Beatriz, Duchess of Viseu
Infanta Beatriz of Portugal was a Portuguese infanta, daughter of John, Constable of Portugal and Isabella of Barcelos a daughter of Afonso I, Duke of Braganza. Due to the Aviz dynasty marriage policy, Beatrice was 1st cousin and sister-in-law of king Afonso V of Portugal, 2nd cousin and mother-in-law of king John II of Portugal, 1st cousin and mother-in-law of Ferdinand II, 3rd Duke of Braganza and mother of king Manuel I of Portugal, playing an active role in politics during the consecutive reigns of Afonso V, John II and Manuel I. Through her sister Isabella, wife of John II of Castile, she was an aunt of Isabella I of Castile, helping to settle both the Treaty of Alcáçovas and the Treaty of Terçarias de Moura between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Castile, after meeting with her niece Isabella in person, she was predominant in the Order of Santiago, acting as tutor for her son Diogo. Infanta Beatrice protected and encouraged Gil Vicente, a Portuguese playwright, considered as the father of the Portuguese theatre.
She founded the Religiosas da Conceição monastery, in Beja. In 1447, Beatrice married her cousin Infante Ferdinand, 2nd Duke of Viseu, son of King Edward of Portugal. From this marriage, they had ten children: Infante João, 3rd Duke of Viseu, 2nd Duke of Beja, 7th Constable of Portugal. Infante Diogo, 4th Duke of Viseu, 3rd Duke of Beja. Became King of Portugal, as Manuel I, following his cousin's death. Duke of Beja Duke of Viseu List of Portuguese Dukedoms ”Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil” – Vol. I, page 298 and 312. Published by Zairol Lda. Lisbon 1989. Genealogy of Infanta Beatrice, Duchess os Viseu, in Portuguese
Beatrice, Countess of Arundel
Beatrice of Portugal, LG, was a natural daughter of John I of Portugal and Inês Pires born before the marriage of her father with Philippa of Lancaster. She was a sister of Afonso, Duke of Braganza and half-sister of King Edward of Portugal, Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, Henry the Navigator, Isabella of Portugal, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, Ferdinand the Saint Prince. Queen Philippa was in charge of the education of both of her husband's children out of wedlock. Beatrice was born. 1380 in Veiros, Portugal. In April 1405 her wedding with Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel by proxy was celebrated in Lisbon and, in the same year, she travelled to England, accompanied by her brother Afonso and many of the king's vassals and her ladies-in-waiting where the marriage ceremony took place on 26 November 1405 in London, with King Henry IV in attendance. Thomas died on 13 October 1415, she married Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot and subsequently of his steward, Thomas Fettiplace of East Shefford in Berkshire.
The Peerage of England is a multivolume book written in 1756 outlining the genealogy of the Peers of England. The following is from page 406+, as it is out of copyright is quoted in full here. Sir Gilbert Talbot, Kt. Lord of Irchenfield and Blackmere, died on October 19 in 1419, having married two wives, first Joan, second daughter of Thomas Duke of Gloucester, youngest son of King Edward III and co-heir to her brother Humphrey Earl of Buckingham; this Lady Beatrix was, the wife of John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon. By her first husband she had no issue, she married John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon in 1432. She died in Bordeaux, France in November 1439
Beatrice of Portugal, Duchess of Savoy
Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. She was the Sovereign Countess of Asti from 1531 to 1538, she was the second daughter of his second wife, Maria of Aragon. Her siblings included King John III of Holy Roman Empress Isabella, she was educated under the supervision of her governess Elvira de Mendoza. In Villefranche-sur-Mer on 8 April 1521, Beatrice married Charles Duke of Savoy, he had succeeded as the Duke of Savoy since 1504, making Beatrice Duchess consort at the moment of her wedding. Beatrice is described as beautiful and ambitious. In 1531, she received as a fiefdom, from her cousin and brother-in-law, the emperor Charles V, the County of Asti which, on her death, was inherited by her son and permanently included on the Savoy's heritage. In 1534, she welcomed Christina of Denmark, a ward of her brother-in-law the Emperor, on her way to her marriage with the Duke of Milan; when Christina was widowed in 1535, the Milanese Count Stampa suggested a marriage between Christina and the eldest son of Beatrice, the heir of Savoy, in an attempt to protect Milan from Imperial sovereignty.
Beatrice supported the plan, when Louis died, she suggested that her next son could replace him. Nothing more was heard of this, however. In April 1536, Beatrice fled from the French conquest of Savoy to Christina in Milan in the company of two of her two eldest surviving children and the Holy Shroud of St. Joseph of Arimathea from Chambéry. In May, she was able to visit the Emperor without any political result, she lived as a guest with Christina in Milan, with whom she was good friends. In November 1537, Beatrice was escorted by the Imperial viceroy of Milan to the Emperor in Genova, but again, the meeting was without any result, she continued to Nice. She died in Nice in January 1538. In Villefranche-sur-Mer on 8 April 1521, Beatrice married Charles Duke of Savoy, he had succeeded as the Duke of Savoy since 1504, making Beatrice Duchess consort at the moment of her wedding. They had nine children: Prince of Piedmont. Louis, Prince of Piedmont. Emmanuel Philibert. Catherine. Marie. Isabella. Emmanuel.
