A bank engine or helper engine or pusher engine is a railway locomotive that temporarily assists a train that requires additional power or traction to climb a gradient. Helpers/bankers are most found in mountain divisions, where the ruling grade may demand the use of greater motive power than that required for other grades within the division. Helpers/bankers were most used during the age of steam in the American West, where significant grades are common and trains are long; the development of advanced braking systems and diesel-electric or electric locomotives has eliminated the everyday need for bankers/helpers in all but a few locations. With the advent of dynamic brakes on electric or diesel-electric locomotives, helpers/bankers can be used to provide more braking force on long downhill gradients. Bankers or helpers were positioned at the rear of the train, in which case they protected against wagons or coaches breaking away from the train and running back downhill. In a pusher role, it was possible for the helper/banker to separate once the train had crested the grade.
Once separated, the banker would return to a siding or stub so as to clear the mainline and get ready for the next train. A common practice with knuckle couplers was to remove the knuckle from the front coupler; the locomotive would be brought up behind the last car of the train while the train was moving slowly. The air brake hose would not be coupled; when the train no longer required assistance, the helper/pusher would slow reverse and coast back down the grade to its siding at the bottom of the grade. This practice was outlawed in North America after the end of the steam era. Special constructed cabooses were sometimes used in helper areas. Ordinary cabooses were built as as practical and might be crushed by the helper/pusher's force, which could be as much as 90 tons; the heavy cabooses allowed crews to avoid the time-consuming procedure of splitting the train just ahead of the caboose. Pushers/helpers were designed to provide extreme power for short runs, but if it could push enough to get the train to the top of the grade it could build up pressure while coasting back down and while waiting for the next train to come along.
This practice was common in Europe. Since it was not possible to remotely control a steam locomotive, each helper had to have a full crew on board. Careful coordination was required between engine crews to assure that all locomotives were operated in a consistent manner. Standard whistle signals were employed to tell the helper crew when to apply drift or brake. A misunderstanding of signals by a pusher locomotive crew could result in a major wreck if the lead locomotive applied brakes while the bank engine was still applying power; the usual result was that the train would experience a violent run-in, resulting in the derailment of part or all of the train. The town of Helper, Utah was named after these engines, as it was where helper engines were kept to assist on the climb to Soldier Summit. Nowadays helpers/bankers are controlled by coded radio signals from the locomotive at the head end of the train, allowing one engineer to control the helper and the train being helped. If radio operation is not possible, electrical control might be used, by way of cables running the length of the train, or else the helpers are manually controlled, still the norm for bank engines at the end of freight trains in Europe.
In the UK, an engine, temporarily attached to the front of a train to assist with the ascent of an incline was called a pilot locomotive. This differentiated it from the train engine, provided to power the train to its destination. A train with one or more helper locomotives attached to the front may be referred to as a "double header", "triple header", etc. depending on the number of helpers/bankers. These terms fell out of general usage as diesel locomotives replaced steam power. In countries where buffers-and-chain couplers are used, bank engines cannot be added to the front of the train due to the limited strength of the couplers. Adding locomotives in the middle of the train has the distinct advantage of applying the helper power to only part of the train, thus limiting the maximum drawbar pull applied to the first car of the train to a safe level; the narrow gauge portions of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, in particular, used "swing helpers", which meant the helper locomotives were placed mid-train at a point where they were pushing and pulling an equal amount of tonnage, said location being referred to as the train's "swing point".
This was done to balance out the "slack" in the train between the locomotives, the swing helpers, the end train helpers just in front of the caboose. However, this arrangement requires splitting the train in order to add or remove the helper engine, which can be a time-consuming maneuver. However, on some American railroads it was necessary to an extent because operating rules required end of train helpers to be added at the end of the train, but in front of the caboose; this was done for the safety of the train crew riding inside
Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland and is located in the western Southern Uplands. It comprises the historic counties of Dumfriesshire, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright and Wigtownshire, the latter two of which are collectively known as Galloway; the administrative centre is the town of Dumfries. Following the 1975 reorganisation of local government in Scotland, the three counties were joined to form a single region of Dumfries and Galloway, with four districts within it. Since the Local Government etc. Act 1994, however, it has become a unitary local authority. For lieutenancy purposes, the historic counties are maintained with its three lieutenancy areas being Dumfries and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. To the north and Galloway borders East Ayrshire, South Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire. To the west lies the Irish Sea; the Dumfries and Galloway Council region is composed of their sub-areas. From east to west: Dumfriesshire County the sub-area of Dumfriesshire – Annandale the sub-area of Dumfriesshire – Eskdale the sub-area of Dumfriesshire – Nithsdale Kirkcudbrightshire County the sub-area of Kirkcudbrightshire – Stewartry Wigtownshire County the sub-area of Wigtownshire – Machars --divided into census areas the sub-area of Wigtownshire – Rhins of Galloway divided into census areas The term'Dumfries and Galloway' has been used since at latest the 19th century – by 1911 the three counties had a united Sheriffdom under that name.
