Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces, it is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873, its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents; the backbone of the economy is farming. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province. PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Scottish, Irish and French surnames being dominant to this day. PEI is located about 200 kilometres north of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 600 kilometres east of Quebec City.
It consists of 231 minor islands. Altogether, the entire province has a land area of 5,686.03 km2. The main island is 5,620 km2 in size larger than the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the 104th-largest island in Canada's 23rd-largest island. In 1798, the British named the island colony for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown"; the following island landmarks are named after the Duke of Kent: Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottetown Kent College, Charlottetown Kent Street, Charlottetown West Kent Elementary School Kent Street, GeorgetownIn French, the island is today called Île-du-Prince-Édouard, but its former French name, as part of Acadia, was Île Saint-Jean. The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa or Eilean Eòin for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI; the island is known in the Mi'kmaq language as Abegweit or Epekwitk translated as "land cradled in the waves".
Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, east of New Brunswick, its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island has two urban areas; the larger surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, consists of the capital city Charlottetown, suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km west of Charlottetown Harbour, consists of the city of Summerside; as with all natural harbours on the island and Summerside harbours are created by rias. The island's landscape is pastoral. Rolling hills, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty; the provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning.
Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control; the island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its culture. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables. Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round, they enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island. The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour.
Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased as businesses consolidate older farm properties; the coastline has a combination of long beaches, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes, numerous bays and harbours. The beaches and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air; the geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province. Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours
New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party is a social democratic federal political party in Canada. The party was founded in 1961 out of the merger of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation with the Canadian Labour Congress; the party sits to the left of the Liberal Party of Canada within the Canadian political spectrum. The current leader of the federal NDP is Jagmeet Singh; the NDP has been Canada's third- or fourth-largest party in Parliament. Following the 1993 federal election the NDP was reduced to fourth place behind the Bloc Québécois, a position it would maintain for the next 18 years. In the 2011 federal election under the leadership of Jack Layton, the NDP won the second largest number of seats in the House of Commons, gaining the position of Official Opposition for the first time in the party's history; the NDP lost 59 seats during the 2015 federal election and fell to third place in Parliament, though it is their second best seat count to date. The federal and provincial level NDPs are more integrated than other political parties in Canada, have shared membership.
In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party, was formed to create a "new" social-democratic political party, with ten members from each group; the NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected its first leader. In 1960, before the NDP was founded, one candidate, Walter Pitman, won a by-election under the New Party banner.
The influence of organized labour on the party is still reflected in the party's conventions as affiliated trade unions send delegates on a formula based on their number of members. Since one-quarter of the convention delegates have been from affiliated labour groups, after the party changed to an one member, one vote method of electing leaders in leadership races, labour delegate votes are scaled to 25% of the total number of ballots cast for leader. At the 1971 leadership convention, an activist group called The Waffle tried to take control of the party, but were defeated by David Lewis with the help of the union members; the following year, most of The Waffle formed their own party. The NDP itself supported the minority government formed by the Pierre Trudeau–led Liberals from 1972 to 1974, although the two parties never entered into a coalition. Together they succeeded in passing several progressive initiatives into law such as pension indexing and the creation of the crown corporation Petro-Canada.
In 1974, the NDP worked with the Progressive Conservatives to pass a motion of non-confidence, forcing an election. However, it backfired as Trudeau's Liberals regained a majority government at the expense of the NDP, which lost half its seats. Lewis resigned as leader the following year. Under the leadership of Ed Broadbent, the NDP attempted to find a more populist image to contrast with the governing parties, focusing on more pocketbook issues than on ideological fervor; the party played a critical role during Joe Clark's minority government of 1979–1980, moving the non-confidence motion on John Crosbie's budget that brought down the Progressive Conservative government, forced the election that brought Trudeau's Liberal Party back to power. The result in 1980 created two unexpected results for the party: The first was an offer by Trudeau to form a coalition government to allow for greater Western representation in Cabinet and a "united front" regarding the upcoming Quebec referendum. Broadbent, aware that the NDP would have no ability to hold the balance of power and thus no leverage in the government, declined out of fear the party would be subsumed.
