Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, United States. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915; the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida. Miami Beach's estimated population is 92,307 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau, it has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century. In 1979, Miami Beach's Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943.
Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North; the movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor. Miami Beach is governed by six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election; the mayor serves for terms of two years with a term limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon. A city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city.
The City Clerk and the City Attorney are appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son and Charles Lum, purchased the land for 75 cents an acre; the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked; the next step in the development of the future Miami Beach was the planting of a coconut plantation along the shore in the 1880s by New Jersey entrepreneurs Ezra Osborn and Elnathan Field, but this was a failed venture. One of the investors in the project was agriculturist John S. Collins, who achieved success by buying out other partners and planting different crops, notably avocados, on the land that would become Miami Beach. Meanwhile, across Biscayne Bay, the City of Miami was established in 1896 with the arrival of the railroad, developed further as a port when the shipping channel of Government Cut was created in 1905, cutting off Fisher Island from the south end of the Miami Beach peninsula.
Collins' family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort. This effort got underway in the early years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers, Indianapolis entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher; until the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, across the bay. By 1912, Collins and Pancoast were working together to clear the land, plant crops, supervise the construction of canals to get their avocado crop to market, set up the Miami Beach Improvement Company. There were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Brown's Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the interior land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, eliminating native growth everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensive. Once a 1600-acre, jungle-matted sand bar three miles out in the Atlantic, it grew to 2,800 acres when dredging and filling operations were completed. With loans from the Lummus brothers, Collins had begun work on a 2½-mile-long wooden bridge, the world's longest wooden bridge at the time, to connect the island to the mainland.
When funds ran dry and construction work stalled, Indianapolis millionaire and recent Miami transplant Fisher intervened, providing the financing needed to complete the bridge the following year in return for a land swap deal. That transaction kicked off the island's first real estate boom. Fisher helped by organizing an annual speed boat regatta, by promoting Miami Beach as an Atlantic City-style playground and winter retreat for the wealthy. By 1915, Collins and Fisher were all living in mansions on the island, three hotels and two bath houses had been erected, an aquarium built, an 18-hole golf course landscaped; the Town of Miami Beach was chartered on March 26, 1915. After the town was incorporated in 1915 under the name of Miami Beach, many visitors thought of the beach strip as Alton Beach, indicating just how well Fisher had advertised his interests there; the Lummus property was called Ocean Beach, with only the Collins interests referred to as Miami Beach. Carl Fisher was the main promoter of Miami Beach's development in the 1920s as the site for wealthy industrialists from the north and Midwest to and build their winter homes here.
Many other Northerners were targeted to vacation on the island. To accommodate the wealthy tourists, several grand hotels were built, among them: The Flamingo Hotel, The Fleetwood Hotel, The Floridi
New Values is the third studio album by Iggy Pop and his first record since The Stooges' Funhouse and post-Stooges Kill City not to have any involvement from David Bowie. It was released in April 1979 by record label Arista. New Values was Pop's first record for Arista and the first collaboration by Pop and James Williamson since Kill City; the album reunited Pop and Williamson with multi-instrumentalist Scott Thurston, who had played live piano for The Stooges on Metallic K. O. and Kill City. Although guitar was played by Williamson on "Don't Look Down", Scott Thurston played guitar on all other tracks, with Williamson concentrating on production. Although one of the songs was written by Pop and Williamson, five tracks were collaborations between Pop and Thurston. New Values was released in April 1979 by record label Arista. Although well-received critically, the album was not a commercial success, only reaching number 180 in the Billboard Top 200 album chart. Videos were made for "I'm Bored" and "Five Foot One".
