Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Tumulus of Bougon
The Tumulus of Bougon or Necropolis of Bougon is a group of five Neolithic barrows located in Bougon near La-Mothe-Saint-Héray, between Exoudon and Pamproux in Poitou-Charentes, France. Their discovery in 1840 raised great scientific interest, to protect the monuments, the site was acquired by the department of Deux-Sèvres in 1873. Excavations resumed in the late 1960s, the oldest structures of this prehistoric monument date to 4800 BC. The site is located on a limestone plateau within a loop of the river Bougon, the area used to be known as Les Chirons. The stepped mound, erected in the early 4th millennium BC, has a diameter of 42 m and its large rectangular chamber lies south of its centre. It is connected by a non-centrally placed passage, there is evidence that the passage was still used by the 3rd millennium BC. The chambers walls contain artificially shaped orthostats, the gaps were filled with dry stone walling, the chamber is covered by a capstone which weighs 90 tons. It is supported by two pillars, which serve to subdivide the chamber.
During its excavation in 1840, about 200 skeletons were discovered in three layers, separated by stone slabs, the vague reports of that early excavation prevent any detailed chronological analysis. Accompanying finds included flat-bottomed and round-bottomed pottery, pierced teeth, chains of seashells and stone tools, more recent excavations showed that the grave was abandoned shortly after its construction. The passage had been blocked with a stone slab. At its base lay the skull of a man who had undergone three trepanations during his lifetime, pottery was found in front of the monuments facade, suggesting that cult activities, entailing the deposition of pottery, took place after its closure. About 1,000 years later, the monument was re-used for more burials by people of a different culture who reached the passage from above, Tumulus B is a long mound,36 m long and 8 m wide. Two of them are very small cists, with no access passage, the mounds west part has two larger rectangular chambers, each accessible via a passage from the south.
The chamber B1 is a square structure, built from monolithic slabs. Such constructions are known as dolmen angoumoisin, a 2.2 m long passage leads to a chamber of 2 by 1.5 m, built simply from four wall slabs. One of them has a carved out of its side. A fifth slab covers the chamber, little archaeological material was found in it, probably because it had been cleared and reused in the 3rd millennium BC
It consists of dolmens and tumuli. Site 1 is a 45 m long dolmen, most of which has been destroyed, site 3 is the remains of the earth embankment, still 43 m long. Most of its stones are still there, either in situ or overturned. The chamber must have located in the section that no longer exists. Site 4 is an 80 m long dolmen and it originally had about 100 external stones,14 of which are still in situ, the remainder were put back during its restoration. The passage grave consisted of a roughly 8 m long chamber with 12 upright supporting stones, the original five capstones of the chamber as well as the capstone for the passage are missing. Site 2 is a tumulus about 20 m in diameter in the centre of which the remains of a passage grave are located, sites 5 and 6 are Bronze Age tumuli. Inside the chamber of site 2 and 4 were found relicts of Funnelbeaker, Globular amphora, die Steingräber von Oldendorf an der Luhe In, Körner G. Dokumentation zur Archäologie Niedersachsens in Denkmalpflege und Forschung,1975 The Oldendorf Totenstatt at www. oldendorf-luhe. de
The Cairn of Barnenez is a Neolithic monument located near Plouezoch, on the Kernéléhen peninsula in northern Finistère, Brittany. It is remarkable for the presence of megalithic art, radiocarbon dates indicate that the first phase of the monument was erected between 4850 and 4250 BC, and the second phase between 4450 and 4000 BC. Pottery found in and around the monument indicates that it underwent a period of reuse in the Bronze Age, the cairn was first mapped in 1807, in the context of the Napoleonic cadaster. Its first scientific recognition took place in the context of a congress in Morlaix in 1850. Privately owned until the 1950s, the cairn was used as a quarry for paving stones and this activity, which threatened to destroy the monument, was only halted after the discovery of several of its chambers in the 1950s. The local community took control of the site. The cairn was restored between 1954 and 1968, at the same time, vegetation was removed from the mound and systematic excavation took place in and around the monument.
Today, the Barnenez cairn is 72 m long, up to 25 m wide and it is built of 13,000 to 14,000 tons of stone. It contains 11 chambers entered by separate passages, the mound has steep facades and a stepped profile. Several internal walls either represent earlier facades or served the stability of the structure, the cairn consists of relatively small blocks of stone, with only the chambers being truly megalithic in character. The monument overlooks the Bay of Morlaix, probably a coastal plain at the time of its erection. The monument is the result of at least two phases of building, in a first phase, a slightly trapezoidal mound of 32 m by 9 to 13 m was erected. It contained 5 chambers and was surrounded by a double kerb, the first phase favoured the use of dolerite. In a second phase, an extension with six further chambers was added in the west, at the same time, Cairn 1 was enveloped in a wider and taller structure, its passages had to be extended. More granite was used in this phase, the 11 chambers of the Barnenez cairn are of the type known as Dolmen à couloir in French archaeological terminology.