The second was Trudeau's Canada Bill to patriate the Constitution of Canada unilaterally and to bring about what would become the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Broadbent endorsed the initiative, directly opposed by the NDP government of Saskatchewan and many of the party's Western parties and members, creating severe internal tension. Broadbent would act as a moderating influence on Trudeau during the debates, the eventual compromise that brought about the Constitution Act, 1982 was authored by Saskatchewan NDP Attorney General and future premier Roy Romanow. In the 1984 election, which saw the Progressive Conservatives win the most seats in Canadian history, the NDP won 30 seats, while the governing Liberals fell to 40 seats. Struggles within the governing Conservatives and opposition Liberals would see dramatic rise in the NDP's polling fortunes; the NDP set a then-record of 43 Members of Parliament elected to the house in the election of 1988. The Liberals, had reaped most of the benefits of opposing free trade to emerge as the dominant alternative to the ruling government.
In 1989, Broadbent stepped down after 14 years as federal leader of the NDP. At the party's leadership convention in 1989, former B. C. Premier Dave Barrett and Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin
Shediac is a Canadian town in Westmorland County, New Brunswick. The town is known as the "Lobster Capital of the World" and hosts an annual festival every July which promotes its ties to lobster fishing. At the western entrance to the town is a 90-tonne sculpture called The World's Largest Lobster. Shediac is situated on Route 133 around Shediac Bay, a sub-basin of the Northumberland Strait; the town is located southwest and adjacent to the community of Pointe-du-Chêne, once the eastern terminus of the European and North American Railway as well as a stopover for Pan-Am's transatlantic "clipper" air service featuring large seaplanes. Imperial Airways' flying boat service to Foynes in Ireland used the facilities. Hundreds of years ago, the Mi'kmaq encampment of "Es-ed-ei-ik" was one of the major camps in southeast New Brunswick; the Mi'kmaq word "Es-ed-ei-ik" which means "running far in" transformed into Gédaique. Acadians first arrived at Shediac in 1751 as a result of the Acadian Exodus from peninsular Nova Scotia.
During the French and Indian War, French officer Charles Deschamps de Boishebert made his headquarters at both Shediac and Cocagne, New Brunswick. In the autumn of 1755, Boishebert established himself on the south shore of Cocagne Bay, a place known as Boishebert's Camp; the following year, Boishebert moved to Miramichi, New Brunswick to Beaubears Island. After the war, Acadians returned to the region in 1767. Today many Francophone residents use the spelling Shédiac. Shediac Bay Yacht Club is on the Register of'Canada's Historic Places' for being the location of a local wharf for nearly a century; the previous Shediac Bay Yacht Club House was designed by Roméo Savoie. Georges-Antoine Belcourt, missionary Edna May Williston Best, feminist Emile Duprée, former professional wrestler and promoter René Duprée, professional wrestler, former WWE wrestler, son of Émile Dupree Muriel McQueen Fergusson, Canadian senator Gord Gallant, professional hockey player Placide Gaudet, historian Daniel Lionel Hanington, former Premier of New Brunswick Rosa Laricchiuta, professional singer Joseph E. Leblanc, politician Samuel Lee, politician Anna Malenfant, singer and composer Edward R. McDonald, politician, inventor of the Crossword Game, 1926 Olivier-Maximin Melanson, Acadian businessman and politician A. P. Paterson, politician Scott Pellerin, former professional hockey player Pascal Poirier, lawyer, senator Jean George Robichaud, politician Ferdinand Joseph Robidoux, politician Wes Sheridan, Canadian politician Albert James Smith, former Premier of New Brunswick Ernest A. Smith, Canadian politician Elsie Wayne, politician John Clarence Webster, historian List of lighthouses in New Brunswick List of communities in New Brunswick Media in Moncton Greater Moncton Greater Shediac HMCS Shediac Webster.
