New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Group of Seven (artists)
The Group of Seven sometimes known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933 consisting of Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Frank Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, Frederick Varley. A. J. Casson was invited to join in 1926, Edwin Holgate became a member in 1930, LeMoine FitzGerald joined in 1932. Two artists associated with the group are Tom Thomson and Emily Carr. Although he died before its official formation, Thomson had a significant influence on the group. In his essay "The Story of the Group of Seven", Harris wrote that Thomson was "a part of the movement before we pinned a label on it". Emily Carr was closely associated with the Group of Seven, though never an official member. Believing that a distinct Canadian art could be developed through direct contact with nature, the Group of Seven is best known for its paintings inspired by the Canadian landscape, initiated the first major Canadian national art movement; the Group was succeeded by the Canadian Group of Painters in 1933, which included members from the Beaver Hall Group who had a history of showing with the Group of Seven internationally.
Large collections of work from the Group of Seven can be found at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto, the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa as well as the Ottawa Art Gallery and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinburg, Ontario. The National Gallery, under the directorship of Eric Brown, was an early institutional supporter of artists associated with the Group, purchasing art from some of their early exhibitions before they had identified themselves as the Group of Seven; the Art Gallery of Ontario, in its earlier incarnation as the Art Gallery of Toronto, was the site of their first exhibition as the Group of Seven. The McMichael gallery was founded by Robert and Signe McMichael, who began collecting paintings by the Group of Seven and their contemporaries in 1955. Tom Thomson, J. E. H. MacDonald, Arthur Lismer, Frederick Varley, Frank Johnston and Franklin Carmichael met as employees of the design firm Grip Ltd. in Toronto. In 1913, they were joined by A. Y. Lawren Harris.
They met at the Arts and Letters Club of Toronto to discuss their opinions and share their art. This group received monetary support from Dr. James MacCallum. Harris and MacCallum jointly built the Studio Building in 1914 in the Rosedale ravine to serve as a meeting and working place for the new Canadian art movement. MacCallum owned land on Georgian Bay and Thomson worked as a guide in nearby Algonquin Park, both places where he and the other artists travelled for inspiration; the informal group was temporarily split up during World War I, during which Jackson and Varley became official war artists. Jackson enlisted in June 1915 and served in France from November 1915 to 1917, at which point he was injured. Harris taught musketry at Camp Borden, he was discharged in May 1918 after suffering a nervous breakdown. Carmichael, MacDonald, Thomson and Johnston remained in Toronto and struggled in the depressed wartime economy. A further blow to the group came in 1917, he showed no signs of drowning. The circumstances of his death remain mysterious.
The seven who formed the original group reunited after the war. They continued to travel throughout Ontario the Muskoka and Algoma regions, sketching the landscape and developing techniques to represent it in art. In 1919, they decided to make themselves into a group devoted to a distinct Canadian form of art which didn't exist yet, began to call themselves the Group of Seven, it is unknown who chose these seven men, but it is believed to have been Harris. By 1920, they were ready for their first exhibition thanks to the constant support and encouragement of Eric Brown, the director of the National Gallery at that time. Prior to this, many artists believed. Reviews for the 1920 exhibition were mixed, but as the decade progressed the Group came to be recognized as pioneers of a new, school of art. After Frank Johnston left the group in 1920 to move to Winnipeg, A. J. Casson was invited to join in 1926. Franklin Carmichael had taken a liking to him and had encouraged Casson to sketch and paint for many years beforehand.
