Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
ARIA Music Awards
The Australian Recording Industry Association Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry, put on by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The event has been held annually since 1987 and encompasses the general genre-specific and popular awards as well as Fine Arts Awards and Artisan Awards, Lifetime Achievement Awards and ARIA Hall of Fame – held separately from 2005 to 2010 but returned to the general ceremony in 2011. For 2010, ARIA introduced. Winning, or being nominated for, an ARIA award results in a lot of media attention and publicity on an artist, increases recording sales several-fold, as well as chart significance – in 2005, for example, after Ben Lee won three awards, his album Awake Is the New Sleep jumped from No. 31 to No. 5 in the ARIA Charts, its highest position. In 1983, the Australian Recording Industry Association was established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956.
It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, which were co-produced by Carolyn James from 1981 to 1984 and, in the latter two years, in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Starting with the first ceremony, on 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony. Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988, it held separate annual ceremonies from 2005 to 2010, the Hall of Fame returned to the general ceremony in 2011.
The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". The first ceremony, in 1987, featured Elton John as the compere and was held at the Sheraton Wentworth Hotel, Sydney. There were no live performances at the early ARIAs, music for both walk on/walk off was supplied by a nightclub dj, Rick Powell. All subsequent ceremonies were held in Sydney except the 1992 event at World Congress Centre, Melbourne. For 2010, ARIA introduced. Winning, or being nominated for, an ARIA award results in a lot of media attention and publicity on an artist, may increase recording sales several-fold, as well as chart significance – in 2005, for example, after Ben Lee won three awards, his album Awake Is the New Sleep jumped from No. 31 to No. 5 in the ARIA Charts, its highest position. The first five ARIA Awards were not televised, at the first award ceremony on 2 March 1987, the host, Elton John, advised the industry to keep them off television "if you want these Awards to stay fun".
The first televised ARIA Awards ceremony occurred in 1992, all subsequent ceremonies were televised. They were broadcast on Network Ten from 2002 to 2008 and returned in 2010. Nine Network aired the ceremony on 26 November 2009, its digital channel, GO!, aired the 2011 ARIA Music Awards on 27 November 2011. At the 1988 ceremony a fracas developed between band manager, Gary Morris, accepting awards for Midnight Oil, former Countdown compere, Ian "Molly" Meldrum, presenting, they conflicted over visiting United Kingdom artist, Bryan Ferry, who had presented an award. Morris objected to Ferry's presence and insulted him, Meldrum defended Ferry and scuffled with Morris. In 1995 electronic music group, Itch-E and Scratch-E, won the inaugural award for "Best Dance Release" for their single, "Sweetness and Light". Band member, Paul Mac thanked Sydney's ecstasy dealers for their help. One of the sponsors of the awards, that year, was the National Drug Offensive. In 2005 Mac explained, his speech was bleeped for the TV broadcast.
During the 2004 voting process, former 3RRR radio DJ, Cousin Creep, published his user name and password on a music site, allowing public votes, before being removed from voting two days later. The 2007 ARIA Awards telecast was marred by controversy, after it was revealed by the ABC's Media Watch programme that Network Ten had used subliminal advertising during the course of the broadcast, which under the Australian Media and Broadcasting rules, such an activity is illegal. Network Ten disputed the finding, however their basis for defence was criticised by Media Watch, as demonstrating an ignorance of the rules; the 2010 telecast was criticised in media reports: Crikey's Neil Walker decried the "infamously shambolic Sydney Opera House fiasco", The Punch's Rebekah Devlin speculated on it being the worst telecast, "it felt like we’d stumbled into some raging A-list party and we weren’t invited Guests who were there said it was a great night, but it reignites the debate of what the Arias are all about… is it an event staged for the musicians and the people there, or is it for a TV audience?", while Daily Telegraph's Ka
The Superjesus are an Australian rock band formed in Adelaide in late 1994. Their debut album, peaked at No. 2 on the ARIA Albums Chart, their second album, Jet Age reached No. 5 and their third album, Rock Music peaked at No. 14. Their top 40 singles include "Down Again", "Now and Then", "Gravity" and "Stick Together". At the ARIA Music Awards of 1997 they won Best New Talent for Eight Step Rail and Breakthrough Artist – Single for "Shut My Eyes"; the group disbanded in mid-2004 and reunited in 2013 with mainstay members Paul Berryman on drums, Sarah McLeod on lead vocals and Stuart Rudd on bass guitar. The Superjesus formed in late 1994 as Hell's Kitchen in Adelaide by Paul Berryman on drums, Sarah McLeod on lead vocals and guitar, Stuart Rudd on bass guitar and Chris Tennent on lead guitar. Rudd and Tennent had been jamming together for about a year when Rudd tried out for McLeod's latest band. Tennent was McLeod's guitar teacher at the time and a veteran of the Adelaide music scene, having played in various bands since the 1980s.