The term translates roughly as passage grave and they are built of large slabs of slate and granite. Originally, all the chambers were entirely enclosed by the mound, the fact that several of them are partially exposed now is the result of modern quarrying. Each of the 11 chambers is reached from the southeast via a narrow passage
Drombeg stone circle
Drombeg stone circle, is a Recumbent stone circle located 2.4 km east of Glandore, County Cork, Ireland. Drombeg is one of the most visited sites in Ireland and is protected under the National Monuments Act. The stone circle consists of seventeen closely spaced stones spanning 9.3 metres in diameter, the most westerly stone is the long recumbent and has two egg shaped cup-marks, one with a ring around it. While the alignment is good, it is not precise, the ruins of two round stone walled conjoined prehistoric huts and a fulacht fiadh lie just 40m west of the monument. Evidence suggests the fulacht fiadh was in use up until the 5th century AD, the larger of the huts had a timber roof supported by a timber post. The smaller hut had an oven on its east side. A causeway leads from the huts to the cooking place featuring a hearth, following a number of surveys in the early 1900s, the site was excavated and restored in 1957. During this process an inverted pot was found in the centre of the circle, radiocarbon dating of samples taken from the site suggest that it was active c.1100 -800 BC.
The pot was buried near the centre of the circle along with 80 other smashed sherds, four bits of shale, megalithic Ireland - Photographs of Drombeg Megalithomania - Site plan and photographs of Drombeg
Ceredigion is a county in Mid Wales. In the Middle Ages, it was a minor kingdom known for a time as Seisyllwg, following its Norman conquest, the name was anglicised to Cardigan and Cardiganshire and it began to be administered as a county in 1282. The county had a population of 75,900 at the 2011 UK census and its largest town, Aberystwyth, is one of the two administrative centres, the other being Aberaeron. Aberystwyth houses Aberystwyth University, Bronglais Hospital and the National Library of Wales, the inland town of Lampeter houses part of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Ceredigion is considered to be a centre of Welsh culture and more than half the population speaks Welsh, the county is mainly rural with over 50 miles of coastline and a mountainous hinterland. The numerous sandy beaches, together with the long-distance Ceredigion Coast Path provide excellent views of Cardigan Bay, the economy became highly dependent on dairy farming and the rearing of livestock for the English market.
Ceredigion has been inhabited since prehistoric times,170 hill forts and enclosures have been identified across the county, around the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, the area was between the realms of the Demetae and Ordovices. The Sarn Helen road ran through the territory, with forts at Bremia, following the Roman withdrawal, Irish raids and invasions were repulsed, supposedly by the forces under a northerner named Cunedda. The 9th-century History of the Britons attributed to Nennius records that Cuneddas son Ceredig settled the area around the Teifi in the 5th century. The territory supposedly remained a kingdom under his dynasty until its extinction upon the drowning of Gwgon ap Meurig c. 871, after which it was administered by Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd before passing to his son Cadell. Many pilgrims passed through Cardiganshire on their way to St Davids, some came by sea and made use of the churches at Mwnt and Penbryn, while others came by land seeking hospitality at such places as Strata Florida Abbey.