The Group's champions during its early years included Barker Fairley, a co-founder of Canadian Forum magazine, the warden of Hart House at the University of Toronto, J. Burgon Bickersteth; the members of the Group began to travel elsewhere in Canada for inspiration, including British Columbia, Nova Scotia, the Arctic. After Samuel Gurney Cresswell and other painters on Royal Navy expeditions, these were the first artists of European descent who depicted the Arctic. Soon, the Group made the decision that to be called a "national school of painters" there should be members from outside Toronto; as a result, in 1930 Edwin Holgate from Montreal, Quebec became a member, followed by LeMoine FitzGerald from Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1932. The Group's influence was so widespread by the end of 1931, after J. E. H. MacDonald's death in 1932, they no longer found it necessary to continue as a group of painters, they announced that the Group had been disbanded and that a new association of painters wo
Cornelius David Krieghoff was a Dutch-Canadian painter of the 19th century. Krieghoff is most famous for his paintings of Canadian landscapes and Canadian life outdoors, which were sought-after in his own time as they are today, he is famous for his winter scenes, some of which he painted in a number of variants. Krieghoff was born in Netherlands; when Cornelius was a boy, his father returned to Germany and worked for Wilhem Sattler to establish a wallpaper factory. His family was given accommodations in Schloss Mainberg, a 12th-century castle owned by Sattler, situated overlooking the Main River, he was taught by his father and entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Germany about 1830. He moved to New York in 1836, enlisted in the United States Army in 1837. While in the army, he made sketches of the Second Seminole War from which he produced oil paintings, he was discharged from the army on May 5, 1840. Together with his wife Émilie Gauthier, he moved to Montreal around 1846, he participated in the Salon de la Société des Artistes de Montréal.
While in Montreal, he befriended the Mohawks living on the Kahnawake Indian Reservation and made many sketches of them from which he produced oil paintings. Krieghoff traveled to Paris in 1844, where he copied masterpieces at the Louvre under the direction of Michel Martin Drolling; the Krieghoffs returned to Montreal in 1846, in 1847 he was invited to participate in the first exhibition of the Toronto Society of Arts. He and his family moved to Quebec City in 1853, he returned to Europe in 1854, visiting Germany. In 1855, he returned to Canada, he lived in Europe from 1863 to 1868 and moved to Chicago to retire. He is buried in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago. A decade on June 8, 1881, the Great Quebec Fire destroyed many of his sketches owned by John S. Budden, who had lived with the artist for thirteen years. According to Charles C. Hill, Curator of Canadian Art at the National Gallery, "Krieghoff was the first Canadian artist to interpret in oils... the splendour of our waterfalls, the hardships and daily life of people living on the edge of new frontiers".
The public collections holding works by Cornelius Krieghoff are the Art Gallery of Hamilton, the Art Gallery of Ontario, the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, the Brooklyn Museum, the Glenbow Museum, the McCord Museum, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, the National Gallery of Canada, the New York Public Library, the Rockwell Museum, the Winnipeg Art Gallery and the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. On November 29, 1972 Canada Post issued'Cornelius Krieghoff, painter, 1815–1872' designed by William Rueter based on a painting "The Blacksmith's Shop", by Cornelius Krieghoff in the Art Gallery of Ontario, Ontario; the 8 ¢ stamps were printed by British American Bank Note Company. His works were regularly exhibited at the gallery L'Art français. On July 7, 2000 Canada Post issued'The Artist at Niagara, 1858, Cornelius Krieghoff' in the Masterpieces of Canadian art series; the stamp was designed by Pierre-Yves Pelletier based on an oil painting "The Artist at Niagara" by Cornelius Krieghoff in the Art Gallery of Ontario, Ontario.
The 95 ¢ stamps were printed by Ashton-Potter Limited. The auction record for a painting by Cornelius Krieghoff is $350,000 Canadian; this record was set by Mail boat landing at Quebec, a 17 by 24 inch oil painting on canvas sold November 20, 2006 at Sotheby's & Ritchies. Barbeau, Charles Marius, Cornelius Krieghoff, Ryerson Press, 1948. Barbeau, Charles Marius, Cornelius Krieghoff, Pioneer Painter of North America, The Macmillan Company of Canada, ltd. 1934. Harper, J. Russell, Cornelius Krieghoff, The Habitant Farm, National Gallery of Canada, 1977. Harper, J. Russell, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1979. Jouvancourt, Hugues de, Cornelius Krieghoff, Musson Book Co. 1973. Krieghoff, Cornélius Krieghoff, 1815–1872, Québec, Ministère des affaires culturelles, 1971. Krieghoff and Marius Barbeau, Cornelius Krieghoff, Toronto Society for Art Publications, 1962. Krieghoff and Monsieur Winkworth, Exposition d'estampes en l'honneur de C. Krieghoff, 1815–1872, Montréal, McCord Museum, 1972. Reid, Dennis R. Ramsay Cook and François-Marc Gagnon, Images of Canada, Douglas & McIntyre, 1999.
