Moses Gill was a Massachusetts politician who served as the state's Acting Governor. He is the state's only acting governor to die in office. A successful businessman, he became one of the leading settlers of Princeton, entering politics shortly before the American Revolutionary War, he served on the Massachusetts Provincial Congress's executive committee until the state adopted its constitution in 1780, after which he continued to serve on the state's Governor's Council. Elected lieutenant governor in 1794, he served in that office under Governors Samuel Adams and Increase Sumner until the latter died shortly after winning reelection in 1799. Gill served an undistinguished term as acting governor until his own death in 1800, ten days before his successor, Caleb Strong, assumed office. Gill was a significant benefactor and founder of Leicester Academy, supported the congregational church in Princeton, where the family had a large estate. Moses Gill was born January 1734 to John and Elizabeth Gill in Charlestown, Massachusetts.
He was one the younger sons in a long line of children which included John Gill, who would become well known in the colonies as printer of the Boston Gazette. Gill entered business as a local merchant in Boston. In 1759 he married daughter to pastor Thomas Prince of Boston's Old South Church. Upon her father's death the couple inherited Prince's lands in western Worcester County, one of the largest tracts in what became the town of Princeton. In 1767 he retired from his business activities, the couple divided their time between Boston and Princeton. Sarah died childless in 1771. Gill remarried in 1772 to Rebecca Boylston, a scion of the influential Boylston family and sister of Harvard College benefactor Nicholas Boylston, they were childless. The Gills were known to own several slaves. In 1774 Gill entered politics; the assembly was dissolved by Governor Thomas Gage under the terms of the Massachusetts Government Act, but its members met shortly afterwards and reconstituted themselves as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress.
Gill served on this body's executive council, which functioned as the de facto executive of the state until its constitution was adopted in 1780. When the American Revolutionary War broke in April 1775, Gill became involved in the early military organization of the Siege of Boston, heading the provincial congress' supply committee, he was delegated, along with General Artemas Ward, to meet George Washington in Springfield and escort him to the army camps outside Boston. Because of his prominence in Worcester County Gill was appointed to the county's district court when it was reorganized after the revolution began. In this role he sat on the panel that heard the preliminary cases in 1781 involving Quock Walker, an African American seeking a declaration of his freedom. Gill's panel decided in Walker's favor, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court confirmed the judgments on appeal, declaring that slavery was incompatible with the state constitution, he continued to serve in the General Court, winning election to the state senate annually from 1780, being chosen by that body to serve on the Governor's Council.
He stood for election to the United States House of Representatives in the 1789 election but was defeated by Jonathan Grout. After the death of the immensely popular Governor John Hancock in 1793, the state's gubernatorial election of 1794 was a wide open race. Gill was one of several nominees for lieutenant governor, received more votes than all nominees except the winning gubernatorial candidate, Samuel Adams. With no candidates for lieutenant governor receiving a majority, the General Court decided the election, choosing Gill, he thereafter won annual reelection to that post. In 1796 the aging Adams announced he would not run for reelection the following spring, again the election was a wide open affair; the party system was still taking shape in the state, the Federalists nominated Increase Sumner, while more populist factions that had supported Hancock and Adams nominated Gill and James Sullivan. Although Gill polled well in Boston and the eastern counties, the Federalists won a decisive victory over the divided opposition.
Since he was nominated by one faction as lieutenant governor, Gill was again returned to that post. The principal issues in this and subsequent elections were over federal policy: the national response to threats of war with Revolutionary France, the consequent need for increased taxes to arm the nation. Gill's politics are unclear: historian Anson Morse is of the opinion that his popularity was not sufficient to head the ticket of either the Federalists or the Democratic-Republicans. Historian John Barry observes that Gill's term as acting governor though it was for a full year, was "too short to be distinguished". Sumner won reelection in 1798 and 1799, but was ill during the 1799 race, which he won by a landslide. Constitutional issues were raised because he was on his deathbed and it was uncertain that he could take the oath of office. Sumner took the oath of office in early June, but died a few days at which point Gill became acting governor. Gill served out Sumner's term, was considered a candidate for the governorship as the 1800 election approached.
