions Vol. 10". Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 10. 1940. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Montana The Magazine of Western History". Montana The Magazine of Western History. Helena, MT: Montana Historica
Nez Perce people
The Nez Perce are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time. Members of the Sahaptin language group, the Niimíipuu were the dominant people of the Columbia Plateau for much of that time after acquiring the horses that led them to breed the appaloosa horse in the 18th century. Prior to "first contact" with Western civilization the Nimiipuu were economically and culturally influential in trade and war, interacting with other indigenous nations in a vast network from the western shores of Oregon and Washington, the high plains of Montana, the northern Great Basin in southern Idaho and northern Nevada. After first contact, the name "Nez Perce" was given to the Niimíipuu and the nearby Chinook people by French explorers and trappers; the name means "pierced nose", but only the Chinook used that form of decoration. Today they are a federally recognized tribe, the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, govern their Indian reservation in Idaho through a central government headquartered in Lapwai, Idaho known as the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee.
They are one of five federally recognized tribes in the state of Idaho. Some still speak their traditional language, the Tribe owns and operates two casinos along the Clearwater River in Idaho in Kamiah and outside of Lewiston, health clinics, a police force and court, community centers, salmon fisheries, radio station, other things that promote economic and cultural self-determination. Cut off from most of their horticultural sites throughout the Camas Prairie by an 1863 treaty, confinement to reservations in Idaho and Oklahoma Indian Territory after the Nez Perce War of 1877, Dawes Act of 1887 land allotments, the Nez Perce remain as a distinct culture and political economic influence within and outside their reservation. Today, hatching and eating salmon is an important cultural and economic strength of the Nez Perce through full ownership or co-management of various salmon fish hatcheries, such as the Kooskia National Fish Hatchery in Kooskia, Idaho or the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Orofino, Idaho.
Their name for themselves is Nimíipuu, meaning, "The People", in their language, part of the Sahaptin family. Nez Percé is an exonym given by French Canadian fur traders who visited the area in the late 18th century, meaning "pierced nose". English-speaking traders and settlers adopted the name in turn. Since the late 20th century, the Nez Perce identify most as Niimíipuu in Sahaptin; the Lakota/ Dakota named them the Watopala, or Canoe people, from Watopa. However, after Nez Perce became a more common name, they changed it to Watopahlute; this comes from pahlute, nasal passage and is a play on words. If translated it would come out as either "Nasal Passage of the Canoe" or "Nasal Passage of the Grass"; the tribe uses the term "Nez Perce", as does the United States Government in its official dealings with them, contemporary historians. Older historical ethnological works and documents use the French spelling of Nez Percé, with the diacritic; the original French pronunciation is, with three syllables.
The interpreter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition mistakenly identified this people as the Nez Perce when the team encountered the tribe in 1805. Writing in 1889, anthropologist Alice Fletcher, who the U. S. government had sent to Idaho to allot the Nez Perce Reservation, explained the mistaken naming. She wrote, It is never easy to come at the name of an Indian or of an Indian tribe. A tribe has always at least two names. All the tribes living west of the Rocky Mountains were called "Chupnit-pa-lu", which means people of the pierced noses; the tribes on the Columbia river used to pierce the nose and wear in it some ornament as you have seen some old fashioned white ladies wear in their ears. Lewis and Clark had with them an interpreter whose wife was a Shoshone or Snake woman and so it came about that when it was asked "What Indians are these?" the answer was "They are'Chupnit-pa-lu'" and it was written down in the journal. In his journals, William Clark referred to the people as the Chopunnish, a transliteration of a Sahaptin term.
According to D. E. Walker in 1998, writing for the Smithsonian, this term is an adaptation of the term cú·pŉitpeľu; the term is formed from cú · peľu. By contrast, the Nez Perce Language Dictionary has a different analysis than did Walker for the term cúpnitpelu; the prefix cú- means "in single file". This prefix, combined with the verb -piní, "to come out". With the suffix of -pelú, meaning "people or inhabitants of". Together, these three elements: cú- + -piní + pelú = cúpnitpelu, or "the People Walking Single File Out of the Forest". Nez Perce oral tradition indicates the name "Cuupn'itpel'uu" meant "we walked out of the woods or walked out of the mountains" and referred to the time before the Nez Perce had horses; the Nez Perce language, or Niimiipuutímt, is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin. The Sahaptian sub-family is one of the branches of the Plateau Penutian family, which in turn may be related to a larger Penutian g
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
History of Montana
This is a broad outline history of the state of Montana in the United States. Archeological evidence has shown indigenous peoples lived in the area for more than 12,000 years; the oldest dated human burial site in North America was located in 1968 near Wilsall, Montana at what is now known as the Anzick site. The human remains of a male infant, found at the Anzick site along with Clovis culture artifacts, establish the earliest known human habitation in what is now Montana. In 2014 a group of scientists released the results of a major project in which they reconstructed the genome of the Anzick boy, providing the first genetic evidence that the Clovis people were descended from Asians. Most indigenous people of the region were nomadic, following the buffalo herds and other game and living by seasonal cycles. Several major tribal groups made their home in and around the land that became Montana; the Crow, a Siouan-language people known as the Apsáalooke, were the first of the native nations living in Montana to arrive in the region.