New Values has been well received by critics. Writing in NME at the time of the album's release, Paul Morley wrote that New Values "conclusively endorses Osterberg as thinker and Iggy as performer, the relationship is positive and proud."Charlotte Robinson of PopMatters wrote that the album's "delicate balancing act of tough with tender, rebellion with contentment, sincerity with humor, cocksure wailing with nuanced balladeering... makes the album a winner". David Bowie covered the New Values track "Don't Look Down" on his album Tonight and used it for the opening and closing titles of his short film Jazzin' for Blue Jean. Pixies frontman Frank Black cited New Values as one of his favorite albums."The Endless Sea" was covered by the Australian psychedelic rock band The Church on their 1999 covers album A Box of Birds. "The Endless Sea" is featured in the soundtrack of the 1986 film "Dogs in Space" Iggy Pop – vocals Scott Thurston – guitars, keyboards, vocals, horn arrangement Klaus Krüger – drums Jackie Clark – bass John Harden – horns David Brock – strings, string arrangement Earl Shackelford – backing vocals The Alfono Sisters – backing vocals on "Don't Look Down" and "Angel" James Williamson – guitar and string arrangement, mixingTechnicalLloyd Malan – production assistance Peter Haden – engineering, mixing Paul Henry – sleeve design and art direction Trevor Rogers – sleeve photography Graphyk – sleeve graphics New Values at Discogs
Skull Ring is the fourteenth studio album by American rock singer Iggy Pop, released in November 2003. Every track on the album features guest performers; the performers are The Stooges, The Trolls, Green Day, Sum 41, Peaches. The performers on most of the tracks on the album are The Trolls, Iggy's band from the Beat'Em Up era. Members of his original band The Stooges appear on some of the tracks. One single, "Little Know It All", was released from the album and featured Sum 41. A music video for the song received significant airplay.. "Little Know It All" appeared in the video game NASCAR Thunder 2004. "Little Electric Chair" – 4:40 "Perverts in the Sun" – 3:18 "Skull Ring" – 3:51 "Superbabe" – 4:09 "Loser" – 2:41 "Private Hell" – 2:50 "Little Know It All" – 3:33 "Whatever" – 3:16 "Dead Rock Star" – 4:39 "Rock Show" – 2:08 "Here Comes the Summer" – 4:53 "Motor Inn" – 4:11 "Inferiority Complex" – 4:13 "Supermarket" – 3:01 "'Til Wrong Feels Right" – 3:13 "Blood on Your Cool" – 7:02 "Nervous Exhaustion" B-sides and alternative versions"Motor Inn" – 6:12 "Motor Inn" – 6:12 "Jose the Arab" – 2:56 "Ready to Run" – 3:02 Iggy Pop – lead vocals, acoustic guitar on track 15 Whitey Kirst – guitar on tracks 2, 4, 8, 11, 13, 16, 17 Pete Marshall – bass on tracks 2, 4, 8, 11, 13, 16, 17 Alex Kirst – drums, percussion on tracks 2, 4, 8, 11, 13, 16, 17 Ron Asheton – guitar, bass on tracks 1, 3, 5, 9, 15 Scott Asheton – drums, percussion on tracks 1, 3, 5, 9, 15 Billie Joe Armstrong – guitar, backing vocals on tracks 6, 14 Mike Dirnt – bass on tracks 6, 14 Tré Cool – drums, percussion on tracks 6, 14 Deryck Whibley – rhythm guitar, vocals on track 7 Dave Baksh – lead guitar on track 7 Jason McCaslin – bass on track 7 Steve Jocz – drums, percussion on track 7 Peaches – vocals, samples on tracks 10, Steve Keeping – additional drums on tracks 10, 12 Skull Ring at Discogs
Tracy Lauren Marrow, better known by his stage name Ice-T, is an American musician, songwriter, record producer, author. He began his career as an underground rapper in the 1980s and was signed to Sire Records in 1987, when he released his debut album Rhyme Pays; the following year, he founded the record label Rhyme $yndicate Records and released another album, which went on to go Platinum. He released several other albums that went Gold, he co-founded the heavy metal band Body Count, which he introduced on his 1991 rap album O. G.: Original Gangster, on the track titled "Body Count". The band released their self-titled debut album in 1992. Ice-T encountered controversy over his track "Cop Killer". Ice-T asked to be released from his contract with Warner Bros. Records, his next solo album, Home Invasion, was released in February 1993 through Priority Records. Body Count's next album was released in 1994, Ice-T released two more albums in the late-1990s. Since 2000, he has portrayed NYPD Detective/Sergeant Odafin Tutuola on the NBC police drama Law & Order: Special Victims Unit.
