Duris, Dūris, or Dûris, formally Doris and known by its French spelling Douris, is a village located 3 km. southwest of Baalbek in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanon. It is the site of a 13th-century Muslim shrine and a necropolis from the late Roman Imperial period, undergoing archaeological investigation; the Qubbat Duris was built in AD 1243 during the Ayyubid era. Its sarcophagus was raised or left standing to serve as a mihrab, helping to direct prayer towards Mecca, its columns were removed from the ruins of nearby Baalbek and are assembled haphazardly, one being upside-down. Another archaeological site, not on the tell near the village exists 1 km southwest of Duris at the north of a vineyard that can be reached via a track from the road to Baalbek; this site was found to contain both Shepherd Neolithic and Heavy Neolithic material together, being unusual in this respect. It was found by M. Billaux in 1957 who showed it to two archaeologists who were members of the Society of Jesus, Henri Fleisch and Maurice Tallon.
The Shepherd Neolithic material appeared similar to that of Maakne. The larger pieces were patinated to white, appearing to represent different periods. Three Levallois flakes were found in 1966 by Lorraine Copeland. Nadine Nassib Njeim and Miss Lebanon 2004 Baalbek Temples of the Beqaa Valley De Saulcy, Louis Félicien J. Caignart, Narrative of a Journey round the Dead Sea and in the Bible Lands in 1850 and 1851, Vol. II, London: Bradbury & Evans for Richard Bentley. Jamil, Rouhi and the Republic of Lebanon, The Green Guides, Librairie Universelle. Jessup, Samuel, "The Wady Barada", Picturesque Palestine and Egypt, Division II, New York: D. Appleton & Co, pp. 444–452. Robinson, Later Biblical Researches in Palestine, in the Adjacent Regions. A Journal of Travels in the Year 1852 by E. Robinson, E. Smith, Others, Boston: Crocker & Brewster. Serraine Et Tahta, Localiban
Al-Nabi Sheeth is a village in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon. "Al-Nabi Sheeth" is Arabic for "Seth the prophet". The village was called by that name because it is considered to contain the burial site of Seth son of Adam. A mosque was built on the burial site and it contains the grave of Seth inside the mosque.. The village is the home town of Abbas al-Moussawi former Hezbollah leader and influential shia cleric; the village of Al-Nabi Sheeth is predominantly inhabited by people with the surnames Helbawi, Al-Moussawi, Hazimeh, & Chokr families being well known. Ibn Jubayr noted: "the two graves of Seth and Noah are in the Bika', two days' journey from Damascus. One who measured the tomb of Shith, reported to us that it was 40 fathoms long, the tomb of Nuh was 30; the tomb of Noah's son lies side by side with that of Noah. There is a building over the tombs, an endowment for charitable purposes. In 1838, en-Neby Shit was noted as a Metawileh village in the Ba'albek district. During 2006 Lebanon War, Israeli warplanes bombed the house of the former minister Fayez Chokr and killed his father and another house where 7 civilians were killed.