The election pitted Federalist Caleb Strong against Democratic-Republican Elbridge Gerry, was won by Strong. Gill w
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Andover is a town in Essex County, United States. It was settled in 1642 and incorporated in 1646; as of the 2010 census, the population was 33,201. It is part of the Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, Massachusetts-New Hampshire metropolitan statistical area. Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Andover, it is twinned with its namesake: Andover, England. In 1642, the Massachusetts General Court set aside a portion of land in what is now Essex County for an inland plantation, including parts of what is now Andover, North Andover and South Lawrence. In order to encourage settlement, early colonists were offered three years' immunity from taxes and services; the first permanent settlement in the Andover area was established in 1642 by John Woodbridge and a group of settlers from Newbury and Ipswich. Shortly after they arrived, they purchased a piece of land from the local Pennacook tribal chief Cutshamache for "six pounds of currency and a coat" and on the condition that Roger, a local Pennacook man, would be allowed to plant his corn and take alewives from a local water source.
Roger's Brook, a small stream which cuts through the eastern part of town, is named in his honor. In May 1646 the settlement was named Andover; this name was chosen in honor of the town of Andover in England, near the original home of some of the first residents. The first recorded town meeting was held in 1656 in the home of settler John Osgood in what is now North Andover; the old burying ground in what is now North Andover marks the center of the early town. Contrary to popular belief, the towns split due to the location of the Old North Church located in what is now North Andover; the villagers from the southwestern part of the town were tired of walking all the way to the extreme north of what was Andover and decided to build their own South Church central to what is now Andover. Early on the general populace was concentrated together around the Old Center for protection from feared Indian attacks, but the Indians were peaceful until the outbreak of King Philip's War. King Philip Six Indian raids occurred with the last in 1698 led by Chief Escumbuit.
During the 1692 Salem witch trials, Andover resident Joseph Ballard asked for help for his wife from several girls in the neighboring Salem Village who were identifying witches there. After visiting Elizabeth Ballard, the girls claimed that several people in Andover had bewitched her: Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. and her granddaughter Mary Lacey Jr. During the course of the legal proceedings, more than 40 Andover citizens women and their children, were formally accused of having made a covenant with the Devil. Three Andover residents, Martha Carrier, Mary Parker, Samuel Wardwell, were convicted and executed. Five others either pleaded guilty at arraignment or were convicted at trial: Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr. and Abigail Faulkner Sr. in 1692 and Wardwell's wife Sarah and Rev. Dane's granddaughter, Elizabeth Johnson Jr. in 1693. Those who were not executed were granted reprieves by Gov. William Phips, but the convictions remained on their records. In 1713, in response to petitions initiated in 1703 by Abigail Faulkner Sr. and Sarah Wardwell, Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley reversed the attainder on the names of those who were convicted in the episode.
By 1705, Andover's population had begun to move southward and the idea of a new meeting house in the south end of town was proposed. This was opposed by the people living near the original meeting house in the north, but the dispute was settled in 1709 when the Great and General Court divided Andover into two parishes and South. After the division of the two parishes, South Andover established the South Church and South Parish "Burying-Yard," as it was called, with early Andover settler Robert Russell the first to be interred at age 80 in December 1710, but despite this split, the town remained politically one unit. For many years Andover was geographically one of the largest towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1854, a measure was passed to divide the town into two separate political units according to the old parish boundaries; the name Andover was assumed by the West and South parishes, while the name North Andover was given to the North Parish. How those names were decided upon is still debated to this day, from the reasons being money being paid to one town to keep the name, to there being a controversy over a fire truck affecting the name change.
Records show that on the morning of April 19, 1775 350 Andover men marched toward Lexington. Although they did not arrive in time for the battle that day, they did go on to participate in the battle of Bunker Hill two months and fought in subsequent skirmishes with the Redcoats during the war. Among the Andover men who were representatives to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780 were Colonel Samuel Osgood, Zebadiah Abbot, John Farnum and Samuel Phillips Jr.. Phillips – who would go on to found Phillips Academy – was appointed by John Adams to help draft the Massachusetts state constitution. During the burning of Charlestown Andover townspeople hiked to the top of Holt Hill to witness it. Holt Hill is the highest point in Essex County at 420 ft and is part of the Charles W. Ward Reservation. In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham, Massachusetts in setting up a liberty pole with the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of Amer
Levi Lincoln Sr.