Tracy Lauren Marrow, son of Solomon and Alice Marrow, was born in New Jersey. Solomon was African-American, Alice was Creole. For decades, Solomon worked as a conveyor belt mechanic at the Rapistan Conveyor Company; when Marrow was a child, his family moved to New Jersey. The first time race played a major part in Marrow's life was at the age of seven, when he became aware of the racism leveled by his white friends towards black children, that he escaped similar treatment because they thought that Marrow was white due to his lighter skin. Relaying this incident to his mother, she told him, "Honey, people are stupid, his mother died of a heart attack. Solomon raised Marrow with help from a housekeeper. Marrow's first experience with illicit activity occurred after a bicycle that his father bought him for Christmas was stolen. After Marrow told his father, Solomon shrugged, "Well you ain't got no bike." Marrow stole parts from bicycles and assembled "three or four weird-looking, brightly-painted bikes" from the parts.
When Marrow was twelve years old, Solomon died of a heart attack. For many years, AllMusic.com has stated that his parents "died in an auto accident", but Ice-T has stated that it was he, in a car accident, that it was decades later. Following his father's death, the orphaned Marrow lived with a nearby aunt then was sent to live with his other aunt and her husband in View Park-Windsor Hills, an upper middle-class Black neighborhood in South Los Angeles. While his cousin Earl was preparing to leave for college, Marrow shared a bedroom with him. Earl listened only to the local rock radio stations. Marrow moved to the Crenshaw District of Los Angeles, he attended Palms Junior High, predominantly made up of white students, included black students who travelled by bus from South Central to attend. He attended Crenshaw High School, entirely made up of black students. Marrow stood out from most of his friends because he did not drink alcohol, smoke tobacco, or use drugs. During Marrow's time in high school, gangs became more prevalent in the Los Angeles school system.
Students who belonged to the Crips and Bloods gangs attended Crenshaw, fought in the school's hallways. Marrow, while never an actual gang member, was affiliated with the former. Marrow began reading the novels of Iceberg Slim, which he memorized and recited to his friends, who enjoyed hearing the excerpts and told him, "Yo, kick some more of that by Ice, T", giving Marrow his famous nickname. Marrow and other Crips wrote and performed "Crip Rhymes", his music career started with the band of the singing group The Precious Few of Crenshaw High School. Marrow and his group opened the show; the singers were Ronald Robinson and Lapekas Mayfield. In 1975, at the age of seventeen, Marrow began receiving Social Security benefits resulting from the death of his father and used the money to rent an apartment for $90 a month, he sold cannabis and stole car stereos to earn extra cash, but he was not making enough to support his pregnant girlfriend. Once his daughter was born, he joined the United States Army in October 1977.
Marrow served a two-year and two month tour in the 25th Infantry Division and was associated with a group of soldiers charged with the theft of a rug. While awaiting trial, he received a $2,500 bonus check and went absent without leave, returning a month after the rug had been returned. Marrow received a non-judicial punishment as a consequence of his dereliction of duty. During his spell in the Army, Marrow became interested in hip hop music, he heard The Sugar Hill Gang's newly released single "Rapper's Delight", which inspired him to perform his own raps over the instrumentals of this and other early hip-hop records. The music, did not fit his lyrics or form of delivery; when he was stationed in Hawaii as a squad leader at Schofield Barracks, Marrow met a pimp named Mac. Mac admired that Marrow could quote Iceberg Slim and he taught Marrow how to be a pimp himself. Marrow was a
Instinct (Iggy Pop album)