Vézina, Cornelius Krieghoff, peintre de mœurs, 1815–1872, Québec, Éditions du Pélican, 1972. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Works by Cornelius Krieghoff at Faded Page National Gallery of Canada Cornelius Krieghoff in ArtCyclopedia Smithsonian American Art Museum Art Inventories Catalog
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Dalí de Púbol, known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the bizarre images in his surrealist work, his painterly skills are attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film and photography, at times in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything, gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descendants of the Moors. Dalí was imaginative, enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. To the dismay of those who held his work in high regard, to the irritation of his critics, his eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork.
Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20, in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain. Dalí's older brother, named Salvador, had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903, his father, Salvador Rafael Aniceto Dalí Cusí was a middle-class lawyer and notary, an anti-clerical atheist and Catalan federalist, whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domènech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors. In the summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24; as a child Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, " resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute." Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother.
Dalí had a sister, Anna Maria, three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, his childhood friends included Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together. Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris; the next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1918, a site he would return to decades later. On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterus cancer. Dalí was 16 years old. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had great respect for his aunt. In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
A lean 1.72 metres tall, Dalí drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century. At the Residencia, he became close friends with Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca; the friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances. It was his paintings in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. Since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time, his knowledge of Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot. Dalí, still unknown to the public, illustrated a book for the first time in 1924, it was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life. Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925.
At the time Dalí was not yet immersed in the Surrealist style for which he would become famous. The exhibition was well received by critics; the following year he exhibited again at Galeries Dalmau, from 31 December 1926 to 14 January 1927, with the support of the art critic Sebastià Gasch. Dalí left the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams, his mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends; as he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works influenced by Picasso and Miró. Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were evident in the 1920s. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde.
His classical influences i
Edward Kienholz was an American installation artist and assemblage sculptor whose work was critical of aspects of modern life. From 1972 onwards, he assembled much of his artwork in close collaboration with his artistic partner and fifth wife, Nancy Reddin Kienholz. Throughout much of their career, the work of the Kienholzes was more appreciated in Europe than in their native United States, though American museums have featured their art more prominently since the 1990s. Art critic Brian Sewell called Edward Kienholz "the least known, most neglected and forgotten American artist of Jack Kerouac's Beat Generation of the 1950s, a contemporary of the writers Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs and Norman Mailer, his visual imagery at least as grim, gritty and depressing as their literary vocabulary". Edward Ralph Kienholz was born in Washington, in the dry eastern part of the state, he grew up on a wheat farm, learning carpentry and mechanical skills. His father was strict, his mother was a religious fundamentalist.
He studied art at Eastern Washington College of Education and at Whitworth College in Spokane, but did not receive any formal degree. After a series of odd jobs, working as an orderly in a psychiatric hospital, manager of a dance band, used car salesman, caterer and vacuum cleaner salesman, Kienholz settled in Los Angeles, where he became involved with the avant-garde art scene of the day. In 1956, Kienholz opened the NOW Gallery, they co-organized the All-City Art Festival in 1957, with poet Bob Alexander, they opened the Ferus Gallery on North La Cienega Boulevard. The Ferus Gallery soon became a focus of avant garde culture in the Los Angeles area. Despite his lack of formal artistic training, Kienholz began to employ his mechanical and carpentry skills in making collage paintings and reliefs assembled from materials salvaged from the alleys and sidewalks of the city. In 1958 he sold his share of the Ferus Gallery to buy a Los Angeles house and studio and to concentrate on his art, creating free-standing, large-scale environmental tableaux.
