Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
The Minnesota Senate is the upper house of the Legislature of the U. S. state of Minnesota. At 67 members, half as many as the Minnesota House of Representatives, it is the largest upper house of any U. S. state legislature. Floor sessions are held in the west wing of the State Capitol in Saint Paul. Committee hearings, as well as offices for senators and staff, are located north of the State Capitol in the Minnesota Senate Building. Due to the restoration process of the State Capitol taking place since 2014, the Senate held floor sessions in 2016 in the Minnesota Senate Building, an office building across the street north of the State Capitol, it was the first time the Senate held a regular session outside of the State Capitol since its opening in 1905. In addition to its legislative powers, certain appointments by the governor are subject to the Senate's advice and consent. Appointees may serve without being confirmed by the Senate, unless the Senate rejects the appointment; each Senate district is split between an B House district.
The Minnesota Constitution forbids a House district to be within more than one Senate district. In order to account for decennial redistricting, members run for one two-year term and two four-year terms each decade. Senators are elected for four-year terms in years ending in 2 and 6, for two-year terms in years ending in 0. Districts are redrawn after the decennial United States Census in time for the primary and general elections in years ending in 2; the most recent election was held on November 8, 2016. From statehood through 1972, the lieutenant governor served as president of the Senate. In 1972, voters approved a constitutional amendment that provided for the Senate to elect its own president beginning January 1973; the majority leader is responsible for managing and scheduling the business of the Senate and serves as the leader of their caucus. All senators and staff have offices in the Minnesota Senate Building, a 293,000 square feet office building that opened in January 2016; the office building, located north of the State Capitol across University Avenue, was constructed at the cost of $90 million and includes three committee hearing rooms and a 264-space underground parking facility.
91st Minnesota Legislature Minnesota House of Representatives Minnesota Legislature Past composition of the Senate Political party strength in Minnesota Official website
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, serving more than 3.3 million electric customers and 1.8 million natural gas customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota, Colorado and New Mexico in 2017. It consists of four operating subsidiaries: Northern States Power-Minnesota, Northern States Power-Wisconsin, Public Service Company of Colorado, Southwestern Public Service Co. In December 2018 Xcel announced it would deliver 100 percent clean, carbon-free electricity by 2050, with an 80 percent carbon reduction by 2035; this makes Xcel the first major US utility to set such a goal. Xcel Energy was built on three companies: Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Company, Denver-based Public Service Company of Colorado, Amarillo-based Southwestern Public Service. Southwestern Public Service Co. dates its origins to 1904 and the Pecos Valley in New Mexico when Maynard Gunsell received an electricity franchise for the city of Roswell, New Mexico and its 2,000 residents.
The financial strain of creating this new enterprise soon overwhelmed him and he sold the franchise to W. H. Gillenwater, who named his utility the Roswell Electric Light Co, he sold the company to an investment firm in Cleveland, which owned the Roswell Gas Co. Northern States Power Company's timeline begins with the organization of the Washington County Light & Power Co. in 1909. When H. M. Byllesby began building his utility holding company across the Northwestern region of the US, he renamed it the Consumers Power Co. in 1910 and, renamed the Northern States Power Co. in 1916. While the bulk of NSP's territory grew across central and southern Minnesota, it acquired territory in North Dakota and extended southwest into South Dakota. NSP's system extended east into Wisconsin, but because of utility ownership laws in that state, it was operated as an entity separate from the rest of the company. Public Service Company of Colorado was formed in 1923 to provide an electric generating station for the Denver area.
By 1924, it had acquired most of the electric companies in central Colorado. A subsidiary of Cities Service Company, it became an independent autonomous operation in November 1943. By this time, it served 80 percent of Colorado's electricity needs; as demand for energy continued to grow, so did PSCo. The company merged with SPS to form New Century Energies in 1995. Northern States Power and Wisconsin Energy Corporation had planned to merge into a new outfit, to be called Primergy - but in 1997, the merger fell through because of the time it was taking to gain the required approvals from state and federal agencies. After the failed Primergy merger, NSP merged with New Century Energies to form Xcel Energy. In 2005, Xcel sold Cheyenne Light and Power to Black Hills Corporation. Cheyenne Light and Power had been a subsidiary of PSCo since the 1920s, had become an operating company of NCE after the merger with SPS; the Cabin Creek Fire occurred on October 2, 2007 at Xcel Energy’s Hydropower Generation plant in Georgetown, Colorado.