Dumfries and Galloway covers the majority of the Western area of the Southern Uplands, it hosts Scotland's most Southerly point, at the Mull of Galloway in the west of the region. The region has a number of south running water systems which break through the Southern Uplands creating the main road, rail, arteries north/south through the region and breaking the hills up into a number of ranges. River Cree valley carries the A714 north-westward from Newton Stewart to Girvan and Water of Minnoch valley which lies just west of the Galloway Hills carries a minor road northward through Glentrool village into South Ayrshire; this road leaves the A714 at Bargrennan. Water of Ken and River Dee form a corridor through the hills called the Glenkens which carries the A713 road from Castle Douglas to Ayr; the Galloway Hills lie to the west of this route through the hills and the Carsphairn and Scaur Hills lie to the east. River Nith rises between Dalmellington and New Cumnock in Ayrshire and runs east south down Nithsdale to Dumfries.
Nithsdale carries both the rail line from Dumfries to Kilmarnock. It separates the Scaur Hills from the Lowther Hills which lie east of the Nith. River Annan combines with Evan Water and the River Clyde to form one of the principal routes into central Scotland from England – through Annandale and Clydesdale – carrying the M74 and the west coast railway line; this gap through the hills separates the Lowthers from the Moffat Hills. River Esk enters the Solway Firth just south of Gretna having travelled south from Langholm and Eskdalemuir; the A7 travels up Eskdale as far as Langholm and from Langholm carries on up the valley of Ewes Water to Teviothead where it starts to follow the River Teviot to Hawick. Eskdale itself heads north west from Langholm through Bentpath and Eskdalemuir to Ettrick and Selkirk; the A701 branches off the M74 at Beattock, goes through the town of Moffat, climbs to Annanhead above the Devil's Beef Tub before passing the source of the River Tweed and carrying on to Edinburgh.
Until recent times the ancient route to Edinburgh travelled right up Annandale to the Beef Tub before climbing steeply to Annanhead. The present road ascends northward on a ridge parallel to Annandale but to the west of it which makes for a much easier ascent. From Moffat the A708 heads north east along the valley of Moffat Water on its way to Selkirk. Moffatdale separates the Moffat hills from the Ettrick hills to the south. There are three National Scenic Areas within this region. Nith Estuary: this area follows the River Nith southward from just south of Dumfries into the Solway Firth. Dumfries itself has a rich history going back over 800 years as a Royal Burgh and is remembered as the place where Robert the Bruce murdered the Red Comyn in 1306 before being crowned King of Scotland – and where Robert Burns spent his last years, his mausoleum is in St Michael's graveyard. Going down the east bank there is the village of Glencaple, Caerlaverock Castle, Caerlaverock Wild Fowl Trust, an ancient Roman fort on Ward Law Hill and nearby in Ruthwell is the Ruthwell Cross and the Brow Well where Robert Burns "took the waters" and bathed in the Solway just before his death.
On the west bank, there are several walks and cycle routes in Mabie Forest, Kirkconnell Flow for the naturalist, the National Museum of Costume just outside New Abbey and Sweetheart Abbey within the village. Criffel offers the hill walker a reasonably modest walk with views across the Solway to the Lake District; the house of John Paul Jones founder of the American Navy is open to visitors near Kirkbean. East Stewartry Coast: this takes in the coast line from Balcary Point eastward across Auchencairn Bay and the Rough Firth past Sandyhills to Mersehead. There are several coastal villages within this area – Auchencairn, Colvend and Portling. There is a round tower at Orchardton and the islands of Hestan Isle and Rough Island can be reached at low tide outside the breeding se
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
The Caledonian Railway was a major Scottish railway company. It was formed in the early 19th century with the objective of forming a link between English railways and Glasgow, it progressively extended its network and reached Edinburgh and Aberdeen, with a dense network of branch lines in the area surrounding Glasgow. It was absorbed into the London and Scottish Railway in 1923. Many of its principal routes are still used, the original main line between Carlisle and Glasgow is in use as part of the West Coast Main Line railway. In the mid-1830s railways in England evolved from local concerns to longer routes that connected cities, became networks. In Scotland it was clear that this was the way forward, there was a desire to connect the central belt to the incipient English network. There was controversy over the route that such a line might take, but the Caledonian Railway was formed on 31 July 1845 and it opened its main line between Glasgow and Carlisle in 1848, making an alliance with the English London and North Western Railway.