He continued to participate in activities at the Ferus Gallery, mounting a show of his first assemblage works in 1959. In 1961, Kienholz completed his first large-scale installation, Roxy's, a room-sized environment which he showed at the Ferus Gallery in 1962. Set in the year 1943, Roxy's depicts Kienholz's memories of his youthful encounters in a Nevada brothel complete with antique furniture, a 30s era jukebox, vintage sundries, satirical characters assembled from castoff pieces of junk; this artwork caused a stir at the documenta 4 exhibition in 1968. A 1966 show at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art drew considerable controversy over his assemblage, Back Seat Dodge ‘38; the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors called it "revolting and blasphemous" and threatened to withhold financing for the museum unless the tableau was removed from view. A compromise was reached under which the sculpture's car door would remain closed and guarded, to be opened only on the request of a museum patron, over 18, only if no children were present in the gallery.
The uproar led to more than 200 people lining up to see the work the day. Since, Back Seat Dodge ’38 has drawn crowds. LACMA did not formally acquire the work until 1986. In 1966, Kienholz began to spend summers in Hope, while still maintaining studio space in Los Angeles. Around that time, he produced a series of Concept Tableaux, which consisted of framed text descriptions of artwork that did not yet exist, he would sell these works of early Conceptual Art for a modest sum, giving the buyer the right to have Kienholz construct the artwork. He sold a number of Concept Tableaux. Kienholz's assemblages of found objects—the detritus of modern existence including figures cast from life—are at times vulgar and gruesome, confronting the viewer with questions about human existence and the inhumanity of twentieth-century society. Regarding found materials he said, in 1977, "I begin to understand any society by going through its junk stores and flea markets, it is historical orientation for me. I can see the results of ideas in what is thrown away by a culture."Kienholz incorporated defunct or operating radios or televisions into their works, sometimes adding sound and moving images to the overall effect.
Live animals were selectively included as crucial elements in some installations, providing motion and sound that contrasted starkly with frozen tableaus of decay and degradation. For example, The Wait, a dismal scene of a lonely skeletal woman surrounded by memories and waiting for death, incorporates a cage with a live parakeet cheerfully chirping and hopping about; the bird is considered an integral part of the installation, but requires special attention to insure that it remains healthy and active, as described in the Whitney Museum's online catalog and video. Another well-known work, The State Hospital, incorporates a pair of black goldfish swimming in each of two glass goldfish bowls representing the head of an inmate suffering with mental illness. Kienholz's work commented savagely on racism, mental illness, sexual stereotypes, greed, imperialism, religion and most of all, moral hypocrisy; because of their satirical and antiestablishment tones, t
Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook
William Maxwell Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC, ONB was a Canadian-British newspaper publisher and backstage politician, an influential figure in British media and politics of the first half of the 20th century. His base of power was the largest circulation newspaper in the world, the Daily Express, which appealed to the conservative working class with intensely patriotic news and editorials. During the Second World War he played a major role in mobilising industrial resources as Winston Churchill's minister of aircraft production; the young Max Aitken had a gift for making money and was a millionaire by 30. His business ambitions exceeded opportunities in Canada and he moved to Britain. There he befriended Bonar Law and with his support won a seat in the House of Commons at the general election held in December 1910. A knighthood followed shortly after. During the First World War he ran the Canadian Records office in London, played a role in the removal of H. H. Asquith as prime minister in 1916.