A History of Shediac. 1928 Belliveau, John Edward Running Far In: The Story of Shediac. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-55109-431-2 Greater Shediac Area website Town of Shediac information Town of Shediac official website Aids to Navigation Canadian Coast Guard
Dieppe, New Brunswick
Dieppe is a city in the Canadian maritime province of New Brunswick. Statistics Canada counted the population at 25,384 in 2016, making it the fourth largest city in the province. Dieppe's history and identity goes back to the eighteenth century. Known as Leger's Corner, it was incorporated as a town in 1952 under the Dieppe name, designated as a city in 2003; the Dieppe name was adopted by the citizens of the area in 1946 to commemorate the Second World War's Operation Jubilee, the Dieppe Raid of 1942. It is a francophone city. A majority of the population reports speaking both French and English. Residents speak French with a regional accent, unique to southeastern New Brunswick. A large majority of Dieppe’s population were in favour of the by-law regulating the use of external commercial signs in both official languages, a first for the province of New Brunswick. Dieppe is the largest predominantly francophone city in Canada outside Québec. Dieppe was one of the co-hosts of the first Congrès Mondial Acadien, held in the Moncton region in 1994.
Dieppe is part of the census metropolitan area of Moncton, New Brunswick's most populous city at 144,810 according to Statistics Canada in 2016. Federal and provincial representatives Provincial electoral districts Members of the 58th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly, the governing house of the province of New Brunswick. Dieppe - Roger Melanson Shediac Bay-Dieppe - Brian GallantFederal electoral districts Members of the 42nd Parliament of Canada. A section of southeast Dieppe is in the Beauséjour riding. Moncton—Riverview—Dieppe - Ginette Petitpas Taylor Beauséjour - Dominic LeBlanc Dieppe is located on the Petitcodiac River, it forms the southeastern part of the Greater Moncton Area, which includes the city of Moncton, the town of Riverview, Moncton Parish, Memramcook and Salisbury. Dieppe's city population increased from 1971 to 1981 with the 1973 unification of the surrounding communities, i.e. Saint Anselme, Fox Creek/Dover and Chartersville. Being part of Moncton census metropolitan area, Statistics Canada counted the population at 144,810 – making it the largest urban area in New Brunswick and the third largest in Atlantic Canada.
Detailed mother tongue Acadians from the Petitcoudiac and Shepody regions were the first pioneers to settle in the area and founded Sylvabreau in 1730, followed by the Melanson family at Ruisseau-des-Renards in 1746 and the LeBlanc and Boudreau families at Chartersville in 1776. Preceding the arrival of Acadian settlers, the southern part of the province was inhabited by the Algonquin people; the Battle of the Petitcodiac was fought on September 2, 1755 during the British expulsion of the Acadians, after the capture of Fort Beauséjour. The Massachusetts-British force was soundly defeated by troops from Boishébert, Acadian militia, First Nations' warriors. At the mouth of the Nacadie Creek settlements such as le Coude and the surrounding hamlets were destroyed. After these raids, Acadians returned to these villages and the numbers grew as the deportation from peninsular Nova Scotia continued, followed by the deportation from present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton. Victory for the British occurred three years during the Petitcodiac River Campaign which resulted in the deportation of the Acadians that lived along the Petitcodiac River or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations.
Dieppe was known as Upper Village after the Expulsion and was settled by the Surette and Thibodeau families, while Chartersville was called Leblanc's Village and included members of the Boudreau's clan. Prior to 1800, Pierre Bourgeois had established himself on the Fox Creek salt marsh. Agriculture and some fishing sustained these Acadian families up until the mid-1800s, when shipbuilding and railways created employment opportunities for Acadians around the Moncton area. After a bridge was completed in 1867 at the mouth of Hall's Creek, a road was constructed that link the incorporated Town of Moncton's Westmorland Road to the Dieppe area; this road went through farmland that had belong to the Leger family and intersected the old road that had taken travellers up and around Hall's Creek to the community of Lewisville to get to Moncton. By 1900, the little area around the intersection became known as Léger's Corner, with the increasing traffic from the bridge, merchants became attracted to the corner and soon set up shops and services around the intersection.
