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OpenID is an open standard and decentralized authentication protocol. Promoted by the non-profit OpenID Foundation, it allows users to be authenticated by co-operating sites using a third-party service, eliminating the need for webmasters to provide their own ad hoc login systems, allowing users to log into multiple unrelated websites without having to have a separate identity and password for each. Users create accounts by selecting an OpenID identity provider, use those accounts to sign onto any website that accepts OpenID authentication. Several large organizations either issue or accept OpenIDs on their websites according to the OpenID Foundation; the OpenID standard provides a framework for the communication that must take place between the identity provider and the OpenID acceptor. An extension to the standard facilitates the transfer of user attributes, such as name and gender, from the OpenID identity provider to the relying party; the OpenID protocol does not rely on a central authority to authenticate a user's identity.

Moreover, neither services nor the OpenID standard may mandate a specific means by which to authenticate users, allowing for approaches ranging from the common to the novel. The term OpenID may refer to an identifier as specified in the OpenID standard; the final version of OpenID is OpenID 2.0, finalized and published in December 2007. As of March 2016, there are over 1 billion OpenID enabled accounts on the Internet and 1,100,934 sites have integrated OpenID consumer support: AOL, France Telecom,, LiveJournal, Mixi, Novell, OpenStreetMap, Sears, Telecom Italia, Universal Music Group, VeriSign, WordPress, Yahoo!, the BBC, IBM, PayPal, Steam, although some of those organizations have their own authentication management. Many if not all of the larger organizations require users to provide authentication in the form of an existing email account or mobile phone number in order to sign up for an account. There are several smaller entities. Facebook moved to Facebook Connect. Apple will launch its own OpenID in the second half of 2019.

Blogger used OpenID, but since May 2018 no longer supports it. An end-user is the entity. A relying party is a web application that wants to verify the end-user's identifier. Other terms for this party include "service provider" or the now obsolete "consumer". An identity provider, or OpenID provider is a service that specializes in registering OpenID URLs or XRIs. OpenID enables an end-user to communicate with a relying party; this communication is done through the exchange of an identifier or OpenID, the URL or XRI chosen by the end-user to name the end-user's identity. An identity provider provides the OpenID authentication; the exchange is enabled by a user-agent, the program used by the end-user to communicate with the relying party and OpenID provider. The end-user interacts with a relying party that provides an option to specify an OpenID for the purposes of authentication; the relying party transforms the OpenID into a canonical URL form. With OpenID 1.0, the relying party requests the HTML resource identified by the URL and reads an HTML link tag to discover the OpenID provider's URL.

The relying party discovers whether to use a delegated identity. With OpenID 2.0, the relying party discovers the OpenID provider URL by requesting the XRDS document with the content type application/xrds+xml. There are two modes in which the relying party may communicate with the OpenID provider: checkid_immediate, in which the relying party requests that the OpenID provider not interact with the end-user. All communication is relayed through the end-user's user-agent without explicitly notifying the end-user. Checkid_setup, in which the end-user communicates with the OpenID provider via the same user-agent used to access the relying party; the checkid_immediate mode can fall back to the checkid_setup mode if the operation cannot be automated. First, the relying party and the OpenID provider establish a shared secret, referenced by an associate handle, which the relying party stores. If using the checkid_setup mode, the relying party redirects the end-user's user-agent to the OpenID provider so the end-user can authenticate directly with the OpenID provider.

The method of authentication may vary, but an OpenID provider prompts the end-user for a password or some cryptographic token, asks whether the end-user trusts the relying party to receive the necessary identity details. If the end-user declines the OpenID provider's request to trust the relying party the user-agent is redirected back to the relying party with a message indicating that authenticat


MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MARK4 gene. MARK4 belongs to the family of serine/threonine kinases that phosphorylate microtubule-associated proteins causing their detachment from microtubules. Detachment thereby increases microtubule dynamics and facilitates a number of cell activities including cell division, cell cycle control, cell polarity determination, cell shape alterations. There are four members of the MARK protein family, MARK1-4, which are conserved. MARK4 kinase has been shown to be involved in microtubule organization in neuronal cells. Levels of MARK4 are elevated in Alzheimer's disease and may contribute to the pathological phosphorylation of tau in this disease. MARK4 has been shown to interact with USP9X and Ubiquitin C