The resulting coalition government, rewarded Aitken with a peerage and a Cabinet post as Minister of Information. Post-war, the now Lord Beaverbrook concentrated on his business interests, he built the Daily Express into the most successful mass-circulation newspaper in the world, with sales of 2.25 million copies a day across Britain. He used it to pursue personal campaigns, most notably for tariff reform and for the British Empire to become a free trade bloc. Beaverbrook supported the government of Stanley Baldwin and that of Neville Chamberlain throughout the 1930s and was persuaded by another long standing political friend, Winston Churchill, to serve as his Minister of Aircraft Production from May 1940. Churchill and others praised his Ministerial contributions, he resigned due to ill-health in 1941 but in the war was appointed Lord Privy Seal. Beaverbrook spent his life running his newspapers, which by included the Evening Standard and the Sunday Express, he served as Chancellor of the University of New Brunswick and developed a reputation as a historian with his books on political and military history.
Aitken was born in Maple, Canada, in 1879, one of the ten children of William Cuthbert Aitken, a Scottish-born Presbyterian minister, Jane, the daughter of a prosperous local farmer and storekeeper. When he was a year old, the family moved to Newcastle, New Brunswick, which Aitken considered to be his hometown, it was here, at the age of 13, that he set up The Leader. Whilst at school, he delivered newspapers, sold newspaper subscriptions and was the local correspondent for the St. John Daily Star. Aitken took the entrance examinations for Dalhousie University, but because he had declined to sit the Greek and Latin papers he was refused entry, he left after a short while. This was to be his only formal higher education. Aitken worked in a shop borrowed some money to move to Chatham, New Brunswick, where he worked as a local correspondent for the Montreal Star, sold life insurance and collected debts. Aitken attempted to train as a lawyer and worked for a short time in the law office of R B Bennett, a future prime minister of Canada.
Aitken managed Bennett's successful campaign for a place on Chatham town council. When Bennett left the law firm, Aitken moved to Saint John, New Brunswick, where he again sold life insurance before moving to Calgary where he helped to run Bennett's campaign for a seat in the legislative assembly of the North-West Territories in the 1898 general election. After an unsuccessful attempt to establish a meat business, Aitken returned to Saint John and to selling insurance. In 1900, Aitken made his way to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where John F. Stairs, a member of the city's dominant business family, gave him employment and trained him in the business of finance. In 1904, when Stairs launched the Royal Securities Corporation, Aitken became a minority shareholder and the firm's general manager. Under the tutelage of Stairs, who would be his mentor and friend, Aitken engineered a number of successful business deals and was planning a series of bank mergers. Stairs' unexpected early death in September 1904 led to Aitken acquiring control of the company and moving to Montreal the business capital of Canada.
There he bought and sold companies, invested in stocks and shares and developed business interests in both Cuba and Puerto Rico. He started a weekly magazine, the Canadian Century in 1910, invested in the Montreal Herald and acquired the Montreal Gazette. In 1907 he founded the Montreal Engineering Company. In 1909 under the umbrella of his Royal Securities Company, Aitken founded the Calgary Power Company Limited, now the TransAlta Corporation, oversaw the building of the Horseshoe Falls hydro station. In 1910–1911 Aitken acquired a number of small regional cement plants in Canada, including Sandford Fleming's Western Canada Cement Co. plant at Exshaw and amalgamated them into Canada Cement controlling four-fifths of the cement production in Canada. Canada was booming economically at the time, Aitken had a monopoly on the material. There were irregularities in the stock transfers leading to the conglomeration of the cement plants, resulting in much criticism of Aitken, as well as accusations of price-gouging and poor management of the cement plants under his company's control.
Aitken sold his shares. Aitken had made his first visit to Britain in September 1908, when he returned there in the spring of 1910, in an attempt to raise money to form a steel company, he decided to make the move permanent, but not before he led t
John Constable, was an English landscape painter in the naturalistic tradition. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home – now known as "Constable Country" – which he invested with an intensity of affection. "I should paint my own places best", he wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821, "painting is but another word for feeling". Constable's most famous paintings include Wivenhoe Park of 1816, Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821. Although his paintings are now among the most popular and valuable in British art, he was never financially successful, he became a member of the establishment after he was elected to the Royal Academy at the age of 52. His work was embraced in France, where he sold more than in his native England and inspired the Barbizon school. John Constable was born in East Bergholt, a village on the River Stour in Suffolk, to Golding and Ann Constable, his father was a wealthy corn merchant, owner of Flatford Mill in East Bergholt and Dedham Mill in Essex.