Levi Lincoln Sr. was an American revolutionary and statesman from Massachusetts. A Democratic-Republican, he most notably served as Thomas Jefferson's first Attorney General, played a significant role in the events that led to the celebrated Marbury v. Madison court case, he served two terms as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, acting as Governor for the remainder of Governor James Sullivan's term after his death in December 1808. Lincoln was unsuccessful in his bid to be elected governor in his own right in 1809. Born in Hingham, Lincoln was educated at Harvard, studied law with Joseph Hawley before establishing a law practice in Worcester, Massachusetts, he was active in local politics, participated in the convention that drafted the Massachusetts Constitution in 1779. He supported Quock Walker, a former slave seeking confirmation of his freedom under that constitution in 1783, he entered national politics with his election to the United States House of Representatives in 1800, but was tapped by Jefferson to become Attorney General.
Lincoln served Jefferson as a consultant on the politics of New England, was influential in the distribution of patronage in the region. He served on a commission that resolved claims emanating from the Yazoo land scandal in Georgia, advised Jefferson on matters related to the Louisiana Purchase, he returned to Massachusetts. He established Republican dominance in Worcester though the state was dominated by Federalists, he was elected lieutenant governor under James Sullivan in 1807, but failed to win election in his own right in 1809 in a partisan election. He retired from politics in 1811, his descendants were a major influence in Worcester for much of the 19th century. Lincoln was born on May 15, 1749, to Enoch and Rachel Lincoln, his father first apprenticed him to a local blacksmith, but the boy's lack of interest in that business and clear interest in reading led to his eventual enrollment in Harvard College. He graduated in 1772, studied law under Joseph Hawley in Northampton; when news of the Battles of Lexington and Concord reached Northampton, he volunteered for military service, but only served for a short time, marching with the local militia to Cambridge, where militia were besieging British-occupied Boston.
Lincoln did not stay long, soon returned to Northampton, where he passed the bar. He established a practice in Worcester in 1775, where his business flourished because most of the Worcester lawyers had been Loyalist and had fled to Boston. From 1775 to 1781, he served as clerk of the court and probate judge of Worcester County, served the town of Worcester in a variety of posts into the 1790s, he was elected in 1779 to the state convention. During these years, Lincoln rose in prominence to become one of the largest landowners in Worcester, he was a charter member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1780. In 1781, Lincoln was one of the lawyers who worked on a series of legal cases surrounding Quock Walker, a former slave seeking to claim his freedom. One of the cases, Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Nathaniel Jennison established that slavery was incompatible with the new state constitution. Although the decision by Justice William Cushing was based on the state constitution's language "all men are born free and equal", Lincoln in his arguments had instead appealed to natural law and God's law.
He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1781, but declined to serve. Lincoln was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1796, to both the House and State Senate in 1797. At first a weak Federalist, Lincoln became more associated with the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party, he ran for election to the United States House of Representatives in the 1790s, losing each time to Federalist Dwight Foster. Foster was elected to the Senate in a special election in early 1800, his service was brief: on March 5, 1801, President Jefferson appointed him Attorney General, an office he held until March 1805. Jefferson's choice of Lincoln was supported by his close advisor and eventual Treasury Secretary, Albert Gallatin, who described Lincoln as "a good lawyer, a fine scholar, a man of great discretion and sound judgment" and a "sound and decided Republican". Since the post of Attorney General was part-time, Lincoln spent most of his time in that office in Worcester, advancing the Democratic-Republican cause.
In addition to distributing federal patronage dollars, he reported to Jefferson on political sentiment in New England, advocated for Republican positions in the newspapers. In 1801, he founded the National Aegis, a newspaper dedicated to advancing Republican arguments and countering Federalist positions printed in other Massachusetts publications. During his years as Attorney General, the Democratic-Republicans gained control of most of Worcester's political establishment while much of Massachusetts remained Federalist. Lincoln was the subject of unflattering partisan newspaper reporting, as well as sermons delivered by influential Congregational ministers; the negative sermonizing prompted Lincoln to publish a pamphlet entitled Letters to the People, by a Farmer in 1802, in which he lambasted the Federalists for politiciz
William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded with Isaac Knapp in 1831 and published in Massachusetts until slavery was abolished by Constitutional amendment after the American Civil War, he was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Born in Newburyport, Garrison began his newspaper career as an apprentice compositor for the Newburyport Herald, he became involved in the anti-slavery movement in the 1820s, over time he rejected both the American Colonization Society and the gradualist views of most others involved in the movement. Garrison co-founded The Liberator to espouse his abolitionist views, in 1832 he organized the New-England Anti-Slavery Society; this society expanded into the American Anti-Slavery Society, which espoused the position that slavery should be abolished.