The IDF never gave any reason for. During the Syrian civil war three rockets from Syria hit this town on 13 March, 2014. Bashshit HRW. Why They Died: Civilian Casualties in Lebanon During the 2006 War. Human Rights Watch. Le Strange, G.. Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A. D. 650 to 1500. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Robinson, E.. Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. Nabi Chit, Localiban
Kasarnaba is a town in Baalbek District, Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon famous for its hilly terrain and Traditional Agricultural practices. The town is located at the shoulder of The Western Lebanese Mountain Range just to the East of Mount Sanine and it overlooks the central parts of Beqaa Valley. A Roman Temple is found in this town, called "Castra El Banaat"; the second Roman temple in the Middle East. People in Kasarnaba are traditionally farmers famous for growing vineyards and wild rose flowers for rosewater extraction, in addition to many other traditional Horticultural crops some of which are listed below. - Grapes - Cherries - Apricots - Common Fig - Roses - Tobacco Kasarnaba has many hills creating deep valleys in between including: - Wadi El Hawr - Wadi El Debs - Wadi El Boss - Wadi Neita - Wadi ain el Louis - wadi ain al chaghour - wadi al zaraet - wadi al toghra - wadi malek Roman castra El Banaat Qsarnaba, Localiban
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Iaat is a town and municipality located in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon famous for its Corinthian column. The column stands at 18 meters; the location of the Pillar is 4 miles northwest of the Baalbek ruins, between the towns of Baalbek and Chlifa. At one point a plaque was installed on the northern side of the monument; the column is widely believed in local legend to be related to St. Helena. George F. Taylor classified it among a group of Temples of the Beqaa Valley and noticed that the position of the Iaat column was equidistant between the temples of Baalbek and Qasr el Banat. Whilst technically not being a temple, Taylor suggested that the column might have been placed where it is as a victory column to mark the site of a great ancient battle, he noted a cartouche on the sixth cylinder of the column. Iaat, Localiban http://www.lebanon.com/tourism/iaat.htm http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/lebanon/Mouhafazat/Beqaa/Caza/Baalbeck/iaat.htm Iaat on middleeast.com
The Maronite Church is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the worldwide Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. It is headed by Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi since 2011. Known as the Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch, it is part of Syriac Christianity by liturgy and heritage. Traditionally, the Maronite Church ministers to the Levant around Mount Lebanon, where its headquarters Bkerke is located north of Beirut. Other centers of historical importance include Kfarhay, Yanouh and Qadisha Valley. However, due to emigration since the 19th century two-thirds of church members are located outside "The Antiochian's Range" and live within the worldwide Lebanese diaspora in Europe, the Americas and Africa. Establishment of the Maronite Church can be divided into three periods, from the 4th to the 7th centuries. A congregation movement, with Saint Maroun as an inspirational leader and patron saint, marked the first period.
The second began with the establishment of the Monastery of Saint Maroun on the Orontes, built after the Council of Chalcedon to defend the doctrines of the Council. This monastery was described as the "Greatest Monastery" in the region of Secunda Syria, with more than 300 hermitages around it, according to ancient records. After 518, the monastery de facto administered many parishes in Prima Syria, Cole Syria and Phoenicia; the third period was when Sede Vacante followed the Islamic conquest of the region and bishops of the Saint Maroun Monastery elected John Maron as Patriarch around 685 AD, according to the Maronite tradition. The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch re-established their patriarchate in 751 AD. Although reduced in numbers today, Maronites remain one of the principal ethno-religious groups in Lebanon, with smaller minorities of Maronites in Syria, Cyprus and Jordan. Over 3,000,000 Maronites practice the faith; the Maronite Church is known as the Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch.
St Maroun is considered the founder of the spiritual and monastic movement now called the Maronite Church. This movement has had a profound influence in Lebanon, to a lesser degree in Syria and Palestine. Saint Maroun spent his life on a mountain in Syria believed to be "Kefar-Nabo" on the mountain of Ol-Yambos in the Taurus Mountains, contemporary Turkey, becoming the cradle of the Maronite movement established in the Monastery of Saint Maron; the six major traditions of the Catholic Church are Alexandrian, Armenian, Constantinopolitan, Latin. The Maronite Church follows the Antiochene Tradition. A Roman Catholic may attend any Eastern Catholic Liturgy and fulfill his or her obligations at an Eastern Catholic Parish; that is, a Roman Catholic may join any Eastern Catholic Parish and receive any sacrament from an Eastern Catholic priest since all belong to the Catholic Church. Maronites who do not reside within a convenient distance to a local Maronite Church are permitted to attend other Catholic churches while retaining their Maronite membership.
The Maronite Patriarchal Assembly identified five distinguishing marks of the Maronite Church: It is Antiochene. It is Chalcedonian, in that the Maronites were strong supporters of the Council of Chalcedon of 451, it is Monastic. It is faithful to the See of Peter in Rome, it has strong ties to Lebanon. Saint Maron, a fourth-century monk and a contemporary and friend of St. John Chrysostom, left Antioch for the Orontes River in modern-day Syria to lead an ascetic life, following the traditions of Anthony the Great of the Desert and of Pachomius. Many of his followers lived a monastic lifestyle. Following Maron's death in 410 AD, his disciples built Beth-Maron monastery at Apamea; this formed the nucleus of the Maronite Church. In 452, after the Council of Chalcedon, the monastery was expanded by the Byzantine emperor Marcian; the Maronite movement reached Lebanon when St. Maron's first disciple, Abraham of Cyrrhus, called the "Apostle of Lebanon", set out to convert the non-Christians by introducing them to St. Maron.