Golding Constable owned a small ship, The Telegraph, which he moored at Mistley on the Stour estuary, used to transport corn to London. He was a cousin of Abram Newman. Although Constable was his parents' second son, his older brother was intellectually disabled and John was expected to succeed his father in the business. After a brief period at a boarding school in Lavenham, he was enrolled in a day school in Dedham. Constable worked in the corn business after leaving school, but his younger brother Abram took over the running of the mills. In his youth, Constable embarked on amateur sketching trips in the surrounding Suffolk and Essex countryside, to become the subject of a large proportion of his art; these scenes, in his own words, "made me a painter, I am grateful". He was introduced to George Beaumont, a collector, who showed him his prized Hagar and the Angel by Claude Lorrain, which inspired Constable. While visiting relatives in Middlesex, he was introduced to the professional artist John Thomas Smith, who advised him on painting but urged him to remain in his father's business rather than take up art professionally.
In 1799, Constable persuaded his father to let him pursue a career in art, Golding granted him a small allowance. Entering the Royal Academy Schools as a probationer, he attended life classes and anatomical dissections, studied and copied old masters. Among works that inspired him during this period were paintings by Thomas Gainsborough, Claude Lorrain, Peter Paul Rubens, Annibale Carracci and Jacob van Ruisdael, he read among poetry and sermons, proved a notably articulate artist. In 1802 he refused the position of drawing master at Great Marlow Military College, a move which Benjamin West counselled would mean the end of his career. In that year, Constable wrote a letter to John Dunthorne in which he spelled out his determination to become a professional landscape painter: For the last two years I have been running after pictures, seeking the truth at second hand... I have not endeavoured to represent nature with the same elevation of mind with which I set out, but have rather tried to make my performances look like the work of other men...
There is room enough for a natural painter. The great vice of the present day is an attempt to do something beyond the truth, his early style has many qualities associated with his mature work, including a freshness of light and touch, reveals the compositional influence of the old masters he had studied, notably of Claude Lorrain. Constable's usual subjects, scenes of ordinary daily life, were unfashionable in an age that looked for more romantic visions of wild landscapes and ruins, he made. By 1803, he was exhibiting paintings at the Royal Academy. In April he spent a month aboard the East Indiaman Coutts as it visited south-east ports while sailing from London to Deal before leaving for China. In 1806 Constable undertook a two-month tour of the Lake District, he told his friend and biographer, Charles Leslie, that the solitude of the mountains oppressed his spirits, Leslie wrote: His nature was peculiarly social and could not feel satisfied with scenery, however grand in itself, that did not abound in human associations.
He required villages, churches and cottages. To make ends meet, Constable took up portraiture, which he found dull, though he executed many fine portraits, he painted occasional religious pictures but, according to John Walker, "Constable's incapacity as a religious painter cannot be overstated."Constable adopted a routine of spending winter in London and painting at East Bergholt in summer. In 1811 he first visited John Fisher and his family in Salisbury, a city whose cathedral and surrounding landscape were to inspire some of his greatest paintings. From 1809, his childhood friendship with Maria Elizabeth Bicknell developed into a deep, mutual love, their marriage in 1816 when Constable was 40 was opposed by Maria's grandfather, Dr Rhudde, rector of East Bergholt. He threatened Maria with disinheritance. Maria's father, Charles Bicknell, solicitor to King George IV and the Admiralty, was reluctant to see Maria throw away her inheritance. Maria pointed out to John that a penniless marriage would detract from any chances he had of making a career in painting.
Golding and Ann Constable, while approving the match, held out no prospect of supporting the marriage until Constable was financially secure. After they died in qui