Emmanuel. John. After the death of the childless Sebastian of Portugal, her son fought for his rights to become King of Portugal, however he failed and the throne was given to Isabella's son Philip. Cartwright Ady, Julia. Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan and Lorraine, 1522-1590. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company. OCLC 871060. Prestage, Edgar: Il Portogallo nel medioevo, in: Cambridge University Press - Storia del mondo medievale, vol. VII, pp. 576–610, Garzanti, 1999. Ricaldone, Aldo di, Annuari del Monferrato, Vol I and II. Testa D. Storia del Monferrato, seconda edizione ampliata, Tip. S. Giuseppe 1951. Vergano L.: Storia di Asti, Vol. 1,2,3. Tip. S. Giuseppe Asti, 1953, 1957. Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal
Beatrice of Portugal
Beatrice was the only surviving legitimate child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal and his wife, Leonor Teles. She became Queen consort of Castile by marriage to King John I of Castile. Following her father's death without a legitimate male heir, she claimed the Portuguese throne, but lost her claim to her uncle, who became King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz. During her early years, Beatrice was a pawn in the changing politics of foreign alliances of her father, who negotiated successive marriages for her, she would marry King John I of Castile, by whom Beatrice became Queen consort of Castile. At the death of her father, Beatrice was proclaimed Queen regnant of Portugal and her mother assumed the regency in her name. Opposition to the regency, fear of the Castilian domination and loss of Portuguese independence led to a popular rebellion and civil war between the late King Ferdinand I's illegitimate brother, John of Aviz, who wrested control of the regency from the dowager queen, the supporters of Beatrice and her husband, John I of Castile, who claimed the throne of Portugal by right of his wife.
In 1385, John of Aviz was proclaimed King of Portugal, the King of Castile was definitively defeated in the Battle of Aljubarrota ending any prospects for Beatrice and her husband to assert their rights to the Portuguese crown. From that time, Queen Beatrice took a special interest in the welfare of the Portuguese exiles in Castile, faithful to her dynastic claim to the Portuguese throne. After the death of her husband she was relegated to a secondary level in the Castilian court. However, the dynastic strife continued represent a challenge to the normalization of relations between Castile and Portugal. From the second decade of the 15th century onwards, her documentary trail became scarce until she disappears in about 1420. Beatrice was born in Coimbra, during the brief siege of the city by Castilian troops during the second Fernandine War; the siege was lifted and King Henry II of Castile continued to Santarém and Lisbon. During the siege of Lisbon, Cardinal legate Guido of Bologna obtained an agreement between the Kings of Castile and Portugal, the Peace of Santarém.
According to that treaty, King Ferdinand I of Portugal would abandon the'Petrist' cause, his claim to dynastic legitimacy that originated after the assassination of King Peter I of Castile in 1369. Two marriages were celebrated between the two royal families to reinforce the peace: between Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque, brother of Henry, Beatrice, half-sister of Ferdinand, between Alfonso Enríquez, Henry's natural son, Ferdinand's illegitimate daughter Isabel. In addition, a betrothal was arranged between Beatrice, Ferdinand I of Portugal's newborn daughter, Fadrique, created Duke of Benavente, another natural son of King Henry II of Castile; the Cortes de Leiria of 1376 pledged to support Beatrice as heiress of the throne, accepting her betrothal with the Duke of Benavente. The betrothal was solemnized in Leiria on 24 November 1376, on 3 January 1377 was accepted by King Henry II. Fernando I's will of 1378 ratified all agreements concerning Beatrice, adding that in the absence of Beatrice or any descendants, the Portuguese king's half-brothers, the children of Inês de Castro were disinherited, the throne of Portugal would passed to any hypothetical sisters of Beatrice, after them, to Duke Fadrique of Benavente.
To ensure the succession of the throne in her daughter, Queen Leonor Teles devised a plot against John of Portugal, in which the Queen's own sister María Teles, John's wife, was accused of adultery and killed by her husband in June 1379. Although John obtained the royal pardon, he opted to flee to Castile, fearful of the Teles family. In May 1379 King Henry II of Castile died and his son John I succeeded him. Once these events were known in the Portuguese court, negotiations began for the betrothal of Beatrice with the first-born son of the new King, the future Henry III of Castile, in order to counter any aspiration of John of Portugal to the throne with the political and military support of the Castilians; the 21 May 1380 agreement stipulated that the wedding would be celebrated when the 3-year-old prince reached the age of 14. It established the succession. If Beatrice died before the marriage and her father had no more legitimate offspring, the throne would pass to John I of Castile, but if she died after her marriage and without any descendants, it would go to her widower.
