Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps; the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping, it is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes. A day hike refers to a hike. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking.
In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell is the common word for both features there. Hiking is sometimes referred to as such; this refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway; the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are walking or bushwalking. Trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America and the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places. In North America, multi-day hikes with camping, are referred to as backpacking; the idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronized by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity; however the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers, who felt that it did not
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a U. S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering and construction management agencies. Although associated with dams and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world; the Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, provides 24% of U. S. hydropower capacity. The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital military engineering services. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment, dredging for waterway navigation. Design and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve and other Defense and Federal agencies. Environmental regulation and ecosystem restoration.
The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer. One of his first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill; the Continental Congress recognized the need for engineers trained in military fortifications and asked the government of King Louis XVI of France for assistance. Many of the early engineers in the Continental Army were former French officers. Louis Lebègue Duportail, a lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers, was secretly sent to America in March 1777 to serve in Washington's Continental Army. In July 1777 he was appointed colonel and commander of all engineers in the Continental Army, in November 17, 1777, he was promoted to brigadier general; when the Continental Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers in May 1779 Duportail was designated as its commander.
In late 1781 he directed the construction of the allied U. S.-French siege works at the Battle of Yorktown. From 1794 to 1802 the engineers were combined with the artillery as the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers; the Corps of Engineers, as it is known today, came into existence on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act whose aim was to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers... that the said Corps... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a military academy." Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer. The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey canal routes; that same year, Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and to remove sand bars on the Ohio and "planters, sawyers, or snags" on the Mississippi, for which the Corps of Engineers was the responsible agency.
Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes, it was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey; the survey, based in Detroit, Mich. was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids. The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852. In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U. S. Naval officers; the Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War.
Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard; the versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, the construction of roads; the Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war, on 6 March 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was included that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers. The progression of the war demonstrated the South's disadvantage in engineering expertise. To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field. One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry.
One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the Union Army was in the ability to build fortification
Eureka Springs, Arkansas
Eureka Springs is a city in Carroll County, United States, one of two county seats for the county. It is located in the Ozarks of northwest Arkansas; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 2,073. The entire city is on the National Register of Historic Places as the Eureka Springs Historic District. Eureka Springs has been selected as one of America's Distinctive Destinations by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Eureka Springs was called "The Magic City" and the "Stairstep Town" because of its mountainous terrain and the winding, up-and-down paths of its streets and walkways, it is a tourist destination for its unique character as a Victorian resort village. The city has steep winding streets filled with Victorian-style manors; the historic commercial downtown of the city has an extensive streetscape of well-preserved Victorian buildings. The buildings are constructed of local stone, built along streets that curve around the hills and rise and fall with the topography in a five-mile long loop.
Some buildings have street-level entrances on more than one floor. The streets wind around the town, no two intersect at a 90 degree angle. Native American legends tell of a Great Healing Spring in the Eureka Springs area. People of various indigenous cultures long visited the springs for this sacred purpose; the European Americans believed that the springs had healing powers. After the Europeans arrived, they described the waters of the springs as having magical powers. Dr. Alvah Jackson was credited in American history with locating the spring, in 1856 claimed that the waters of Basin Spring had cured his eye ailments. Dr. Jackson established a hospital in a local cave during the Civil War and used the waters from Basin Spring to treat his patients. After the war, Jackson marketed the spring waters as "Dr. Jackson's Eye Water". In 1879 Judge J. B. Saunders, a friend of Jackson, claimed. Saunders started promoting Eureka Springs to friends and family members across the state and created a boomtown.
Within a period of little more than one year, the city expanded from a rural spa village to a major city. Within a short time in the late 19th century, Eureka Springs developed as a flourishing city and tourist destination. On February 14, 1880, Eureka Springs was incorporated as a city. Thousands of visitors came to the springs based on Saunders' promotion and covered the area with tents and shanties. In 1881, Eureka Springs enjoyed the status of Arkansas's fourth largest city, by 1889 it had become the second largest city, behind Little Rock. After his term as a Reconstruction governor, Powell Clayton moved to the Unionist Eureka Springs and began promoting the city and its commercial interests. Clayton promoted the town as a retirement community for the wealthy. Eureka Springs soon became known for a wealthy lifestyle. In 1882, the Eureka Improvement Company was formed to attract a railroad to the city. With the completion of the railroad, Eureka Springs established itself as a vacation resort.