Adûnaic is one of the fictional languages devised by J. R. R. Tolkien for his fantasy works. One of the languages of Arda in Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, Adûnaic was spoken by the Men of Númenor during the Second Age. Adûnaic derived from the related Bëorian and Hadorian dialects of Taliska, the language spoken by the first and third houses of the Edain when they first entered Beleriand during the First Age; this language seems to have been a creole of the Dwarvish Khuzdul and some Avarin dialects, it is wholly unclear which parts of its vocabulary and structure were purely "Mannish" in origin, though the answer is very little. It is stated that Finrod Felagund was able to master Taliska purely by determining the various changes undergone by its Avarin component from Primitive Quendian, Faramir stated that all languages of Men are of Elvish descent, suggesting that Taliska and Adûnaic are in fact Quendian/Avarin with some Khuzdul influence. Once the Edain settled in Beleriand, they eagerly learned Sindarin from its Grey Elven inhabitants, but retained their own tongue whilst borrowing and adapting many Sindarin words to it.

By the end of the First Age, Taliska had developed into a language that served as the basis for Adûnaic, the vernacular tongue of the Númenóreans, as well as the languages of the Rohirrim and the Men of Dale. In Númenor, Adûnaic was the language used in day-to-day affairs by the majority of the population, its corpus a varied mixture of Khuzdul and Sindarin, was now exposed more to the influence of Quenya and even Valarin, both due to regular contact with Aman. When the Númenóreans began to establish trading ports on the western shores of Middle-earth, Adûnaic mingled with the languages of various groups of Edain who had not travelled to Númenor, the resulting trade language spread throughout Eriador and its neighbours, laying the foundation for the Common Speech. Following the Akallabêth, the surviving Elendili who established the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor shunned Adûnaic in favour of Sindarin due to the associations of the former with the tyrannical Ar-Pharazôn and his followers the King's Men.

Neglected by the Faithful, Adûnaic remained the language of the common people throughout most of the west of Middle-earth, by the time of the War of the Ring at the end of the Third Age, it had developed into the various dialects of Westron. Although "classical" Adûnaic was not spoken after the Akallabêth, surviving groups of the King's Men who served and worshipped Sauron continued to speak a debased form of the language as as the War of the Ring at the end of the Third Age. Few words of Adûnaic are known, though those that are borrow from various Elven languages. Adûnaic seems to conform to a variant of the consonantal root system used in Khuzdul, it is one of only two or three of Tolkien's languages known to possess noun classes, which correspond to four grammatical genders. Although Tolkien created few original words in Adûnaic names, the language serves his concept of a lingua franca for Middle-earth, a shared language for many different people; this lingua franca is Westron, which developed out of Adûnaic, "the language of the culturally and politically influential Númenóreans."Tolkien devised Adûnaic, the language spoken in Númenor, shortly after World War II, thus at about the time he completed The Lord of the Rings, but before he wrote the linguistic background information of the Appendices.

Adûnaic is intended as the language. This added a depth of historical development to the Mannish languages. Adûnaic was intended to have a "faintly Semitic flavour", its development began with The Notion Club Papers. It is there that the most extensive sample of the language is found, revealed to one of the protagonists, Lowdham, of that story in a visionary dream of Atlantis, its grammar is sketched in the unfinished "Lowdham's Report on the Adunaic Language". Tolkien remained undecided whether the language of the Men of Númenor should be derived from the original Mannish language, or if it should be derived from "the Elvish Noldorin" instead. In The Lost Road and Other Writings it is implied that the Númenóreans spoke Quenya, that Sauron, hating all things Elvish, taught the Númenóreans the old Mannish tongue they themselves had forgotten. Adûnaic is fundamentally a three-vowel language, with a length distinction. Most information about Adûnaic grammar comes from an incomplete typescript Lowdham's Report on the Adûnaic Language, written by Tolkien to accompany The Notion Club Papers.