In the obituary of the engineer Richard Price-Williams written in 1916 the contractor of the Caledonian Railway is stated to be Thomas Brassey and the civil engineer George Heald. Although the company was supported by Scottish investors, more than half of its shares were held in England. Establishing itself as an inter-city railway, the Caledonian set about securing territory by leasing other authorised or newly built lines, fierce competition developed with other, larger Scottish railways the North British Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway; the company remained less than successful in others. A considerable passenger traffic developed on the Firth of Clyde serving island resorts, fast boat trains were run from Glasgow to steamer piers. In 1923 the railways of Great Britain were "grouped" under the Railways Act 1921 and the Caledonian Railway was a constituent of the newly formed London Midland and Scottish Railway, it extended from Aberdeen to Portpatrick, from Oban to Carlisle, running express passenger services and a heavy mineral traffic.
In the closing years of the 18th century, the pressing need to bring coal cheaply to Glasgow from the plentiful Monklands coalfield had been met by the construction of the Monkland Canal, opened throughout in 1794. This encouraged development of the coalfield but dissatisfaction at the monopoly prices said to be exacted by the canal led to the construction of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, Scotland's first public railway. Development of the use of blackband ironstone by David Mushet, the invention of the hot blast process of iron smelting by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828 led to a huge and rapid increase in iron production and demand for the ore and for coal in the Coatbridge area; the industrial development led to the construction of other railways contiguous with the M&KR, in particular the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway and the Wishaw and Coltness Railway. These two lines worked in harmony, merging to form the Glasgow and Coatbridge Railway in 1841, competing with the M&KR and its allies.
All these lines used the local track gauge of 4 ft 6 in, they were referred to as the coal lines. During this period, the first long-distance railways were opened in England, it was followed by the London and Birmingham Railway in 1838 and the Grand Junction Railway in 1837, the North Union Railway reaching Preston in 1838, so that London was linked with the Lancashire and West Midlands centres of industry. It was desirable to connect central Scotland into the emerging network. At first it was assumed that only one route from Scotland to England would be feasible, there was considerable controversy over the possible route. A major difficulty was the terrain of the Southern Uplands: a route running through the hilly lands would involve steep and lengthy gradients that were challenging for the engine power of the time. Many competing schemes were put forward, not all of them well thought out, two successive Government commissions examined them. However, they did not have mandatory force, after considerable rivalry, the Caledonian Railway obtained an authorising Act of Parliament on 31 July 1845, for lines from Glasgow and Edinburgh to Carlisle.
The share capital was to be £1,800,000. The Glasgow and Edinburgh lines combined at Carstairs in Clydesdale, the route crossed over Beattock summit and continued on through Annandale; the promoters had engaged in a frenzy of provisional acquisitions of other lines being put forward or being constructed, as they considered it was vital to secure territory to their own control and to exclude competing concerns as far as possible. However, if they hoped to operate the only Anglo-Scottish route, they were disappointed; the North British Railway opened between Edinburgh and Berwick-upon-Tweed on 22 June 1846, forming part of what has become the East Coast Main Line
Beattock is a village in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland 1⁄2 mile south-west of Moffat and 19 miles north of Dumfries. Beattock was served by the A74 road and the West Coast Main Line, however the road has since been upgraded to the A74 motorway and no longer passes through the village. Beattock railway station was closed in 1972. Beattock Summit is located 10 miles to the north of the village in the neighbouring administrative area of South Lanarkshire. At 1,033 ft it is the highest point on both the M74, on the West Coast Main Line within Scotland; the poet W. H. Auden's 1936 work; the Southern Upland Way and the Annandale Way run close to the village
A74(M) and M74 motorways
The A74 and M74 form a major motorway in the United Kingdom in Scotland, with a short section in England. Following an extension opened on 28 June 2011, they connect the M8 motorway west of Glasgow to the English border at Gretna, creating a route from the south to the west of the city. In conjunction with the M6 motorway, they form one of the three major cross-border routes between Scotland and England, they are part of the unsigned international E-road network E05. Although the entire route is referred to as the M74, more than half of its length is the A74. From its junction with the M8 just south of the Kingston Bridge, the newest section passes through the Glasgow districts of Govanhill, Polmadie and parts of the nearby towns of Rutherglen and Cambuslang on an elevated embankment, with junctions at Kingston, Polmadie Road and Tollcross before connecting to the pre-existing M74, it runs in a south-easterly direction past the Clyde Valley towns of Bothwell and Motherwell before meeting the cross-country A71 at Larkhall.
