Centralia is a city in Clinton, Jefferson and Washington counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. The population was 13,032 as of the 2010 census, down from 14,136 in 2000. Centralia is named for the Illinois Central Railroad, built in 1853; the city was founded at the location. Centralia was first chartered as a city in 1859. In the southern city limits is the intersection of its baseline; this initial point was established in 1815, it governs land surveys for about 60% of the state of Illinois, including Chicago. The original monument is at the junction of the Marion-Jefferson County Line Road. Production of the PayDay candy bar began here in 1938. Michael Moore's documentary, The Big One, opens with the closing of this candy bar plant in the late 20th century, it addresses similar economic woes in other cities. The town of Centerville, Washington was renamed as Centralia, Washington to avoid being confused with another Centerville in that state; the suggestion came from a former resident of the Illinois town.
Centralia is located 60 miles east of St. Louis, Missouri. Most of the city, including its downtown, is in southwestern Marion County, but the city extends west into Clinton County and south 5 miles into Washington and Jefferson counties; the city is 10 miles north of exit 61 of Interstate 64 and 9 miles west of exit 109 of Interstate 57. Centralia is one of three Illinois cities with portions in four counties, the others being Barrington Hills and Aurora; because of its unique location within multiple counties, portions of Centralia are associated with different Core Based Statistical Areas. The Centralia Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Marion County; the Clinton County portion of the city is considered part of the St. Louis, MO–IL Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the Jefferson County portion lies within the Mt. Vernon Micropolitan Statistical Area; the portion of Centralia in Washington County is not considered part of any metropolitan or micropolitan area. According to the 2010 census, Centralia has a total area of 9.223 square miles, of which 8.19 square miles is land and 1.033 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 14,136 people, 5,784 households, 3,568 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,884.4 people per square mile. There were 6,276 housing units at an average density of 836.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.50% White, 25.34% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the population. There were 5,784 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.3% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city the age distribution of the population shows 24.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,905, the median income for a family was $39,123. Males had a median income of $30,511 versus $21,967 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,174. About 11.2% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.1% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. On March 25, 1947, the Centralia No. 5 coal mine explosion near the town killed 111 people. The investigation team sent by the Mine Safety and Health Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor found that "a blownout shot of explosives, stemmed with coal dust or an underburdened shot of explosions could have ignited the coal dust, raised by preceding shots of explosions." Blown-out shot a blast in which the explosive action breaks little or no coal or rock underburdened insufficient burden of rock in relation to the explosive charge, resulting in a blown-out shot or a premature shot through shock of a neighboring charge of a blast pattern yielding less work than expected.
At the time of the explosion, 142 men were in the mine. Eight men were rescued; the story of the 1947 disaster is memorialized in folk singer Woody Guthrie's song "The Dying Miner". Guthrie's recording of the song can be heard on the Smithsonian-Folkways CD recording Struggle. Songwriter and labor scholar Bucky Halker recorded a different arrangement of "Dying Miner" on his CD collection of Illinois labor songs Welcome to Labor Land. Halker recorded "New Made Graves of Centralia", a song he located on an obscure recording without the name of the author or recording artist. Halker's recording appears on his CD. Centralia's Foundation Park is a scenic 235-acre park that features hiking trails, an exercise trail, an ice skating pond and two fishing ponds stocked with bass and catfish; the park sports a restored prairie, a 27-hole
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Breese is a city in Clinton County, United States. Breese is the largest city, in Clinton County; as of the 2010 census, the population was the majority of whom are of German ancestry. Breese is part of the Metro-East region of the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area; the town is named after Sidney Breese, a United States Senator and a contemporary of President Abraham Lincoln. Breese was founded in 1855. Though the area around Breese, Illinois was first settled in 1816, it was not until 1835 that Germans came to the town to farm because of the flat fertile land there. Twenty years after the Germans' first immigration, the Mississippi and Ohio Railroad was completed; the early pioneers were enthralled by the thought of transportation by railroad. The Chicago-based company Sanger Kamp & Co. bought 80 acres of land near the railroad. Twenty-four acres were laid out with the railroad splitting the original town with some acres on the north side and south side creating Breese Township, February 3, 1855.
Today citizens of Breese use south side in determining a certain location. Most roads in Breese are based on which side of the railroad the street is. Late in 1855, forty Catholic immigrants, wanting to fulfill their religious needs, had the idea of constructing a church, their desires were realized when two years the Sanger Kamp & Co. gave half of one of its 80 acres to the Catholics’ project. By December 1869, St. Dominic's Catholic Church was completed. Breese was first recognized as a town on April 11, 1871, became a village on September 23, 1876; as a result, the construction of the village hall had begun. This project was completed in 1885. Seven years a volunteer fire department was organized; the ever-growing population was acknowledged as a city on January 19, 1905. The mayor of this new city was Henry Hummert. Realizing that Breese would need some improvements, the mayor authorized the construction of an electric light plant, completed in 1906; the streets of Breese were topped with road oil in 1911.