Garrison emerged as a leading advocate of women's rights, which prompted a split in the abolitionist community. In the 1870s, Garrison became a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement. Garrison was born on December 10, 1805, in Newburyport, the son of immigrants from the British colony of New Brunswick, in present-day Canada. Under An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, Abijah Garrison, a merchant sailing pilot and master, had obtained American papers and moved his family to Newburyport in 1806; the U. S. Embargo Act of 1807, intended to injure Great Britain, caused a decline in American commercial shipping; the elder Garrison became unemployed and deserted the family in 1808. Garrison's mother was Frances Maria Lloyd, reported to have been tall, of a strong religious character, she started referring to their son William as his middle name, to preserve her family name. She died in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Garrison sold home-made lemonade and candy as a youth, delivered wood to help support the family.
In 1818, at 13, Garrison began working as an apprentice compositor for the Newburyport Herald. He soon began writing articles under the pseudonym Aristides. Aristides was an Athenian statesman and general nicknamed "the Just." After his apprenticeship ended, Garrison and a young printer named Isaac Knapp bought their own newspaper in 1826, the short-lived Free Press. One of their regular contributors was abolitionist John Greenleaf Whittier. In this early work as a small town newspaper writer, Garrison acquired skills he would use as a nationally known writer and newspaper publisher. In 1828, he was appointed editor of the National Philanthropist in Boston, the first American journal to promote legally-mandated temperance. At the age of 25, Garrison joined the anti-slavery movement crediting the 1826 book of Presbyterian Reverend John Rankin, Letters on Slavery, for attracting him to the cause. For a brief time he became associated with the American Colonization Society, an organization that promoted the resettlement of free blacks to a territory on the west coast of Africa.
Although some members of the society encouraged granting freedom to slaves, others considered relocation a means to reduce the number of free blacks in the United States. Southern members thought reducing the threat of free blacks in society would help preserve the institution of slavery. By late 1829–1830, "Garrison rejected colonization, publicly apologized for his error, as was typical of him, he censured all who were committed to it." Garrison began writing for and became co-editor with Benjamin Lundy of the Quaker newspaper Genius of Universal Emancipation in Baltimore, Maryland. With his experience as a printer and newspaper editor, Garrison changed the layout of the paper and handled other operation issues. Lundy was freed to spend more time touring as an anti-slavery speaker. Garrison shared Lundy's gradualist views, but while working for the Genius, he became convinced of the need to demand immediate and complete emancipation. Lundy and Garrison continued to work together on the paper in spite of their differing views.
Each signed his own editorials. Garrison introduced "The Black List," a column devoted to printing short reports of "the barbarities of slavery—kidnappings, murders." For instance, Garrison reported that Francis Todd, a shipper from Garrison's home town of Newburyport, was involved in the domestic slave trade, that he had had slaves shipped from Baltimore to New Orleans in the coastwise trade on his ship the Francis. Todd filed a suit for libel in Maryland against both Lundy; the state of Maryland brought criminal charges against Garrison finding him guilty and ordering him to pay a fine of $50 and court costs. Garrison was sentenced to a jail term of six months, he was released after seven weeks when the anti-slavery philanthropist Arthur Tappan donated the money for the fine. Garrison decided to leave Baltimore, he and Lundy amicably agreed to part ways. In 1831, Garrison returned to New England, where he co-founded a weekly anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator, with his friend Isaac Knapp.