The Maronites subscribed to the beliefs of the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Monophysites of Antioch slew 350 monks and burned the monastery, although Justinian I restored the walls. Correspondence concerning the event brought the Maronites papal and orthodox recognition, indicated by a letter from Pope Hormisdas dated 10 February 518. Representatives from Beth-Maron participated in the Constantinople synods of 536 and 553. An outbreak of civil war during the reign of Emperor Phocas brought forth riots in the cities of Syria and Palestine and incursions by Persian King Khosrow II. In 609, the Patriarch of Antioch, Anastasius II, was killed either at the hands of some soldiers or locals; this left the Maronites without a leader, which continued because of the final Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. In the aftermath of the war, the Emperor Heraclius propagated a new Christological doctrine in an attempt to unify the various Christian churches of the East, who were divided over accepting the Council of Chalcedon.
This doctrine, the unity of Christ's will with God's, was meant as a compromise between supporters of Chalcedon, such as the Maronites, opponents, such as the Jacobites. The doctrine was endorsed by Pope Honorius I to win back the Monophysites but problems soon arose. Instead, the unity of Christ's will wit
Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós, a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach. While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance; the term "Christian" is used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all, noble, good, Christ-like."According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910. By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the world's largest religion in 2050, if current trends continue. Today, about 37% of all Christians live in the Americas, about 26% live in Europe, 24% live in sub-Saharan Africa, about 13% live in Asia and the Pacific, 1% live in the Middle East and North Africa.
About half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the world's Christians. Other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in territories. 280 million Christians live as a minority. Christians have made noted contributions to a range of fields, including the sciences, politics and business. According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000 reveals that of Nobel Prizes laureates identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference; the Greek word Χριστιανός, meaning "follower of Christ", comes from Χριστός, meaning "anointed one", with an adjectival ending borrowed from Latin to denote adhering to, or belonging to, as in slave ownership. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, meaning " anointed." In other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish.
The abbreviations Xian and Xtian have been used since at least the 17th century: Oxford English Dictionary shows a 1634 use of Xtianity and Xian is seen in a 1634-38 diary. The word Xmas uses a similar contraction; the first recorded use of the term is in the New Testament, in Acts 11:26, after Barnabas brought Saul to Antioch where they taught the disciples for about a year, the text says: " the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26:28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, "Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4:16, which exhorts believers: "Yet if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames; however Peter's apparent endorsement of the term led to its being preferred over "Nazarenes" and the term Christianoi from 1 Peter becomes the standard term in the Early Church Fathers from Ignatius and Polycarp onwards.
The earliest occurrences of the term in non-Christian literature include Josephus, referring to "the tribe of Christians, so named from him. In the Annals he relates that "by vulgar appellation called Christians" and identifies Christians as Nero's scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome. Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is "Nazarenes". Jesus is named as a Nazarene in Math 2:23, while Saul-Paul is said to be Nazarene in Acts 24:5; the latter verse makes it clear that Nazarene referred to the name of a sect or heresy, as well as the town called Nazareth. The term Nazarene was used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus which records that "the Jews call us Nazarenes." While around 331 AD Eusebius records that Christ was called a Nazoraean from the name Nazareth, that in earlier centuries "Christians" were once called "Nazarenes". The Hebrew equivalent of "Nazarenes", occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian. A wide range of beliefs and practices are found across the world among those who call themselves Christian.
Denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of "Christianity". For example, Timothy Beal notes the disparity of beliefs among those who identify as Christians in the United States as follows: Although all of them have their historical roots in Christian theology and tradition, although most would identify themselves as Christian, many would not identify others within the larger category as Christian. Most Baptists and fundamentalists, for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian. In fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity. Linda Woodhead attempts to provide a common belief thread for Christians by noting that "Whatever else they might disagree about, Christians are at least united