Around 1700 AD they moved from Alberta to northern Wyoming. In the 19th century, Crow warriors were allies and scouts for the United States Army The modern Crow Indian Reservation is Montana's largest reservation, located in southeastern Montana along the Big Horn River, in the vicinity of Hardin, Montana; the Cheyenne have a reservation in the southeastern portion of the state and adjacent to the Crow. The Cheyenne language is part of the larger Algonquian language group, but it is one of the few Plains Algonquian languages to have developed tonal characteristics; the closest linguistic relatives of the Cheyenne language are Ojibwa. Little is known about the Cheyenne people before the 16th century, when they were first recorded in European explorers' and traders' accounts; the Blackfeet reservation today is located in northern Montana adjacent to Glacier National Park. Prior to the reservation era, the Blackfoot were fiercely independent and successful warriors whose territory stretched from the North Saskatchewan River along what is now Edmonton, Alberta in Canada, to the Yellowstone River of Montana, from the Rocky Mountains east to the Saskatchewan River.
Their nation consisted of three main branches, the Piegan, the Blood, the Siksika. In the summer, they lived a nomadic, hunting lifestyle, in the winter, the Blackfeet people lived in various winter camps dispersed a day's march apart along a wooded river valley, they did not move camp in winter unless food for firewood became depleted. The Assiniboine known by the Ojibwe exonym Asiniibwaan, today live on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in Northeastern Montana shared with a branch of the Sioux nation. Intermarriage has led to some of the people now identifying as "Assiniboine Sioux". Prior to the reservation era, they inhabited the Northern Great Plains area of North America present-day Montana and parts of Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba around the US/Canada border, they were well known throughout much of the late early 19th centuries. Images of Assiniboine people were painted by such 19th-century artists as Karl Bodmer and George Catlin; the Assiniboine have many similarities to the Lakota Sioux in lifestyle and cultural habits.
They are considered middle division of the Sioux nation. Pooling their research, historians and anthropologists have concluded the Assiniboine broke away from the Lakota and Dakota Sioux bands in the 17th century; the Gros Ventre are located today in north-central Montana and govern the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation. Gros Ventre is the exonym given by the French, who misinterpreted the name given to them by neighboring tribes as "the people who have enough to eat", referring to their relative wealth, as "big bellies"; the people call themselves A'ani or A'aninin related to natural physical formations. They were called the Atsina by the Assiniboine; the A'ani have 3,682 members and they share Fort Belknap Indian Reservation with the Assiniboine, though the two were traditional enemies. The A'ani are classified as a band of Arapaho; the Kootenai people live west of the Continental Divide. The Kootenai name is spelled Kutenai or Ktunaxa, they are one of three tribes of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation in Montana, they form the Ktunaxa Nation in British Columbia, Canada.
There are Kootenai populations in Idaho and Washington. The Salish and Pend d'Oreilles people live on the Flathead Indian Reservation; the smaller Pend d'Oreille and Kalispell tribes lived around Flathead Lake and the western mountains, respectively. The territories of the different tribes were defined by multiple and varied treaties with the United States shrinking their land boundaries with each revision; the Chippewa and Cree people today jointly share the Rocky Boy's Reservation in north central Montana. Rocky Boy's reservation was created after most of the others as a home for some of the "landless" tribes who did not obtain reservation lands elsewhere; the creation of the reservation was due to the efforts of the Chippewa leader Stone Child. The Little Shell Chippewa have a presence in Montana, however they do not have a reservation. Other native people had a significant presence in Montana, though today do not have a reservation within the state; these nations included the Lakota, the Arapaho, the Shoshone.
The Kiowa and the Kiowa-Apache claim an early history in the late 17th century) as nomadic hunters between the Yellowstone and the
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in