In the first issue, Garrison stated: I am aware that many object to the severity of my language. I will be as harsh as truth, as uncompr
Phillips Academy Andover is a co-educational university-preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate year. The school is in Andover, United States, 25 miles north of Boston. Phillips Academy has 1,150 students, is a selective school, accepting 13% of applicants with a yield as high as 86%, it is part of the Eight Schools Association, Ten Schools Admissions Organization as well as the G20 Schools Group. Founded in 1778, Phillips is one of the oldest incorporated secondary schools in the United States, it has educated two American presidents, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, as well as a long list of notable alumni: 3 Nobel Prize laureates and 6 Medal of Honor recipients, it has been referred to by many contemporary sources as "the finest school in America". A boarding school for boys, it turned coeducational in 1973, the year in which it merged with its neighbor girls school Abbot Academy. Phillips Academy Andover is the oldest incorporated academy in the United States, established in 1778 by Samuel Phillips, Jr.
His uncle, Dr. John Phillips founded Phillips Exeter Academy in 1781. Phillips Academy's endowment stood at just over one billion dollars as of June 2017. Andover is subject to the control of a board of trustees, headed by Peter Currie, business executive and former Netscape Chief Financial Officer, who took over as president of the Phillips Academy Board of Trustees on July 1, 2012. On November 14, 2012, John G. Palfrey, Jr. Henry N. Ess III Professor of Law and Vice Dean for Library and Information Resources at Harvard Law School, was named the 15th Head of School. Phillips Academy admitted only boys until the school became coeducational in 1973, the year of Phillips Academy's merger with Abbot Academy, a boarding school for girls in Andover. Abbot Academy, founded in 1828, was one of the first incorporated schools for girls in New England. Then-headmaster Theodore Sizer of Phillips and Donald Gordon of Abbot oversaw the merger. Andover traditionally educated its students for Yale, just as Phillips Exeter Academy educated its students for Harvard, Lawrenceville prepped students for Princeton.
The school's student-run newspaper, The Phillipian, is the oldest secondary school newspaper in the United States, the next oldest secondary school newspaper being The Exonian, Phillips Exeter Academy's weekly. The Phillipian was first published on July 28, 1857, has been published since 1878, it retains financial and editorial independence from Phillips Academy, having completed a $500,000 endowment drive in 2014. Students comprise the editorial board and make all decisions for the paper, consulting with two faculty advisors at their own discretion; the Philomathean Society is one of the oldest high school debate societies in the nation, second to the Daniel Webster Debate Society at Phillips Exeter Academy. Phillips Academy runs a five-week summer session for 600 students entering grades 8 through 12. Phillips Academy was founded during the American Revolution as an all-boys school in 1778 by Samuel Phillips, Jr. Phillips Academy's traditional rival is Phillips Exeter Academy, established three years in Exeter, New Hampshire, by Samuel Phillips' uncle, Dr. John Phillips, a major contributor to Andover's founding.
The two schools still maintain a rivalry. The football teams have met nearly every year since 1878, making it the oldest prep school rivalry in the country. In 1882, the first high school lacrosse teams were formed at Phillips Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy and the Lawrenceville School. Several figures from the revolutionary period are associated with the school. George Washington visited the school during his presidency in 1789, Washington's nephews attended the school. John Hancock signed the school's articles of incorporation and the great seal of the school was designed by Paul Revere. For a hundred years of its history, Phillips Academy shared its campus with the Andover Theological Seminary, founded on Phillips Hill in 1807 by orthodox Calvinists who had fled Harvard College after it appointed a liberal Unitarian theologian to a professorship of divinity; the Andover Theological Seminary was independent from Phillips Academy but shared the same board of directors. In 1908, the seminary departed Phillips Academy, leaving behind its key buildings: academic building Pearson Hall, dormitories Foxcroft Hall and Bartlet Hall.
These buildings became part of the Andover campus, expanded in the 1920s and 1930s around this historic core with new buildings of similar Georgian style: Samuel Phillips Hall, George Washington Hall, Samuel Morse Hall, Paul Revere Hall, Oliver Wendell Holmes Library, the Addison Gallery of American Art and Cochran Chapel. Small portions of Andover's campus were laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of Central Park and himself a graduate of the school. Revere's design of the school's seal incorporated bees, a beehive, the sun; the school's primary motto, Non Sibi, located in the sun, means "not for oneself". The school's second motto, Finis Origine Pendet, meaning "the end depends upon the beginning", is scrolled across the bottom of the seal. Phillips was one of the schools where students on the Chinese Educational Mission were sent to study by the Qing dynasty government from 1878 to 1881. One of the students, Liang Cheng became the Chinese ambassador to the United States. Phillips Academy curriculum and extracurricular activities include music ensembles, 30 competitive sports, a campus newspaper, a radio station, a debate club.