In only two years, thousands of homes and commercial enterprises were constructed. The Crescent Hotel was built in 1886 and the Basin Park Hotel in 1905; these many Victorian buildings have been well preserved, forming a coherent street scape, recognized for its quality. In 1892, the New Orleans Hotel and Spa was built along Spring Street and is now operating as an all-suite hotel full of Victorian furniture and art; the Ozarka Water Company was formed in Eureka Springs in 1905. Carrie Nation moved there towards the end of her life; the building was operated as a museum, but is now closed. The only bank robbery to occur in Eureka Springs was on September 27, 1922, when five outlaws from Oklahoma tried to rob the First National Bank. Three of the men were killed and the other two wounded. Opera in the Ozarks at Inspiration Point was founded in 1950; the organization continues to present an annual summer opera festival in Eureka Springs. In 1967, the famous 7-story Christ of the Ozarks Statue was built.
A year The Great Passion Play was begun as an outdoor performance piece. It is performed from May through October by a cast of 170 actors and dozens of live animals, it has been seen by an estimated 7.7 million people, which makes it the largest-attended outdoor drama in the United States, according to the Institute of Outdoor Theatre of the University of East Carolina at Greenville, North Carolina. Christian-themed attractions have been added in association with the drama production; these include a New Holy Land Tour, featuring a full-scale re-creation of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness. Architect E. Fay Jones designed Thorncrown Chapel in 1980, it was selected for the "Twenty-five Year Award" by the American Institute of Architects in 2006; the award recognizes structures. The chapel was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000 because of the special nature and quality of its architecture. On May 10, 2014, Eureka Springs became the first city in Arkansas to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples.
On May 12, 2015, Eureka Springs passed a Non-Discrimination Ordinance, with voters choosing 579 for to 261 against. It became the first city in Arkansas to have such a law to cover LGBT tourists, but a state law intended to invalidate the anti-discrimination ordinance went into effect July 22
A fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish, determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features"; the definition includes a combination of fish and fishers in a region, the latter fishing for similar species with similar gear types. A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish aquaculture. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture. Overfishing, including the taking of fish beyond sustainable levels, is reducing fish stocks and employment in many world regions. A report by Prince Charles' International Sustainability Unit, the New York-based Environmental Defence Fund and 50in10 published in July 2014 estimated global fisheries were adding $270 billion a year to global GDP, but by full implementation of sustainable fishing, that figure could rise by as much as $50 billion.
In biology – the term fish is most used to describe any animal with a backbone that has gills throughout life and has limbs, if any, in the shape of fins. Many types of aquatic animals referred to as fish are not fish in this strict sense. In earlier times biologists did not make a distinction—sixteenth century natural historians classified seals, amphibians, crocodiles hippopotamuses, as well as a host of marine invertebrates, as fish. In fisheries – the term fish is used as a collective term, includes mollusks and any aquatic animal, harvested. True fish – The strict biological definition of a fish, above, is sometimes called a true fish. True fish are referred to as finfish or fin fish to distinguish them from other aquatic life harvested in fisheries or aquaculture. Fisheries are harvested for their value, they can be freshwater, wild or farmed. Examples are the salmon fishery of Alaska, the cod fishery off the Lofoten islands, the tuna fishery of the Eastern Pacific, or the shrimp farm fisheries in China.
Capture fisheries can be broadly classified as industrial scale, small-scale or artisanal, recreational. Close to 90 % of the world's fishery catches come from seas, as opposed to inland waters; these marine catches have remained stable since the mid-nineties. Most marine fisheries are based near the coast; this is not only because harvesting from shallow waters is easier than in the open ocean, but because fish are much more abundant near the coastal shelf, due to the abundance of nutrients available there from coastal upwelling and land runoff. However, productive wild fisheries exist in open oceans by seamounts, inland in lakes and rivers. Most fisheries are wild fisheries. Farming can occur in coastal areas, such as with oyster farms, but more occur inland, in lakes, ponds and other enclosures. There are species fisheries worldwide for finfish, mollusks and echinoderms, by extension, aquatic plants such as kelp. However, a small number of species support the majority of the world's fisheries.