It passes west of Lanark and beyond Abington, where it changes into the A74 and goes to Moffat and Lockerbie, before making an end-on connection with the M6, near Longtown. From Junction 4 southwards it is part of the E05 Euroroute from Greenock to Algeciras. North from Junction 4, the E05 takes a short stretch of the M73 connecting to the M8 and proceeds westwards through Glasgow to Greenock; the A74 was the original route from Glasgow to Carlisle where it met the A7 road which meets in Carlisle city centre the A6 south to London. Starting in the 1930s, the single-carriageway road between Gretna and Glasgow was progressively upgraded to dual carriageway, being completed in the early 1970s with the completion of the Gretna bypass. At the northern end, it was not possible to add to the existing carriageway because of the built-up nature of the area. A bypass was built as one of Scotland's first motorways, the M74, from Draffan to Maryville, north of Uddingston, completed by 1969. Junctions were numbered from south to north, the normal convention at the time numbers increasing going away from London, as there were no plans to extend the motorway.
The northern section around Hamilton was built as three-lane dual carriageway, narrowing to two-lane dual carriageway south of junction 4. It continued as the A74 Dual-Carriageway from Draffan and carrying on to link with the M6 junction 44 at Carlisle; the southern sections, where there was no need to bypass the existing route, were not upgraded to motorway standard, but to dual carriageway without hard shoulders or full grade separation. The gradual construction of the M6 from Rugby to Carlisle in 1970, where it terminated on the A74, meant that the route from Glasgow to London was dual carriageway; this led to calls for the dualled A74 from Draffan to the M6 to be upgraded a second time, to motorway standard. As the government had invested in the dual carriageway upgrade, they resisted these calls. In 1972 the Government agreed to extend the M74 from Draffan to today's J12 at Millbank, it was built in three sections, opening 1986–87. It was constructed to dual two-lane standard, included a bypass of Lesmahagow, as the M74.
In 1984, in preparation for the southwards extension,the junction numbers were changed to go from north to south, Raith on the original south to north numbering remained as junction 5, with Maryville becoming junction 4, leaving lesser numbers available for junctions for the expected continuation of the motorway northwards. When the first southern extension opened, Draffan junction 1, ceased to exist and junction 9 was and still is only a southbound exit onto the old A74 just south of Blackwood village, to serve the villages of Blackwood, Kirkmuirhill and Coalburn. In 1987, the government committed to upgrading the remaining A74 from J12 to the M6 to motorway standard; when the first section opened, as far south as Abington in 1991 it was numbered M74. Following this, the government announced that the route would be completed as the M6, as the two motorways would meet head on at Carlisle; the Scottish section of the A74 was upgraded in sections, not all contiguous, as the A74, a temporary number until all the sections were complete, the eight-mile English section had been constructed and connected to the M6.
They were constructed with dual three-lane carriageways. In 1995 the first northern extension was opened to Fullerton Road in Glasgow, as M74; the A74 upgrades were complete by 1999. Plans to upgrade the English section of A74 from the Scottish border at Gretna to Carlisle were announced in 2004. Costing £174m, this was constructed as M6 as planned in the 1990s, was opened on 5 December 2008; the project included the construction of a new bridge crossing the River Esk. This means that there is now a continuous motorway with four numbers. Construction on the six-lane M74 Northern Extension northwards by 5 miles through the south-eastern part of Glasgow to meet the M8 started in 2008, with opening on 28 June 2011; the extension involved the demolition of the Rosebery Park football ground. The city centre section is supposed to perform a similar role to the never-built southern flank of the Glasgow Inner Ring Road planned in the 1960s, first set out as a scheme in the Bruce Report of the 1940s, but only half-completed.
The scheme was at the centre of a road protest from local environmentalists.