The next year improvements to the city's water works facility were made. However, things took a turn for the worse when, in 1914, a scarlet fever swept the community and its surrounding area and forced all the schools to close. Only four years still in the wake of the scarlet fever, the flu epidemic spread through the area. After the diseases ended, further improvements to the city are still occurring. Breese is located at 38°36′37″N 89°31′36″W. According to the 2010 census, Breese has a total area of 2.645 square miles, of which 2.62 square miles is land and 0.025 square miles is water. Breese is located on U. S. Route 50 40 miles east of Missouri; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,048 people, 1,513 households, 1,078 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,779.1 people per square mile. There were 1,573 housing units at an average density of 691.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.57% White, 0.10% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.54% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.28% of the population. There were 1,513 households out of which 37.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $47,639, the median income for a family was $54,242. Males had a median income of $37,979 versus $23,231 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,530. About 1.2% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.8% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over.
Mater Dei High School Central Community High School All Saints Academy Grade School District 12 Grade School Jake Odorizzi, pitcher for the Minnesota Twins.
Clinton County, Illinois
Clinton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 37,762, its county seat is Carlyle. In 1960, the United States Census Bureau placed the mean center of U. S. population in Clinton County. Clinton County is part of MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1805, prior to the establishment of the county, the territorial government established a post road from its capital to St. Louis, passing through the county. In 1808 a wagon road was laid out through the future Clinton County, it extended from the Goshen Settlement to the Ohio salt works and crossed the Kaskaskia River at Carlyle. Clinton County was created on 27 December 1824, from portions of Washington and Bond Counties, it was named for the seventh Governor of DeWitt Clinton, who helped build the Erie Canal. Crossing the Kaskaskia became much easier when the bridge now known as the General Dean Suspension Bridge was built in 1859, at a cost of $40,000. Before the bridge was constructed, crossings involved a mud bridge.
The Illinois General Assembly set aside $20,000 for bridge restoration in 1951, in 1953 the bridge was named after William F. Dean. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 503 square miles, of which 474 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water. Eldon Hazlet State Recreation Area and South Shore State Park are in Clinton County, its southern border is the Kaskaskia River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlyle have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1980. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.17 inches in January to 4.44 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 37,762 people, 14,005 households, 9,760 families residing in the county; the population density was 79.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,311 housing units at an average density of 32.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 93.4% white, 3.5% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 54.8% were German, 9.8% were Irish, 5.8% were English, 5.6% were American. Of the 14,005 households, 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families, 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 39.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,278 and the median income for a family was $66,682. Males had a median income of $45,119 versus $34,051 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,392. About 5.2% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.
As part of German Catholic Central Illinois, nineteenth-century Clinton County was opposed to the “Yankee” Civil War and the Northern Illinois residents who supported it and the Republican Party. The county was solidly Democratic for the six decades after the Civil War, turning Republican only due to opposition to Woodrow Wilson’s post-World War I policies towards Germany, its first flirt with Republicanism was short-lived: in 1924 Clinton was the nation's southeasternmost county – and the solitary one in Illinois – to give a plurality to Robert M. La Follette Sr. and in 1928 its residents voted powerfully for coreligionist Al Smith despite a landslide loss nationally. 1936, despite a landslide win for Franklin D. Roosevelt, saw Clinton County, like many other German Catholic counties in the Midwest, show a more permanent trend away from the Democratic Party: owing to a strong vote for Union Party candidate William Lemke, Roosevelt only won a plurality, with powerful local opposition to World War II Wendell Willkie and Thomas E. Dewey won over 62 percent of the county's vote in the two elections held whilst World War II was in progress.
Since only Catholic John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson during his 1964 landslide have obtained a majority in the county for the Democratic Party, although county namesake Bill Clinton did win pluralities in both 1992 and 1996. Since 2000, opposition to the Democratic Party's liberal views on social issues has caused a powerful swing towards the Republican Party: Donald Trump won the county against namesake Hillary Clinton by 48.6 percent in 2016 – the worst performance by a Democrat. National Register of Historic Places listings in Clinton County, Illinois Specific General Official website Clinton County IL Genealogy Web Project
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Aviston is a village in Clinton County, United States. The population was 1,945 at the 2010 census, up from 1,231 in 2000. Aviston is located in western Clinton County at 38°36′33″N 89°36′23″W. U. S. Route 50 bypasses the village to the north, leading east 14 miles to Carlyle, the county seat, west 16 miles to Interstate 64 near O'Fallon. Downtown St. Louis is 35 miles west of Aviston. According to the 2010 census, the village has a total area of 1.47 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,231 people, 456 households, 336 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,115.8 people per square mile. There were 465 housing units at an average density of 421.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.62% White, 0.41% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population. There were 456 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families.
23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.99. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $47,917, the median income for a family was $58,375. Males had a median income of $37,768 versus $26,518 for females; the per capita income for the village was $20,395. About 3.5% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.3% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over. Aviston Elementary School Henry J. Althoff, Roman Catholic bishop Vern Holtgrave, pitcher for the Detroit Tigers Trevor Richards, pitcher for the Miami Marlins Village of Aviston official website