Paul Berryman auditioned for the group and they started rehearsing for over a year before their first gig. Hell's Kitchen changed their name to the Superjesus on the eve of the Big Day Out in Adelaide on Australia Day long-weekend, January 1996. Tennent provided the new name. Berryman explained, "It was just a piss-take on used words in the'90s. Like The Jesus and Mary Chain, "Jesus Built My Hotrod", the Jesus Lizard, their debut five-track extended Eight Step Rail, was released in August 1996 on Aloha Records. Eight Step Rail reached the ARIA Singles Chart Top 50 in February 1997, its feature track, "Shut My Eyes", received high rotation on national youth alternative music radio station, Triple J – it was listed at No. 81 on the station's Hottest 100 for 1996. AllMusic's Jonathan Lewis described how "their wall of guitar noise made them an overnight success on Australian radio. Sounding like a cross between Liz Phair and Catatonia's Cerys Matthews, McLeod's voice was a major drawcard. Jasper Cooper of Oz Music Project felt that on the EP, "Musically, the band inherited much from contemporaries such as the Smashing Pumpkins, but McLeod's appeal at the band's fore, lent The Superjesus their own niche and stature.
The single track'Shut My Eyes' was the band's tour de force, something, still unmatched in their latter albums."They followed with a tour of Australia's east coast supported shows by Clouds, Hoodoo Gurus and United Kingdom band, Bush. As songwriters, Tennent composed the music and McLeod supplied the lyrics – the pair had developed a personal relationship. In January 1997 the Superjesus appeared at the Big Day Out and, in April, they travelled to Triclops Sound Studios, Atlanta to record their debut album, with Matt Serletic producing and Jeff Tomei as audio engineer. At the ARIA Music Awards of 1997 they won Best New Talent for Eight Step Rail and Breakthrough Artist – Single for "Shut My Eyes". McLeod and Tennent's personal relationship had ended and late that year. Aaron Tokona filled in on guitar. Tokona remained with Weta. With Tennent back on board they released Sumo in February 1998 through EastWest/Warner Music Australasia, which peaked at No. 2 on the ARIA Albums Chart and was certified platinum by ARIA for shipment of 70,000 copies.
Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, described it as "a big sounding album backed by a generous budget." Its local success led to a United States version – with an altered track listing – being issued in June. Lewis felt that they "show that guitar rock with McLeod's vocals soaring over the top is their strength, it is their weakness, with Sumo containing too little variation in style." An extended version titled Sumo II, including a bonus seven-track enhanced CD of live performances, was released in October. At the ARIA Music Awards of 1998 Sumo had them nominated for Best Group, Breakthrough Artist – Album and Best Cover Art. In January 1999 they appeared at the Big Day Out and took a few months off. Chris Tennent left the Superjesus permanently in mid-1999; the group relocated to Melbourne in November. Henwood and McLeod became the principal songwriters; the band released their second album, Jet Age, in October 2000, produced by Ed Buller and peaked at No. 5. Louise Buckingham of femail.com.au noticed that the group's "rock engine is winding up and are fuelled to commence take-off down the runway of Australian rock music.
With the recent release of blazing new album Jet Age and with the hit-single "Gravity" now a friend to the radio waves, The Superjesus have proved they are keen to move into a new musical era." Amazon.com's editorial reviewer declared that it was an "intelligent, sophisticated" release. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2001, Jet Age was nominated for Best Cover Art. Henwood left in mid-2001 and formed The Androids. McLeod considered disbanding the Superjesus but took up lead guitar whi
Christopher John Cheney is an Australian rock musician, record producer and studio owner. He is the founding mainstay guitarist and lead vocalist of the psychobilly band, The Living End, formed in 1994 with school mate Scott Owen. Cheney wrote the group's top 20 hits on the ARIA Singles Chart: "Second Solution" / "Prisoner of Society", "All Torn Down", "Pictures in the Mirror", "Roll On", "One Said to the Other", "What's on Your Radio", "Wake Up" and "White Noise". In 2004 Cheney joined the super group The Wrights which put out a cover version of Stevie Wright's epic 11-minute track, "Evie" as a single. At the APRA Awards of 2009 Cheney won'Song of the Year' for writing The Living End's track, "White Noise". In 2005 he married Emma, the couple have two daughters and are co-owners of a recording facility, Red Door Studios. In 2011 the Cheney family relocated to Los Angeles. Christopher John Cheney was born on 2 January 1975 and grew up in Wheelers Hill, an outer-eastern suburb of Melbourne, his father is Noel Cheney.