If Henry died first, without issue by Beatrice, she would remain Queen regnant, but were she to die without children by a subsequent marriage, the Portuguese throne would pass to the Kings of Castile. In this way the children of Inés de Castro were again denied succession; the marriage agreement was approved in the Cortes de Soria in August 1380. By July 1380, Ferdinand I had changed his politics by secretly allying himself in the Treaty of Estremoz with King Richard II of England and the Duke of Lancaster, defenders of the'Petrist' cause; the King of Portugal abandoned Antipope Clement VII and swore obedience to Pope Urban VI, while his daughter Beatrice was betrothed to Edward of Norwich, son of the Earl of Cambridge and grandson of King Peter I of Castile. The negotiations for this alliance brought to Portugal a Petrist exile, Juan Fernández de Andeiro, Count of Ourém, who would have prominent influence at the Portuguese court; when the Castilian King heard of the agreement thanks to the exiled John of Portugal, he sealed an alliance with France through the Treaty of Vincennes, accepting obedience of his kingdom to the Antipope Clement VII, he undertook the third Fernandine War.
While King F
John III of Portugal
John III nicknamed The Colonizer was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. John succeeded his father at the age of nineteen. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire had a global dimension and spanned 1 billion acres. During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty, Japan, during the Muromachi period, he abandoned Muslim territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India and investment in Brazil.
In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region and the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade. John, the eldest son of King Manuel I to his second wife Maria of Aragon, was born in Lisbon on 7 June 1502; the event was marked by the presentation of Gil Vicente's Visitation Play or the Monologue of the Cowherd in the queen's chamber. The young prince was sworn heir to the throne in 1503, the year his youngest sister, Isabella of Portugal, Empress Consort of the Holy Roman Empire between 1527 and 1538, was born. John was educated by notable scholars of the time, including the astrologer Tomás de Torres, Diogo de Ortiz, Bishop of Viseu, Luís Teixeira Lobo, one of the first Portuguese Renaissance humanists, rector of the University of Siena and Professor of Law at Ferrara. John's chronicler António de Castilho said that, "Dom João III faced problems complementing his lack of culture with a practice formation that he always showed during his reign". In 1514, he was given his own house, a few years began to help his father in administrative duties.
At the age of sixteen, John was chosen to marry his first cousin, the 20-year-old Eleanor of Austria, eldest daughter of Philip the Handsome of Austria-Burgundy and Queen Joanna of Castile, but instead she married his widowed father Manuel. John took deep offence at this: his chroniclers say he became melancholic and was never quite the same; some historians claim this was one of the main reasons that John became fervently religious, giving him name the Pious. On 19 December 1521, John was crowned king in the Church of São Domingos in Lisbon, beginning a thirty-six-year reign characterized by intense activity in internal and overseas politics in relations with other major European states. John III continued to centralize the absolutist politics of his ancestors, he called the Portuguese Cortes only three times and at great intervals: 1525 in Torres Novas, 1535 in Évora and 1544 in Almeirim. He tried to restructure administrative and judicial life in his realm; the marriage of John's sister Isabella of Portugal to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, enabled the Portuguese king to forge a stronger alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
To strengthen his ties with Austria, he married his maternal first cousin Catherine of Austria, younger sister of Charles V and his erstwhile fiancée Eleanor, in the town of Crato. John III had nine children from that marriage. By the time of John's death, only his grandson Sebastian was alive to inherit the crown; the large and far-flung Portuguese Empire was difficult and expensive to administer and was burdened with huge external debt and trade deficits. Portugal's Indian and Far Eastern interests grew chaotic under the poor administration of ambitious governors. John III responded with new appointments that proved troubled and short-lived: in some cases, the new governors had to fight their predecessors to take up their appointments; the resulting failures in administration brought on a gradual decline of the Portuguese trade monopoly. In consideration of the challenging military situation faced by Portuguese forces worldwide, John III declared every male subject between 20 and 65 years old recruitable for military service on 7 August 1549.
Among John III's many colonial governors in Asia were Vasco da Gama, Pedro Mascarenhas, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Nuno da Cunha, Estêvão da Gama, Martim Afonso de Sousa, João de Castro and Henrique de Meneses. Overseas, the Empire was threatened by the Ottoman Empire in both the Indian Ocean and North Africa, causing Portugal to increase spending on defense and fortifications. Meanwhile, in the Atlantic, where Portuguese ships had to withstand constant attacks of Privateers, an initial settlement of French colonists in Brazil created yet another "front"; the French made alliances with native South Americans against the Portuguese and military and political interventions were used. They were forced out, but not until 1565. In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the Far East continued, the Portuguese reached China and Japan; the expense of defending Indian interests was huge. To pay for it, John III abandoned a number of strongholds in North Africa: Safim, Alcácer Ceguer and Arzila.
John III achieved an important political vic