Both the abbey and Llanbadarn Fawr were important monastic sites of scholarship, place names including ysbyty denote their association with pilgrims. In 1282, Edward I of England conquered the principality of Wales, one of thirteen traditional counties in Wales, Cardiganshire was a vice-county. Cardiganshire was split into the five hundreds of Genaur-Glyn, Moyddyn, every community built its own chapel or meeting house, and Cardiganshire became one of the centres of Methodism in Wales with the Aeron Valley being at the centre of the revival. Cardigan was one of the ports of southern Wales, but its harbour silted in the mid-19th century. In the uplands, wheeled vehicles were rare in the 18th century, on the coast, trade in herrings and corn took place across the Irish Sea. In the 19th century, many of the rural poor emigrated to the New World from Cardigan, Aberystwyth became the main centre for the export of lead and Aberaeron and Newquay did brisk coastal trade. The building of the railway from Shrewsbury in the 1860s encouraged visitors and this area of the county of Dyfed became a district of Wales under the name Ceredigion in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, and since 1996, has formed the county of Ceredigion
Filitosa is a megalithic site in southern Corsica, France. The period of occupation spans from the end of the Neolithic era and it is located on a hill, overlooking the Taravo valley. The site was discovered in 1946 by the owner of the land, systematic excavations started in 1954 by Roger Grosjean. Finds of arrow heads and pottery date earliest inhabitation to 3300 BC, around 1500 BC, 2-3 metre menhirs were erected. They have been carved with representations of human faces, Roger Grosjean thought the menhirs may have been erected to ward off an invasion of a group of people called the Torréens. However this was unsuccessful, the menhirs were cast down, broken up, the Torréens built circular stone structures on the site, known as torri, which may have been used as temples. The torri are remarkably well preserved and this theory had been disputed by works of F. De Lanfranchi, M. C. Weiss and Gabriel Camps. In total, about twenty menhirs of various times were counted in Filitosa and they constitute approximately half of the total staff of these monuments in Corsica.
The site of Filitosa is approached down a track through an ancient olive grove, the first monument to be seen is a rock overhang and surrounding wall. Then the visitor comes upon the central monument, various hut platforms are all around, and the track leads a further 50m to the Western Monument or torri. From there, one can enjoy a view down the hill to an alignment of five megaliths. Behind the olive tree is the quarry, where the megaliths were extracted from
Carrowmore, County Sligo is one of the four major passage tomb complexes in Ireland. It is located at the centre of the Cúil Irra peninsula in County Sligo and 3 km west of Sligo town. This is one of the largest complexes of megalithic tombs in Ireland and is among the oldest used passage tombs, placed on a small plateau at an altitude of between 36. To the east is Carns Hill with two large cairns overlooking Lough Gill, and along the boundary of the peninsula the Ballygawley Mountains have four passage tombs at their peaks. 30 monuments survive in Carrowmore today, there may have been more monuments in the complex originally, but some fell victim to quarrying and field clearance during the 18th, 19th and early 20th century. The complex is one kilometre north-south and 600 meters east-west. Most of the sites are satellite tombs which surround the largest monument, placed on the point of the plateau. However, in some respects the Carrowmore sites are atypical passage tombs, for example, none of the tombs have lintel-covered, tunnel-like, passages that are a feature of most Irish passage tombs, and only one site possesses a cairn.
The tombs consisted of a central dolmen-like megalith with 5 upright orthostats bearing a roughly conical capstone on top and these were each enclosed by a boulder circle of 12 to 15 metres in diameter. The boulder circles contain 30 to 40 boulders, usually of gneiss, sometimes a second, inner boulder circle is present. Entrance stones extend from the feature, showing the intended orientation of the dolmens. They are not oriented to points of the compass but generally face towards the area of the central cairn, in four examples, monuments are situated in pairs. One of the tombs, Tomb 27, has a cruciform passage tomb plan. The roof – now gone – may have been of stone slabs or corbelled, Listoghil which was erected c.3500 BC, is 34 metres in diameter and has a unique box-like chamber with the only megalithic art so far found at Carrowmore. Three large boulders were found beside the chamber and under the cairn. As many of the satellite tombs face the area, the location of Tomb 51 appears to have been the focal point around which the cemetery developed.
This is the tomb to contain inhumations rather than cremations. Gabriel Beranger visited the site in 1779 and illustrated some of the monuments and these drawings are a valuable record of the state of Carrowmore at the time, showing some monuments now destroyed or damaged
Rheged was one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, during the post-Roman era and Early Middle Ages. It is recorded in several poetic and bardic sources, although its borders are not described in any of them, some modern scholars have suggested that it included what is now Cumbria in North West England and possibly extended into Lancashire and Scotland. In some sources, Rheged is intimately associated with the king Urien Rheged and its inhabitants spoke Cumbric, a Brittonic dialect closely related to Old Welsh. The name Rheged appears regularly as an epithet of a certain Urien in a number of early Welsh poems and royal genealogies. His victories over the Anglian chieftains of Bernicia in the half of the 6th century are recorded by Nennius and celebrated by the bard Taliesin. He is thus placed squarely in the North of Britain and perhaps specifically in Westmorland when referred to as Ruler of Llwyfenydd, although it is possible that Rheged was merely a stronghold, it was not uncommon for sub-Roman monarchs to use their kingdoms name as an epithet.
