Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Joan I, Countess of Auvergne
Joan I of Auvergne was ruling Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne in 1332–1360, and Queen of France by her marriage to King John II. She was the daughter of William XII, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne, by his wife and she inherited the counties of Auvergne and Boulogne after the death of her father. Her first husband was Philip of Burgundy, who held the title Count of Auvergne by virtue of their marriage and they had one surviving child, who would be for much of his brief life Duke of Burgundy. Following the death of her husband, Joan married John II of France on 13 February 1350, joans son, Philip became a ward of the King. She bore her husband three children, two girls and an unnamed son, all of the children died young. Her possessions were inherited by her son, by her first husband, Joan had the following issue, Joan of Burgundy, engaged to Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, but was ultimately dismissed and lived out her life in a convent at Poissy. Philip I, Duke of Burgundy, Duke of Burgundy and was married to Margaret III, by her second husband, Joan had the following issue, Blanche of France, died young.
* Wim Blockmans and Walter Prevenier, The Promised Lands, The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530, elizabeth Fackelman, ed. Edward Peters, University of Pennsylvania Press,1999. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press
Louis I, Duke of Bourbon
Louis I, called the Lame was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and La Marche and the first Duke of Bourbon. Louis was born in Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, the son of Robert, Count of Clermont, Louis mother was Beatrix of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon and a granddaughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. He fought on the side in the Battle of the Golden Spurs and in the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle. In 1310, he was made Grand Chambrier of France, in 1327, Charles IV of France persuaded him to exchange the County of Clermont for that of La Marche, and elevated Bourbon to a duchy-peerage. However, Clermont was restored to him by Philip VI of France in 1331 and he belonged to Philip VIs small circle of trusted advisors. Duke Louis is reported to have been mentally unstable, in particular suffering from nervous breakdowns. He was buried in the church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris. In 1310, Louis married Mary of Avesnes, daughter of John II of Avesnes, Count of Hainaut and they had eight children, Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, married Isabella of Valois, had issue.
Only her first marriage produced surviving children, Philip James James I, Count of La Marche, killed at the Battle of Brignais, from whom the royal Bourbons descend. Beatrice of Bourbon, married first at Vincennes in 1334 John of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia as his second wife, married in 1315 Agnès of Chastellus, between 1330 and 1333 Isabelle of Chastelperron, Jeannette, bâtarde de Bourbon, married in 1310 to Guichard of Chastellus. Louis is a character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by Robert Nogaret in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, de la Thaumassière, Gaspard Thaumas, Histoire de Berry, Vol.3, Imprimerie et Lithographie de A. Jollet,1868. The Encyclopedia Americana, a library of universal knowledge, Vol.4, J. D. Lyon Company, New York,1919
Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy
Hugh IV of Burgundy was Duke of Burgundy between 1218 and 1272. Hugh was the son of Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, Hugh married twice, first to Yolande de Dreux when he was 16 and she 17 years of age. He married Beatrice of Navarre, when he was 45. William III, in 1239, Hugh joined the Barons Crusade led by King Theobald I of Navarre and supported by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. The Burgundian troops allied with Richard of Cornwall and rebuilt Ascalon, Hugh was made titular king of Thessalonica in 1266, although it had been recaptured by the Epirus more than 40 years ago. Hugh IV died on 27 Oct 1272 at Villaines-en-Duismois, France
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century, by the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs, the royal Bourbons originated in 1268, when the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon married a younger son of King Louis IX. The house continued for three centuries as a branch, while more senior Capetians ruled France, until Henry IV became the first Bourbon king of France in 1589. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, a cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, ruled for 18 years, until it too was overthrown. The Princes de Condé were a branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV. Both houses were prominent in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.
When the Bourbons inherited the strongest claim to the Spanish throne, the claim was passed to a cadet Bourbon prince, a grandson of Louis XIV of France, who became Philip V of Spain. The Spanish House of Bourbon has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734–1806 and in Sicily from 1734–1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816–1860. They ruled in Parma from 1731–1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859, all legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV. The term House of Bourbon is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury. In 1268, Count of Clermont, sixth son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527.
Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, the remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, all future Bourbons would descend from James IIs younger brother, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mothers inheritance. In 1514, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme and his son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. Two of Antoines younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon, Louis male-line, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois died out and he was born on 13 December 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre
The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary from country to country and era to era. There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class. g, san Marino and the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil. The term derives from Latin nobilitas, the noun of the adjective nobilis. In modern usage, nobility is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies and it rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. Nobility is a historical and often legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income. Being wealthy or influential cannot, ipso facto, make one noble, various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens.
Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se, usually privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate. Most nobles wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small and it included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although often at a price. Nobles were expected to live nobly, that is, from the proceeds of these possessions, work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. In some countries, the lord could impose restrictions on such a commoners movements. Nobles exclusively enjoyed the privilege of hunting, in France, nobles were exempt from paying the taille, the major direct tax. In some parts of Europe the right of war long remained the privilege of every noble. During the early Renaissance, duelling established the status of a respectable gentleman, Nobility came to be associated with social rather than legal privilege, expressed in a general expectation of deference from those of lower rank.
By the 21st century even that deference had become increasingly minimised, in France, a seigneurie might include one or more manors surrounded by land and villages subject to a nobles prerogatives and disposition. Seigneuries could be bought, sold or mortgaged, if erected by the crown into, e. g. a barony or countship, it became legally entailed for a specific family, which could use it as their title. Yet most French nobles were untitled, in other parts of Europe, sovereign rulers arrogated to themselves the exclusive prerogative to act as fons honorum within their realms. Nobility might be inherited or conferred by a fons honorum
Robert, Count of Clermont
Robert of Clermont was created Count of Clermont in 1268. He was the son of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, in 1272, Robert married Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon and had the following issue, Louis I, le Boiteux, first Duke of Bourbon. Blanche of Clermont, married in 1303 in Paris Robert VII, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne, grandmother of Joan I, john of Clermont, Baron of Charolais, married c.1309 Jeanne dArgues, widow of Hugh, Count of Soissons, and had issue. During his first joust, in 1279, Robert suffered head injuries which rendered him an invalid for the remainder of his life, Robert is mentioned in the prologue of the Coutumes de Beauvaisis by Philippe de Beaumanoir. He was buried in the church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris. Robert is a character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by Alexandre Rignault in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, Bourbon family tree French monarchs family tree