Some of these species are herring, anchovy, flounder, squid, salmon, lobster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a harvest of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species are harvested in smaller numbers. Cullis-Suzuki S and Pauly D "Failing the high seas: A global evaluation of regional fisheries management organizations" Marine Policy, 34 pp 1036–1042. FAO: Types of fisheries Hart PJB and Reynolds JD Handbook of fish biology and fisheries Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-632-05412-1 Fisheries at Curlie FAO Fisheries Department and its SOFIA report The Fishery Resources Monitoring System The International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food Webs, Future Options, U. S. National Academy of Sciences UNEP/GEF South China Sea Project and its Fisheries Refugia Portal and National Reports on Fish Stocks and Habitats in the South China Sea World Fisheries Day: Seafood for Thought and World Fisheries from Sea to Table slideshow on the Smithsonian Ocean Portal Hawes, J. W..
"Fisheries". The American Cyclopædia. "Fisheries". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Fisheries Wiki A detailed online encyclopaedia providing current and quantitative information on marine fisheries worldwide
Monte Ne is an area in the Ozark hills of the White River valley east of Rogers, on the edge of Beaver Lake, in the US state of Arkansas. From 1901 until the mid-1930s the area was ambitious planned community, it was owned and operated by William Hope Harvey, a financial theorist and one-time U. S. Presidential nominee. Two of its hotels, "Missouri Row" and "Oklahoma Row", were the largest log buildings in the world. Oklahoma Row's "tower section"; the tower is the only structure of Monte Ne still standing. Monte Ne introduced the first indoor swimming pool in Arkansas, was the site of the only presidential convention held in the state; the Monte Ne resort was not a financial success, due in part to Harvey's failure to adequately manage the resort's funds. All ventures associated with Harvey's original Monte Ne concept either were never completed or experienced bankruptcy, shortly after his death in 1936, the property was sold off in lots; the remainder of the resort and town was completely submerged after Beaver Lake was created in 1964.
All that remains today are foundations and one vandalized structure. The area on the edge of Beaver Lake, still referred to as Monte Ne is owned and managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and serves as a boat ramp; the area that would become Monte Ne was known to have had two establishments considered essential to a pioneer settlement, a grist mill and a distillery. It is unknown, it was owned in the 1830s by his brother-in-law. The distillery's output each day was given as thirty gallons by the Federal whiskey gauger who resided in the area; the grist mill was built in 1856, was owned by J. R. Pettigrew, it would be owned by James Wyeth and Amelia Crowder Blake, the parents of Betty Blake, referred to as the "Leading Lady" of Rogers, who married entertainer Will Rogers in 1908. In 1875, the post office in the area changed its name from Mountain Springs to Pettigrew's Mill; the Blakes owned the mill until 1882. The mill was operated by David Portnell from 1889 to 1895, he sold his interest in the mill to a retired Congregational minister J.
G. Bailey. Bailey became postmaster, he petitioned the Post Office Department to change the name of the office to Vinola, in honor of a well-known vineyard that belonged to his neighbor Carl A. Starek; the letter was written in longhand, the o and l were spaced too close together. As a result, the clerk misread the name as "Vinda", how it was recorded; the area's name was changed to Silver Springs. Bailey sold 325 acres of a cabin to Harvey. Monte Ne was conceived and funded by William "Coin" Hope Harvey, a well-known businessman, politician and author during the 1890s. Although Harvey was financially successful at silver mining in Colorado, Monte Ne seems to have been funded by the sales of Harvey's writings which dealt with the subject of free silver, his most popular pamphlet, entitled Coin's Financial School, was published in 1893. Sales were buoyed by Harvey's involvement in the 1896 presidential campaign of William Jennings Bryan, it sold two million copies. Though Bryan lost his bid for President, Harvey had become so important to the campaign that he was made chairman of the Democratic Ways & Means Committee to collect money for the 1900 campaign.