It is generally accepted, that Rheged was a kingdom covering a part of modern Cumbria. Place-name evidence from Dunragit suggests that, at least in one period of its history, Rheged extended into Dumfries, archaeological excavations at Trustys Hill near Gatehouse of Fleet have led to claims that the kingdom was centred on Galloway early in the 7th century. More problematic interpretations suggest that it could have reached as far south as Rochdale in Greater Manchester, the River Roch on which Rochdale stands was recorded in the 13th century as Rached or Rachet. These place-names may incorporate the element Rheged precisely because they lay on or near its borders, certainly Uriens kingdom stretched eastward at one time, as he was Ruler of Catraeth. According to Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd Elidirs son, Llywarch Hen, was a ruler in North Britain in the 6th century and he was driven from his territory by princely in-fighting after Uriens death and was perhaps in old age associated with Powys. However, it is possible, because of inconsistencies, that the poetry connected to Powys was associated with Llywarchs name at a later, probably 9th century.
Llywarch is referred to in poems as king of South Rheged. Searching for Llywarchs kingdom has led historians to propose that Rheged may have been divided between sons, resulting in northern and southern successor states. The connections of the family of Llywarch and Urien with Powys has suggested to some, on grounds of proximity, after Bernicia united with Deira to become the kingdom of Northumbria, Rheged was annexed by Northumbria, some time before AD730. After Rheged was incorporated into Northumbria, the old Cumbric language was replaced by Old English. This may have represented the political assertion of lingering British culture in the region, the area of Cumbria remained under the control of Strathclyde until the early 11th century when Strathclyde itself was absorbed into the Scottish kingdom. The name Rheged has been adopted by the Rheged Centre close to Penrith in Cumbria, the centre has a number of retail outlets and cafés with a Cumbrian theme, as well as the largest turf roof in Europe and a giant cinema screen
Kingdom of Powys
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It very roughly covered the top two thirds of the county of Powys and part of the east midlands. The fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, the name Powys is thought to derive from Latin pagus the countryside and pagenses dwellers in the countryside, the origins of French pays and English peasant. During the Roman Empire, this region was organised into a Roman province, with the capital at Viroconium Cornoviorum, an entry in the Annales Cambriae concerning the death of King Cadell ap Brochfael says that the land called Powys was originally known as Ternyllwg. Throughout the Early Middle Ages, Powys was ruled by the Gwerthrynion dynasty, a family claiming descent jointly from the marriage of Vortigern and Princess Sevira, the daughter of Magnus Maximus. Archaeological evidence has shown that, unusually for the period, Viroconium Cornoviorum survived as an urban centre well into the 6th century.
The Historia Brittonum, written around AD828, records the town as Caer Guricon, in the following centuries, the Powys eastern border was encroached upon by English settlers from the emerging Anglian territory of Mercia. This was a process, and English control in the West Midlands was uncertain until the late 8th century. In 549 the Plague of Justinian - an outbreak of a strain of bubonic plague - arrived in Britain, the English were less affected by this plague as they had far fewer trading contacts with the continent at this time. In 616, the armies of Æthelfrith of Northumbria clashed with Powys, seeing an opportunity to further drive a wedge between the North Welsh and those of Rheged, Æthelfrith invaded Powys northern lands. Æthelfrith forced a battle near Chester and defeated Selyf and his allies, if King Cynddylan of Pengwern hailed from the royal Powys dynasty, forces from Powys may have been present at the Battle of Maes Cogwy in 642. However, this account is now thought to represent ninth-century imaginings of what must have been going on in the seventh.
Powys enjoyed a resurgence with successful campaigns against the English in 655, 705-707 and 722, the court was moved to Mathrafal Castle in the valley of the river Vyrnwy by 717, possibly by king Elisedd ap Gwylog. Elisedds successes led King Æthelbald of Mercia to build Wats Dyke and this endeavour may have been with Elisedds own agreement, for this boundary, extending north from the Severn valley to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry to Powys. King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultive initiative when he created an earth work. Davies wrote of Cyril Foxs study of Offas Dyke, In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. And for Gwent Offa had the dyke built on the eastern crest of the gorge, clearly with the intention of recognizing that the river Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent. This new border moved Oswestry back to the English side of the new frontier, and Offa attacked Powys in 760 at Hereford, and again on 778,784 and 796
Megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
In the area of present-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, up to 5,000 megalith tombs were erected as burial sites by people of the Neolithic Funnelbeaker culture. More than 1,000 of them are preserved today and protected by law, though megaliths are distributed throughout the state, their structure differs between regions. Most megaliths are dolmens, often located within a circular or trapezoid frame of singular standing stones, the dolmens are known as Hünengräber or Großsteingräber, their framework is known as Hünenbett if trapezoid or Bannkreis if circular. The materials used for their construction are glacial erratics and red sandstones,144 tombs have been excavated since 1945. The megaliths were used not only by the bearers of the TRB culture, but by their successors, the megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were erected as burial sites in the Neolithic, by the bearers of the Funnelbeaker culture, between 3,500 and 3,200 BC. Initially, the TRB people buried their dead in pits, often covered with mounds of clay, they erected dolmens for this purpose, but continued the use of flat graves.