At the age of five years he saw his first rock performance at VFL Park, close to his home – it was a gig by United States stadium rockers, Kiss. He attended Jells Park Primary School in between 1981 and 1987 and Wheelers Hill Secondary College, he studied Jazz at Box Hill Institute of TAFE between 1994 and 1995. Cheney started playing guitar at the age of six he taught himself how to play by listening to AC/DC cassette tapes over and over and practising what he heard, his major influence was a guitarist, singer-songwriter. On 22 September 2001, Cheney was injured in a car crash where his right leg was crushed and required a rod and three pins, he was confined to bed and used a walking stick for the next six months. He was unable to play the guitar, his future wife, was inside the vehicle but escaped with minor injuries. Cheney married Emma in 2005, they have two daughters: Scarlett Lyric. In October 2010 Chris and Emma, along with his manager Rae Harvey and her partner Woody Annison, opened their own recording studio, Red Door Studios.
On 25 April 2011 his father, died having been diagnosed with cancer the previous year. Late that year the Cheneys moved to live in Los Angeles, "Both our littlies are in school here... It's everyday life. You get up, mad rush in the morning, school drop-off, I come home, write a few songs, bum around and it's school pick-up again. It's life as we knew it, just in a different country". Chris Cheney met Scott Owen at Jells Park Primary School and they began their career together in 1992, in a Melbourne band, The Runaway Boys, who took their name from a Stray Cats album, Runaway Boys – which Cheney cites as one of his favourites; the group was a covers band playing The Clash material. In 1992 the group's first paying gig was at the Richmond Club Hotel and they soon followed with a residency at the nearby Corner Hotel; the Runaway Boys had a succession of drummers, "The first two guys and Grant, were at high school with us and they were never into 1950s rock'n'roll. We were a bit pushy at that point.
Grant was happy to play along, but when high school finished he was ready to move on and go to university". Cheney gigged on guitar in another band, Goodbye Sideburns Forever, though he was not recorded with them. Chris Cheney and Owen, on piano and double bass, were in The Runaway Boys. In 1994, the pair started to write their own material and were joined by Joe Piripitzi on drums to form The Living End, they released two successive extended plays, Hellbound and It's for Your Own Good, which contained their first radio single, "From Here on In". The track is co-written by Owen. In 1996 while Green Day were touring Australia, The Living End sent their second EP to the band, supported them on their tour, which led to radio station, Triple J, playing their first single. Late that year Piripitzi was replaced on drums by Travis Demsey. In September 1997 The Living End issued a third EP, Second Solution / Prisoner of Society, with four of its five tracks written by Cheney; the EP peaked at No. 4 on the ARIA Singles Chart.
It became the highest selling Australian-made'single' for the 1990s. On 12 October 1998, they released their debut self-titled album, which reached No. 1 on the ARIA Albums Chart. It included the singles "Save the Day", "Prisoner of Society" and "All Torn Down", they have since received recognition abroad, playing tours and festivals such as the Warped Tour in the United States and Reading and Leeds Festivals in the United Kingdom. Cheney wrote the group's other top 20 hits "Pictures in the Mirror", "Roll On", "One Said to the Other", "What's on Your Radio" and "Wake Up". On 7 October 2006 Cheney told fellow members of The Living End, he "found himself going through a personal and creative crisis... For the first time he was now experiencing writer's block"; however the crisis passed and Cheney started writing again. In February 2008, under the pseudonym Longnecks, the group trialled the new tracks. In July The Living End issued another top 20 single, "White Noise"; the related album of the same name followed that month.