However, as a result of an argument before the campaign, he resigned. After Bryan lost his bid for President, Harvey retreated to the Ozark mountains of Northwest Arkansas. In October 1900 he purchased 320 acres of land in Silver Springs from Reverend Bailey. From that time on he lived in Arkansas, claimed that he preferred the state because it had no large cities or wealthy people. Leaving his family behind in Chicago, Harvey moved into Reverend Bailey's run-down log house. Harvey's son Tom joined him shortly thereafter to help prepare the house for the rest of the family, they were joined by Harvey's wife Anna and their children and Hal. The house burned down a few months after they took up residence, all of the family's possessions, including Harvey's large library, were lost. Harvey carried no insurance on the house, after its destruction Anna went back to Chicago, returning to Arkansas only a few times thereafter for brief visits. Harvey's land purchase in Silver Springs coincided with a desire by the local postmaster to change the name of the area, because it was confused with Siloam Springs, Arkansas.
Harvey chose the name Monte Ne, which combined the Spanish and Omaha Indian words for mountain water, because it "fit the tongue attractively". Harvey was familiar with European health spas, wanted to turn Monte Ne into a "watering hole" in the Ozarks, he first commissioned the dredging of a canal, Silver Springs Creek was narrowed between Big Spring and Elixir Spring, which created Big Spring Lake. The Creek was channeled to form what Harvey referred to as "the lagoon". Limestone retaining walls were built along the banks of the creeks and the lake, along boardwalks and park areas. Monte Ne became a popular spot for pleasure boating and other outdoor activities. Many people noted; the Rogers Democrat said that it looked "like pure alcohol". In December 1900, with US$52,000 of individual investors' money and $48,000 of his own, Harvey formed the Monte Ne Investment Company, which held the deeds to all of the land; the first hotel completed was the Hotel Monte Ne in April 1901. It was three stories high and ha
Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters. Flood relief methods are used to reduce the effects of high water levels. Floods are caused by many factors or a combination of any of these prolonged heavy rainfall accelerated snowmelt, severe winds over water, unusual high tides, tsunamis, or failure of dams, retention ponds, or other structures that retained the water. Flooding can be exacerbated by increased amounts of impervious surface or by other natural hazards such as wildfires, which reduce the supply of vegetation that can absorb rainfall. Periodic floods occur on many rivers. During times of rain, some of the water is retained in ponds or soil, some is absorbed by grass and vegetation, some evaporates, the rest travels over the land as surface runoff. Floods occur when ponds, riverbeds and vegetation cannot absorb all the water. Water runs off the land in quantities that cannot be carried within stream channels or retained in natural ponds and man-made reservoirs.
About 30 percent of all precipitation becomes runoff and that amount might be increased by water from melting snow. River flooding is caused by heavy rain, sometimes increased by melting snow. A flood that rises with little or no warning, is called a flash flood. Flash floods result from intense rainfall over a small area, or if the area was saturated from previous precipitation; when rainfall is light, the shorelines of lakes and bays can be flooded by severe winds—such as during hurricanes—that blow water into the shore areas. Coastal areas are sometimes flooded by unusually high tides, such as spring tides when compounded by high winds and storm surges. Flooding has many impacts, it endangers the lives of humans and other species. Rapid water runoff causes soil erosion and concomitant sediment deposition elsewhere; the spawning grounds for fish and other wildlife habitats can become polluted or destroyed. Some prolonged high floods can delay traffic in areas. Floods can interfere with drainage and economical use such as interfering with farming.
Structural damage can occur in bridge abutments, bank lines, sewer lines, other structures within floodways. Waterway navigation and hydroelectric power are impaired. Financial losses due to floods are millions of dollars each year, with the worst floods in recent U. S. history having cost billions of dollars. There are many disruptive effects of flooding on economic activities. However, flooding can bring benefits, such as making soil more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. Periodic flooding was essential to the well-being of ancient communities along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, the Nile River, the Indus River, the Ganges and the Yellow River, among others; the viability for hydrologically based renewable sources of energy is higher in flood-prone regions. This is the method used for remote sensing the disasters. Detection of disasters such as floods and explosions are quite complex in previous days and range of detection is inappropriate. But, it came to possibilities by using Multi temporal visualization of Synthetic Aperture Radar images.