The dolmens were built from glacial erratics, with the gaps filled with red sandstone, after removing the clay from the interior, a barrow was raised on top of the dolmen, which remained accessible through a passage made from smaller stones. In addition, single standing stones were placed around the dolmen, forming either a rectangular or trapezoidal shape. Sometimes, large singular guardian stones were placed adjacent to these shapes, the interior of the dolmen was usually divided into small compartments by slabs of red sandstone, standing upright. His aim was to provide a classification and naming of the present in this field of research. In doing so it utilised a classification by Ernst Sprockhoff, which in turn was based on an older Danish model, Holtorf counted 1,193 in the same area. Both Schuldts and Holtorfs counts include 31 long mounds without chambers and 44 stone cists, Holtorf estimated that in the Neolithic, up to 5,000 megalithic monuments were built in present-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
144 megaliths have been excavated since 1945,106 of these were excavated and afterwards restored by archaeologist Ewald Schuldt and his team between 1964 and 1972. The type of megalithic structures varies between different, overlapping regions, while the orientation of the megaliths varies, many have entrances facing southwards. Of 99 dolmens studied by Schuldt,46 are oriented toward the apex of the sun,26 toward the spring equinox,14 toward the midsummer sunrise. Disarticulated bones from up to twenty individuals have been discovered in excavated dolmens, the dead were first laid down in the open, and their bones were buried in the dolmens once the body was skeletonized. Few dolmens contain only TRB finds, as most were used by the contemporary and subsequent Globular Amphora and Single Grave cultures. The bearers of the Globular Amphora culture removed and demolished skeletons, the earth-filled megaliths and the mounds raised to cover them were used for secondary burials
Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain and the Early Middle Ages. Its denizens spoke a variety of the Brittonic language known as Cumbric, smaller kingdoms or districts included Aeron, Eidyn and Manaw Gododdin, the latter three were evidently parts of Gododdin. The Angle kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia both had Brittonic-derived names, suggesting they may have been Brittonic kingdoms in origin, the legacy of the Hen Ogledd remained strong in Wales. Welsh tradition included genealogies of the Gwŷr y Gogledd, or Men of the North, a number of important early Welsh texts were attributed to the Men of the North, such as Taliesin, Myrddin Wyllt, and the Cynfeirdd poets. Heroes of the such as Urien, Owain mab Urien, and Coel Hen and his descendants feature in Welsh poetry. Almost nothing is known of Central Britain before c. By 550, the region was controlled by native Brittonic-speaking peoples except for the coastal areas.
To the north were the Picts, themselves called Manau with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to the northwest, all of these peoples would play a role in the history of the Old North. From a historical perspective, wars were frequently internecine, and Britons were aggressors as well as defenders, as was true of the Angles, Picts. However, those Welsh stories of the Old North that tell of Briton fighting Anglian have a counterpart, the interests of kingdoms of this era were not restricted to their immediate vicinity. Alliances were not made only within the ethnic groups, nor were enmities restricted to nearby different ethnic groups. An alliance of Britons fought against another alliance of Britons at the Battle of Arfderydd, Áedán mac Gabráin of Dál Riata appears in the Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd, a genealogy among the pedigrees of the Men of the North. The Historia Brittonum states that Oswiu, king of Northumbria, married a Briton who may have had some Pictish ancestry, a marriage between the Northumbrian and Pictish royal families would produce the Pictish king Talorgan I.
Áedán mac Gabráin fought as an ally of the Britons against the Northumbrians, cadwallon ap Cadfan of the Kingdom of Gwynedd allied with Penda of Mercia to defeat Edwin of Northumbria. Conquest and defeat did not necessarily mean the extirpation of one culture and its replacement by another. For Celtic peoples, this organisation was still in effect hundreds of later, as shown in the Irish Brehon law, the Welsh Laws of Hywel Dda. The Germanic Anglo-Saxon law had different origins, but with many similarities to Celtic law. Like Celtic law, it was based on tradition, without any perceivable debt to the Roman occupation of Britain