On 22 July 2011 they released their sixth studio album, The Ending Is Just the Beginning Repeating, which reached No. 3. In 2003, Chris Cheney performed alongside Australian rock veterans You Am I at the Big Day Out in Melbourne, they performed a track by The Clash as a tribute to Joe Strummer. In October 2004 Cheney joined the super group The Wrights which performed a cover
The ARIA Charts are the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The charts are a record of the highest selling albums in various genres in Australia. ARIA became the official Australian music chart in June 1988, succeeding the Kent Music Report, Australia's national charts since 1974; the Go-Set charts were Australia's first national singles and albums charts published from 5 October 1966 until 24 August 1974. Succeeding Go-Set, the Kent Music Report began issuing the national top 100 charts in Australia from May 1974; the compiler, David Kent published Australia's national charts from 1940–1974 in a retrospective fashion using state based data. In mid 1983, the Australian Recording Industry Association commenced licensing the Kent Music Report chart; the first printed national top 50 chart available in record stores, branded the Countdown chart, was dated the week ending 10 July 1983. ARIA began compiling its own charts in-house from the chart survey dated 13 June 1988, corresponding with the printed top 50 chart dated week ending 26 June 1988.
Various artists compilation albums were included in the albums chart, as they had been on the Kent Report chart, until 2 July 1989, when a separate Compilations chart was created. The ARIA Report, detailing the top 100 singles and albums charts, was first available via subscription in January 1990; the printed top 50 chart ceased publication in June 1998, but resumed publication in the year. The printed top 50 chart again ceased publication at the end of 2000; the ARIA charts are based on data collected from digital retailers in Australia. Data of physical sales come from retailers such as Sanity and JB Hi-Fi, while data of digital sales come from online retailers such as iTunes. Since 17 February 1997, all physical sales data contributing towards the chart has been recorded electronically at point of sale. In March 1991, "Do the Bartman" by The Simpsons was the first single to reach #1 in Australia, not available on 7 inch vinyl, but cassingle only. Starting from 8 October 2006, due to low physical single sales at the time, the ARIA singles chart included online data as well as physical sales.
In 2006, it was announced that the Brazin retailing group, comprising major retailers HMV, Sanity and Virgin music/DVD stores would no longer contribute sales data to the ARIA charts. However, after a five-month absence, Brazin re-commenced contributing sales figures to the ARIA Charts on 26 November 2006; the ARIA website publishes the top 50 singles and albums charts, top 40 digital tracks chart, top 20 dance singles chart. The ARIA Report is available via paid e-mail subscription each week; these reports are uploaded to the Pandora Archive periodically. On 5 February 2006, the ARIA Chart Show was a radio program launched on the Nova network and broadcast throughout Australia, playing the official ARIA top 50 singles; the live music program was hosted by Jabba each Sunday afternoon at 3:00pm. From 1 June 2013 to 3 September 2016, the Take 40 Australia radio program broadcast the official ARIA top 40 singles on Saturday afternoons from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm, on each state's Hit Network-owned radio station.
The show was aired before the top 50 chart, dated for the following Monday, is published on the ARIA website at 6:00 pm. The charts were published online at 6:00 pm each Sunday. ARIA Top 100 Singles Chart ARIA Top 100 Albums Chart ARIA Top 100 Physical Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Streaming Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Club Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Catalogue Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Singles Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Country Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Music DVDs Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Singles Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Compilation Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Jazz & Blues Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Classical/Crossover Albums Chart ARIA Top 10 Core Classical Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Albums Chart Yearly Top 100 End of Year charts profiling the year in music End of Decade Top 100 charts profiling the decade in music Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2006 to present: Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2016 to present: Music of Australia List of Australian chart achievements and milestones Official website Top 50 chart archives from June 1988 at australian-charts.com Top 100 chart archives from January 2001 at Pandora Archive
Gothic rock is a style of post-punk that emerged from post-punk in the late 1970s. The first post-punk bands which shifted towards dark music with gothic overtones include Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division and the Cure; the genre itself was defined as a separate movement from post-punk due to its darker music accompanied by introspective and romantic lyrics. Gothic rock gave rise to a broader subculture that included clubs and publications in the 1980s. According to music journalist Simon Reynolds, standard musical fixtures of gothic rock include "scything guitar patterns, high-pitched basslines that usurped the melodic role beats that were either hypnotically dirgelike or tom-tom heavy and'tribal'". Reynolds described the vocal style as consisting of "deep, droning alloys of Jim Morrison and Leonard Cohen". Several acts used drum machines downplaying the rhythm's backbeat. Gothic rock deals with dark themes addressed through lyrics and the music's atmosphere; the poetic sensibilities of the genre led gothic rock lyrics to exhibit literary romanticism, existentialism, religious symbolism or supernatural mysticism.