Instinct is the eighth studio album by American singer Iggy Pop, released in June 1988 by record label A&M. After the pop-oriented, radio-ready Blah Blah Blah, A&M expected another hit record from Pop; the album features Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones. The album peaked at number 110 on the Billboard 200 chart; the first single from the album, "Cold Metal", charted at number 37 on Mainstream Rock Charts and earned Pop a Grammy Award nomination for Best Hard Rock/Metal performance in 1989. Videos were made for "Cold Metal" and "High on You"; the album was ranked number 69 on Kerrang!s "100 Greatest Heavy Metal Albums of All Time" list. The song "Cold Metal" was played in the 1990 science fiction-horror film Hardware, which featured Iggy Pop as the voice of Angry Bob, a radio DJ. All tracks composed except where noted. "Cold Metal" – 3:27 "High on You" – 4:48 "Strong Girl" – 5:04 "Tom Tom" – 3:17 "Easy Rider" – 4:54 "Power & Freedom" – 3:53 "Lowdown" – 4:30 "Instinct" – 4:12 "Tuff Baby" – 4:27 "Squarehead" – 5:06 "Tuff Baby" - 6:40 "Tuff Baby" - 5:18 "High On You" - 4:33 "Cold Metal" - 5:05 "Cold Metal" - 4:10 Iggy Pop - vocals Steve Jones - guitar Seamus Beaghen - keyboards Leigh Foxx - bass Paul Garisto - drums Jeff Bova - CMI programming Nicky Skopelitis - keyboard programmingTechnicalRobert Musso - track recording Martin Bisi - vocal recording Gary Grimshaw - cover design Donald Krieger - cover graphics Paul McAlpine - cover photography Instinct at Discogs
The Nymphs are an alternative rock band that performed in the late 1980s and early 1990s with lead singer Inger Lorre. The band was signed to Geffen Records, released their debut album in 1991; the Nymphs are known for their wild stage shows and their rebellious attitude towards record companies. The band formed in 1985 and broke up in 1992, formed again in 2016, broke up the same year reforming in 2017. Inger Lorre - Sam Merrick - Cliff D. - Alex Kirst - Geoff Siegel - Mario Tremaine - Morpheus Black - Jordan Lawson - Aaron Cruz - Eric James Contreras - Angelique Congleton - Thomas "TJ" Jefferson - Lorre and Bobby Belltower formed the band in New Jersey in the mid 1980s. The band moved to Los Angeles to pursue their musical careers, after two members returned to New Jersey and Siegel recruited guitarist Sam Merrick, drummer Alex Kirst and bass player Cliff D.. The band was hoping to sign with an alternative label such as Alternative Tentacles, but their reputation led to interest from the major labels.
However, the band's wild behavior led to some companies losing interest. The Nymphs made an appearance in the 1990 film Bad Influence as a band playing in a club. Iggy Pop sang vocals on the track "Supersonic" from the debut album. Things came to a head when Inger Lorre performed fellatio on her then-boyfriend, Rodney Eastman, on stage during their set at the Marquis club in Anaheim, California in 1992. Shortly afterwards, Lorre was fired from the band after she refused to go onstage during a concert that year in Miami opening for Peter Murphy; the band broke up soon after. After the Nymphs, Inger Lorre went on to release solo albums. Alex Kirst went on to play drums for Iggy Pop. Geoff Siegel went on to do A&R for Giant records. Sam Merrick returned to his original band, Leaving Trains, he now plays guitar in Boise, Idaho based band a.k.a. Belle. Alex Kirst died on January 13, 2011 as the result of a car accident, his body was found just before midnight near Date Palm and Gerald Ford Drive in Cathedral City, California.
He was 47. Kirst is the brother of guitarist Whitey Kirst, who has played with Iggy Pop. In the summer of 2016, Inger Lorre announced The Nymphs were re-forming and going back into the studio with new material for the first time in over 20 years. A new album and touring would follow; the news spread through television interviews and online social media. The new band lineup would bring back Inger Lorre with all new members including Mario Tremaine, Jordan Lawson, Aaron Cruz and Eric James Contreras. However, after several brief studio rehearsals, a cover of Dolly Parton's Hard Candy Christmas for Amazon, an appearance at The Viper Room in Hollywood, the newly formed Nymphs called it quits as as they got started. November 18, 2016 a reissue of the Nymphs' one and only Geffen release from 1991, now an underground classic was released by Rock Candy Records in celebration of the 25th anniversary of the original Geffen release; the reissue was remastered and included a 16-page full-color booklet containing a 3,500 word essay, enhanced artwork with unseen photos and band history.
As of April 2017 the Nymphs lineup consists of Inger Lorre, Joe Perez, T. J. Angelique Congleton and Eric James Contreras; the new Nymphs lineup is writing/rehearsing/recording new material to be released and for an upcoming European tour. A live recording from a 2016 show at the famous Viper Room in Hollywood was released in 2017; the Nymphs Geffen 36,000 A Practical Guide to Astral Projection Geffen 5,000 The Nymphs at AllMusic Inger Lorre biography at worldwildtribe.com