On June 1, 2011, Federal prosecutors opened their charges that Xcel Energy was criminally liable for the deaths of the five RPI workers. On June 28, the jury found Xcel Energy not guilty. On December 19, 2011, RPI Coating pleaded guilty to workplace safety violations and paid $1.55 million in a cash settlement. The company took responsibility for the deaths of the injuries to three. In December 2018, Xcel Energy became the first major US utility to pledge to go carbon-free, aiming for 80% carbon reduction by 2030, 100% reduction by 2050. Utility industry magazine Utility Dive awarded Xcel Energy its 2018 "Utility of the Year" award for its plans for add 12 wind farms, its project with Google to develop new ways for customers to personalize energy management, its plan to retire 50 percent of its coal-powered capacity by 2026. Xcel Energy has 13 coal plants with a capacity of 7,697 MW. Seven of those plants are operated in Colorado. Xcel Energy operates three wind farms. In October 2011, Xcel Energy set a world record for electricity from wind power, with an hourly penetration of 55.6% of production from wind.
Xcel Energy generates over 500 megawatts of hydroelectric power from 27 plants in Wisconsin and Colorado. This accounts for only four percent of their electricity generation, they purchase large amounts of hydro-generated electricity from Manitoba Hydro. Biomass electricity comes from organic fuel sources. Xcel Energy has contracts for about 110 megawatts of electricity from biomass generators. Two in northern Minnesota are fueled by forest harvest residue, such as limbs. A third facility, brought on line in 2007 in western Minnesota, generates power using turkey litter. Xcel Energy's Bay Front plant in Ashland, Wisconsin, is a three-unit generating station that has become a model for the creative use of fuels: coal, waste wood, railroad ties, discarded tires, natural gas, petroleum coke. Two of the three Bay Front operating units use biomass as their primary fuel. Xcel Energy proposed a plan to install biomass gasification technology at Bay Front; the waste-to-energy facilities use waste. The Wisconsin waste-to-energy plant burns wood waste in combination with refuse-derived fuel.
Xcel Energy owns and operates two nuclear power plants: Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant near Monticello, Mi
Becker County, Minnesota
Becker County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 32,504, its county seat is Detroit Lakes. A portion of the White Earth Indian Reservation extends into the county; the county was created in 1858 and organized in 1871. Becker County became a county on March 18, 1858, it was named for George Loomis Becker, one of three men elected to Congress when Minnesota became a state. Since Minnesota could only send two, Becker elected to stay behind, he was promised to have a county named after him; the city of Detroit Lakes was founded by Colonel George Johnston in 1871. It grew with the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Johnston had led settlers hailing from New England to settle in this region. An 1877 election decided that Detroit Lakes known as Detroit, would become the county seat. Detroit won the election by a 90% majority. Frazee, Lake Park, Audubon were in the running. In 1884, Detroit Lakes had many businesses, including two hotels, a bank, a newspaper, an opera house.
The first courthouse was built that year. In 1885, the first County Fire Department was constructed. In 1903, the Soo Line Railroad built a line through the county. Detroit Lakes hosts a park dedicated to the Grand Army of the Republic; the City of Detroit Lakes rededicated the GAR Park on April 15, 2015, marking the 150th anniversary of the end of the Civil War and the death of President Lincoln. The rededication was sponsored by Colonel Tom Mortenson and his wife, representing the Women's Relief Corps who spearheaded community support for the effort that included new signage for the Park and a time capsule to be opened on the 200th anniversary; the county terrain tree-covered and dotted with lakes and ponds. The terrain slopes to the west and north, with its highest point near its NW corner, at 1,631' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,445 square miles, of which 1,315 square miles is land and 130 square miles is water. Becker County has much diversity in its topographical features, it is home to several hundred lakes, many acres of fertile farm land, forested areas.
Much of the land consists of hills and deciduous trees. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Detroit Lakes have ranged from a low of −2 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July, although a record low of −46 °F was recorded in February 1936 and a record high of 107 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.53 inches in February to 4.44 inches in June. Becker County voters have voted solidly Republican in recent decades. In only one national election since 1980 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 30,000 people, 11,844 households, 8,184 families in the county. The population density was 22.8/sqmi. There were 16,612 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.35% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 7.52% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 2.32% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
32.2 % were of 26.0 % Norwegian and 5.2 % Swedish ancestry. There were 11,844 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.10% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.02. The county population contained 26.60% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,797, the median income for a family was $41,807. Males had a median income of $29,641 versus $20,693 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,085. About 8.50% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
Becker County is the setting of the 2006 independent film Sweet Land, though it was filmed in Chippewa County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Becker County, Minnesota Becker County government’s website
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Elk River (Minnesota)
The Elk River is an 84.0-mile-long river in east-central Minnesota in the United States. It is a tributary of the Mississippi River, draining a watershed of 630 square miles; the Elk River rises in northern Benton County and flows southward. In Sherburne County the river turns southeastward, paralleling the Mississippi River for the remainder of its course, past the communities of Becker and Big Lake. In his 1843 map of the Upper Mississippi, Joseph Nicollet recorded this river as "Kabitawi R", reflecting Gaa-biitawi-ziibi in the Ojibwe) due to this parallel course with the Mississippi, it joins the Mississippi at the city of Elk River, after passing through Orono Lake, formed by a municipal hydroelectric dam. In Sherburne County's Big Lake Township, the Elk collects the Snake River. List of rivers of Minnesota