Musicians who shaped the aesthetics and musical conventions of gothic rock include Marc Bolan, the Velvet Underground, the Doors, David Bowie, Brian Eno, Iggy Pop and the Sex Pistols. Journalist Kurt Loder would write that the song "All Tomorrow's Parties" by the Velvet Underground is a "mesmerizing gothic-rock masterpiece". However, Reynolds considers Alice Cooper as "the true ungodly godfather of goth" due to his "theatrics and black humor". Nico's 1969 album The Marble Index is sometimes described as "the first Goth album". With its stark sound, somber lyrics, Nico's deliberate change in her look, the album became a crucial music and visual prototype for the gothic rock movement. Gothic rock creates a dark atmosphere by drawing influence from the drones used by protopunk group the Velvet Underground, many goth singers are influenced by the "deep and dramatic" vocal timbre of David Bowie, albeit singing at lower pitches. J. G. Ballard was a strong lyrical influence for many of the early gothic rock groups.
In 1976, Interview with the Vampire by Anne Rice was published. The main character, although dark, wanted love; the book, according to music journalist Dave Thompson created an audience for gothic rock by word of mouth. The same year saw the punk rock band the Damned debut; the group's vocalist, Dave Vanian, was a former gravedigger. Brian James, a guitarist for the group, noted, "Other groups had safety pins and the spitting and bondage trousers, but you went to a Damned show, half the local cemetery would be propped up against the stage". Critic John Stickney used the term "gothic rock" to describe the music of the Doors in October 1967, in a review published in The Williams Record. Stickney wrote that the band met the journalists "in the gloomy vaulted wine cellar of the Delmonico hotel, the perfect room to honor the gothic rock of the Doors"; the author noted that contrary to the "pleasant, amusing hippies", there was "violence" in their music and a dark atmosphere on stage during their concerts.
In the late 1970s, the word "gothic" was used to describe the atmosphere of post-punk bands like Siouxsie and the Banshees and Joy Division. In a live review about a Siouxsie and the Banshees' concert in July 1978, critic Nick Kent wrote that concerning their performance, "parallels and comparisons can now be drawn with gothic rock architects like the Doors and early Velvet Underground". In March 1979, Kent used the gothic adjective in his review of Magazine's second album, Secondhand Daylight. Kent noted that there was "a new austere sense of authority" to their music, with a "dank neo-Gothic sound". In September, Joy Division's manager Tony Wilson described their music as "gothic" on the television show Something Else, their producer Martin Hannett described their style as "dancing music with gothic overtones" In 1980, Melody Maker wrote that "Joy Division are masters of this gothic gloom"; when their final album Closer came out a couple of months after the death of their singer, Sounds noted in its review that there were "dark strokes of gothic rock".
Not long after, this appellation "became a critical term of abuse" for a band like Bauhaus, who had arrived on the music scene in 1979. At the time, NME considered that "Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Ants and by Joy Division" opened up "a massive market" for newcomers like Bauhaus and Killing Joke: however, critic Andy Gill separated these two groups of bands, pointing out that there was a difference "between art and artifice"; the second Siouxsie and the Banshees album, released in 1979, was a precursor in several aspects. For journalist Alexis Petridis of The Guardian, "A lot of musical signifiers – scything, effects-laden guitar, pounding tribal drums – are audible, on Join Hands". However, Bauhaus's debut single, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", released in late 1979, was retrospectively considered to be the beginning of the gothic rock genre. According to Peter Murphy, the song was written to be tongue-in-cheek, but since the group performed it with "naive seriousness", how the audience understood it.
In the early 1980s, post-punk bands such as Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Cure included more gothic characteristics in their music. According to Reynolds, with their fourth album, 1981's Juju, the Banshees introduced several gothic qualities and sonically, whereas according to The Guardian, Juju was art rock on certain album tracks and pop on the singles, their bassist, Steven Severin, attributed the aesthetic u
Private School Kid
"Private School Kid" is an alternative rock song performed by Australian Sarah McLeod featuring Chris Cheney from The Living End. The song was released in July 2005 as the second single from McLeod's debut studio album, Beauty Was a Tiger; the song peaked at number 33 on the Australian ARIA Singles Chart. CD Single "Private School Kid" "Demolition Waltz" "Private School Kid" "Let's Get Together