The report discusses phonology and morphological processes in some detail, starts to discuss nouns, but breaks off before saying much about verbs, other parts of speech or the grammar as a whole. I

Trafford College

Trafford College is a further education college in Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. It was formed with the merger of North Trafford College and South Trafford College in 2007. Trafford College has two campuses: Altrincham Campus and the Centre for Science & Technology, plus the Skills Shop based at the Trafford Centre. Altrincham campus offers A-Levels and a range of vocational courses in Business & Accountancy, Creative Arts & Media, Foundation Learning, Beauty & Spa Therapies, Health & Social Care, Hospitality, IT & Computing, Sport & Uniformed Services, Tourism and Aviation. Facilities include Enhance Salon & Spa and Aspire Restaurant Bar; the Centre for Science & Technology at Talbot Road opposite Lancashire County Cricket Club is STEM Assured, has Engineering and Motor Vehicle workshops, Science labs, AMC and AM2 Training Centres. The Centre offers a range of vocational courses in Electrical Installation, Engineering, Engineering Services for Buildings, Foundation Learning, Motor Vehicle, Science and A Levels in Applied Science, Chemistry, English Language, Maths and Psychology.

The Skills Shop, based at INTU Trafford Centre, offers training programmes to young people in Retail and Customer Service. The hub provides employers with both staff development and training. Trafford College offers A Levels in: Applied Science, Art & Design, Business Studies, Communications & Culture, English Language, English Literature, Film Studies, Geography, Government & Politics, Games Design, Law, Media Studies, Psychology, Sociology. Trafford College offers a range of vocational qualifications in: Business & Accountancy, Creative Arts & Media, Engineering & Electrical Electronics, Engineering Services for Buildings, Foundation Learning, Plumbing & Electrical, Beauty & Spa Therapies, Health & Social Care, Hospitality, IT & Computing, Motor Vehicle, Science, Sport & Uniformed Services, Tourism & Aviation. In addition to A Levels and vocational provision, Trafford College offers a range of apprenticeships where learners combine work and study whilst being paid a wage. Trafford College has 4 National Skills Academies in: Retail, Sport & Active Leisure and Financial Services.

Trafford College offers a range of training for businesses. Trafford College offer a range of professional qualifications, short leisure courses, Community Learning courses that are delivered in venues across Trafford, Looking for Work programmes to support people in moving back into employment. Working in conjunction with partner universities and employers, Trafford College offers Access to Higher Education courses, a range of full-time and part-time courses from Foundation Degrees to HNC/Ds and a number of Professional Courses. Jason Orange: Singer. John Squire: Guitarist, The Stone Roses Ian Brown: Singer, The Stone Roses


Brachypremna is a genus of true crane fly. North and South America, the latter, by far being the most species rich. B. abitaguae Alexander, 1946 B. angusta Alexander, 1945 B. appendigera Alexander, 1946 B. arajuno Alexander, 1945 B. arcuaria Alexander, 1937 B. australis Alexander, 1923 B. basilica Alexander, 1921 B. brevigenua Alexander, 1945 B. breviterebra Alexander, 1944 B. breviventris B. candida Alexander, 1912 B. candidella Alexander, 1969 B. clymene Alexander, 1945 B. dispellens B. diversipes Alexander, 1941 B. geijskesi Alexander, 1945 B. illudens Alexander, 1946 B. integristigma Alexander, 1940 B. itatiayana Alexander, 1944 B. karma Alexander, 1945 B. laetiventris Alexander, 1945 B. nigrofemorata Alexander, 1937 B. phrixus Alexander, 1953 B. pictipes Osten Sacken, 1888 B. pictiventris Alexander, 1945 B. quasimodo Alexander, 1943 B. sappho Alexander, 1943 B. similis Williston, 1900 B. subevanescens Alexander, 1962 B. subsimilis Alexander, 1921 B. subuniformis Alexander, 1945 B. thyestes Alexander, 1954 B. tigriventris Alexander, 1922 B. unicolor Osten Sacken, 1888 B. uniformis Alexander, 1920 B. variitibia Alexander, 1937 B. waigeuensis Alexander, 1948 B. williamsoni Alexander, 1912 Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World