In 1973 Phillips Academy merged with neighboring Abbot Academy, founded in 1829 as one of the first schools for girls in Ne
A certain type of three-story apartment building is called a three-decker or triple-decker in the United States. These buildings are of light-framed, wood construction, where each floor consists of a single apartment. Both stand-alone and semi-detached versions are common. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, tens of thousands of three-deckers were constructed in New England, as an economical means of housing the thousands of newly-arrived immigrant workers who filled the factories of the area; the economics of the three-decker are simple: the cost of the land and roof are spread among three or six apartments, which have identical floor plans. The three-decker apartment house was seen as an alternative to the row-housing built in other cities of Northeastern United States during this period, such as in New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. Three-deckers were most built in the emerging industrial cities of central New England between 1870 and 1920. There are large concentrations in Rhode Island.
Worcester, was the origin of the type, with Francis Gallagher held to be the originator. Other cities make the same claim, they can be found in the former industrial cities of New Hampshire and Connecticut, as well as the New York City area, they were housing for the working-class and middle-class families in multiple rows on narrow lots in the areas surrounding the factories. They were regarded as more livable than their brick and stone tenement and row house counterparts, as they allowed for airflow and light on all four sides of each building, it is estimated. Areas such as Dorchester, Roxbury and Jamaica Plain were popular with the emerging middle class and became "streetcar suburbs" as transportation systems expanded from the older, core sections of the city; the affordable three decker homes attracted live-in landlords who would collect rent from the other two apartments. In Worcester, sewer connection charges were based on street frontage, so builders favored houses with as little frontage as possible.
This is one reason why three-deckers are situated on narrow lots and are rectangular shape, with the smaller sides at the front and the rear. In the textile mill city of Fall River, thousands of wood-framed multi-family tenements were built by the mill owners during the boom years of the 1870s to house their workers. Many more were built by private individuals who rented their apartments to the mill workers and their families; this style of housing differed from the well-spaced boardinghouses of the early 19th century built in Lowell and Lawrence, Massachusetts, or the cottages of Rhode Island. A different three story style apartment house is common in urban working class neighborhoods in northern New Jersey, they are sometimes locally referred to as "Bayonne Boxes". Similar brick apartment buildings were built in Chicago in the 1920s, they are locally referred to as "Three Flats". Three-deckers are defined by the style of their roofs, being either gable, hip, or flat-roofed, with preference varying regionally.
For instance and gabled three-deckers are dominant in Worcester. While lacking the ornamentation found on other homes of the Victorian period, they sometimes were built with certain decorative details, such as porch railings and posts. A typical feature of the triple-decker is a vertical stack of bay windows facing the street side of the house; the rear has utility porches, which are enclosed. Three-deckers feature two apartments per floor, with the units sharing a common wall; each apartment has a front and/or back porch for each apartment, because the buildings are freestanding, there are windows on all four sides. Some three-deckers feature a single front door. Triple-deckers were built in huge numbers, in some areas comprising entire neighborhoods, but by the 1950s, a number of them had been abandoned or razed because of suburban growth and urban renewal. Starting in the early 1980s, they became desirable again as older streetcar suburbs began to gentrify by buyers looking for homes where they could live in one unit and rent the other two, thus helping them pay their mortgage.
As condominiums became more common, many were converted into individually owned units. Since 1990, many triple-deckers in Worcester, have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A new wave of triple decker apartment houses has been built in areas of Boston as an alternative to the townhouse style condominium or apartment buildings more associated with suburban areas. Boston's zoning regulations allow new three-family houses to be constructed in areas with existing triple-deckers. However, building codes for the new buildings are far more stringent today, with requirements for fire sprinkler systems and handicap access. List of house types List of Registered Historic Places in Worcester, Massachusetts Worcester Historical Museum Sightseeking, 2005 Worcester's three-deckers