Prior to the First World War, a small residential development was erected, the community continue to grow until the Second World War. A population explosion occurred. Léger's Corner received the largest influx of military personnel in southeastern New Brunswick. Ten thousand airmen and their support staff arrived overnight in 1940, soon temporary warehouses and housing were erected; when Léger's Corner became incorporated as a municipal village in 1946, the community was renamed Dieppe, after a port in France on the English Channel, to honour the 913 Canadian servicemen who took part in the Dieppe Raid, the bloody landing by Allied soldiers, on August 19, 1942, during the Second World War. Part of Lakeburn was annexed in 1946 and Dieppe-East in 1948. A refere
Cap-Pelé, New Brunswick
Cap-Pelé is a Canadian village in Westmorland County, New Brunswick. The community's population meets the requirements for "town" status under the Municipalities Act of the Province of New Brunswick; the community centres on the Intersection of Route 945 and Route 133 but extends to Route 950. It is located on the Northumberland Strait 50 kilometres east of Moncton, its name translates to Cape Bald. The village was founded by Acadians in 1780 and incorporated as a municipality in 1969. Fishing is the dominant industry, the town is home to several smoked herring processing plants known locally as boucannières; as many as 30 smoke houses are found in its surrounding areas. Work in the smoke houses tends to be seasonal, during the summertime certain smokehouses offer guided tours. Cap-Pelé is home to the well known Aboiteau Beach that stretches out for 2.5 kilometers, located inside Aboiteau Park. The beach side complex offers many services including, licensed restaurant with seafood and bar service, a gift shop and patio overlooking the ocean.
The park has 40 cottages available for rent year round. List of communities in New Brunswick Village of Cap-Pelé
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
House of Commons of Canada
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation; the House of Commons is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. There were 308 members in the last parliament, but that number has risen to 338 following the election on Monday October 19, 2015. Members are elected by simple plurality in each of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings. MPs may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. However, terms have ended before their expiry and the sitting government has dissolved parliament within four years of an election according to a long-standing convention.
In any case, an Act of Parliament now limits each term to four years. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed in proportion to the population of each province and territory. However, some ridings are more populous than others, the Canadian constitution contains some special provisions regarding provincial representation; as a result, there is some regional malapportionment relative to population. The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act—now called the Constitution Act, 1867—created the Dominion of Canada, was modelled on the British House of Commons; the lower of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the commons. Moreover, the Cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons; the prime minister stays in office only as long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.
The term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, Chambre des communes. Canada and the United Kingdom remain the only countries to use the name "House of Commons" for a lower house of parliament; the House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Senate and the House of Commons; the Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model. Unlike the UK Parliament, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned to the provincial legislatures; the Parliament of Canada remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire.
Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931, after which new acts of the British Parliament did not apply to Canada, with some exceptions. These exceptions were removed by the Canada Act 1982. From 1867, the Commons met in the chamber used by the Legislative Assembly of Canada until the building was destroyed by fire in 1916, it relocated to the amphitheatre of the Victoria Memorial Museum—what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature, where it met until 1922. Until the end of 2018, the Commons sat in Centre Block chamber. Starting with the final sitting before the 2019 federal election, the Commons sits in a temporary chamber in the West Block until at least 2028, while renovations are undertaken in the Centre Block of Parliament; the House of Commons comprises 338 members. The constitution specifies a basic minimum of 295 electoral districts, but additional seats are allocated according to various clauses. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution.
Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many MPs as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1985; as a result of these clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population have become over-represented in the House. Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta are under-represented in proportion to their populations, while the other seven provinces are over-represented. Boundary commissions, appointed by the federal government for each province, have the task of drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts in each province. Territorial representation is independent of population; the calculation for the provinces is done with a base of 279 seats. The total population of the provinces is divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient; the population of the province is divided by the electoral q