But to obtain the good SAR images perfect spatial registration and precise calibration are necessary to specify changes that have occurred. Calibration of SAR is complex and a sensitive problem. Errors may occur after calibration that involves data fusion and visualization process. Traditional image pre-processing cannot be used here due to the on-Gaussian of radar back scattering, but a processing method called "cross calibration/normalization" is used to solve this problem; the application generates a single disaster image called "fast-ready disaster map" from multitemporal SAR images. These maps are generated without user interaction and helps in providing immediate first aid to the people; this process provides image enhancement and comparison between numerous images using data fusion and visualization process. This proposed processing includes histogram truncation and equalization steps; the process helps in identifying the permanent waters and other classes by combined composition of pre-disaster and post-disaster images into a color image for better identity.
Some methods of flood control have been practiced since ancient times. These methods include planting vegetation to retain extra water, terracing hillsides to slow flow downhill, the construction of floodways. Other techniques include the construction of levees, dams, retention ponds to hold extra water during times of flooding. Many dams and their associated reservoirs are designed or to aid in flood protection and control. Many large dams have flood-control reservations in which the level of a reservoir must be kept below a certain elevation before the onset of the rainy/summer melt season to allow a certain amount of space in which floodwaters can fill. Other beneficial uses of dam created reservoirs include hydroelectric power generation, water conservation, recreation. Reservoir and dam construction and design is based upon standards set out by the government. In the United States and reservoir design is regulated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Design of a dam and reservoir follows guidelines set by the USACE and covers topics such as design flow rates in consideration to meteorological, topographic and soi
Benton County, Arkansas
Benton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 221,339, making it the second-most populous county in Arkansas; the county seat is Bentonville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836 and was named after Thomas Hart Benton, a U. S. Senator from Missouri. In 2012, Benton County voters elected to make the county wet, or a non-alcohol prohibition location. Benton County is part of the Northwest Arkansas region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 884 square miles, of which 847 square miles is land and 37 square miles is water. Most of the water is in Beaver Lake. Barry County, Missouri Carroll County Madison County Washington County Adair County, Oklahoma Delaware County, Oklahoma McDonald County, Missouri Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge Ozark National Forest Pea Ridge National Military Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 153,406 people, 58,212 households, 43,484 families residing in the county.
The population density was 181 people per square mile. There were 64,281 housing units at an average density of 76 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.87% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 1.65% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 4.08% from other races, 1.82% from two or more races. 8.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of 2005 Benton County's population was 81.7% non-Hispanic white, while the percentage of Latinos grew by 60 percent in the time period. Latinos are attracted to the growth of light industrial jobs, home construction and service sector in the county. 1.1% of the population was African-American. 1.6% reported two or more races not black-white due to a minuscule African-American population. And 12.8% was Latino, but the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce believed the official estimate is underreported and Latinos could well be 20 percent of the population. There were 58,212 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.00% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families.
21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,281, the median income for a family was $45,235. Males had a median income of $30,327 versus $22,469 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,377. About 7.30% of families and 10.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 221,339; the racial makeup of the county was 76.18% Non-Hispanic white, 1.27% Black or African American, 1.69% Native American, 2.85% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander.
15.49 % of the population was Latino. Politically, Benton County is arguably one of the most Republican-Leaning Counties in Arkansas. Benton County has not voted Democrat in a Presidential election since 1948 when a former senator from bordering Missouri, Harry S. Truman won Benton County along with winning Arkansas as a whole. Walmart corporate headquarters is located in Bentonville. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, is headquartered in Rogers. JB Hunt Transport Services corporate headquarters is located in Lowell. Tyson Foods, based in nearby Springdale, has a distribution center located in Rogers; the historic Trail of Tears is on US highways 62 and 71 and connects with U. S. Route 412 in nearby Washington County. Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is located near Highfill. Rogers Municipal Airport serves surrounding communities; the Arkansas and Missouri Railroad parallels US Highways 71 in the county. Like all of the conservative Bible Belt of the Ozarks and Ouachitas, Benton County is Republican.
It voted Republican in 1928 and 1944, the last Democratic presidential nominee to carry the county was Harry S. Truman in 1948, along with nearby Sebastian County it was one of the few counties in Arkansas to resist the appeal of southern “favorite sons” George Wallace, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Avoca Garfield Gateway Highfill Springtown Cherokee City Hiwasse Lost Bridge Village Maysville Prairie Creek Note: Most Arkansas counties have names for their townships. Benton County, has numbers instead of names. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town o