The bedel was, is to some extent still, an administrative official at universities in several European countries, had a policiary function at the time when universities had their own jurisdiction over students. The office can be traced back as far as 1245, originated in Paris. In French universities, the position was open to purchase. In the medieval English universities in Oxford and Cambridge, the bedel was an administrative assistant of the chancellor and the proctors; the bedel was, among other things, to collect fines and fees, keep rolls of scholars with the license to teach, participate in ceremonial dress in academic processions and on other similar occasions. There were six bedels at Oxford, one superior and one inferior bedel for each faculty, while Cambridge had only two; the University of St Andrews has six bedels at official ceremonies and still maintains at least a single Bedel at the weekly United College chapel service. The office of Esquire Bedell is still preserved for purely ceremonial purposes at some other universities, including the University of Southampton in the UK.
The Pedell at German universities would function as a notary, had a prominent position. At the University of Tübingen, the Pedell was responsible both for arresting and detaining students in the karzer and for acting as prosecutor in the university court. In universities in the Netherlands the pedel acts as a master of ceremonies; as of 2005 the office is an ceremonial one, the pedel leading public processions and acting as the master of ceremonies at graduations and Ph. D. examinations. As a master of ceremonies, the pedel is mute; the only words that a pedel utters in public are "Hora Est", announcing that the allotted time for a Ph. D. examination has expired. At the University of Uppsala in Sweden the function of pedell is mentioned for the first time in the statutes of 1626, with a function similar to that of the cursor, he was to keep a ledger over the students and keep guard over incarcerated students. The pedell at Uppsala wore a richly decorated livery in blue and yellow with silver embroidery, carried a wooden staff with a silver button.
The word Beadle, the name for various similar but not identical offices in Scotland and England, is of the same origin. The Italian word bidello, the person whose work is to check classrooms and schedules and, in the past, to signal the end of the class, has the same origin; the function of announcing the end of each hour-long lesson by uttering the word finis has long been abandoned due to the introduction of electrical bells and public address systems. Cobban, Alan B. English University Life in the Middle Ages. UCL Press, London 1999. Stubbings, Bedders, Bulldogs & Bedells: A Cambridge Glossary. Revised and enlarged edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1995. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Bd 12, p. 800 Nordisk familjebok, Vol. 21 "A word from the Pedel". Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Retrieved March 15, 2005. "The Defense, Part II". Computational Complexity, Lance Fortnow. Retrieved March 15, 2005. "The Dutch PhD defence is a ceremony, not an examination". by David McMullin, TU Delta. Archived from the original on 2012-02-03.
Retrieved March 15, 2005. Media related to Bedells at Wikimedia Commons
Peggy Lynn Johnson known by the last name Schroeder, was a young woman whose body was discovered in 1999 in the town of Raymond, Racine County, Wisconsin. The victim was 23 years old at the time of her death, which had occurred after her enduring several weeks of extreme neglect and both physical and sexual abuse. New developments in the case emerged after her body was exhumed on October 16, 2013, including isotope analysis. In November 2019, authorities announced the victim was identified after two decades. Additionally, a suspect remains in police custody for her murder. Both the victim's and the accused murderer's name were released on November 8, 2019. Johnson's murder received national attention both following her identification. Johnson's body was discovered within the first rows of a cornfield on July 21, 1999, by a father and daughter walking their dogs; the location was along 92nd Street in Wisconsin. Her death had occurred within one day of the discovery of her body. Johnson's injuries were apparent and her right arm was bent "unnaturally" behind her.
Because it had rained on the night the body was dumped, little evidence of the perpetrator was found, although it was placed at the scene about 12 hours prior, before precipitation occurred. The witness stated. Based on marks on the body, it appeared to have been dragged 25 feet from the roadside, she wore a man's shirt, gray in color, with a floral design on the front. After contacting the shirt's manufacturer, it was learned that this type of shirt was first sold in 1984, she was wearing black sweatpants. No additional clothing was found, including footwear. During the autopsy, multiple injuries were observed across the victim's body, it was determined she had endured several weeks of neglect in addition to long-term physical abuse; the victim was suffered from an untreated infection in her left elbow. The abuse increased in severity in the days prior to her death, she had been sexually assaulted. Potential chemical burns were identified on 25% the victim's body and road rash was observed, her nose was broken, as were several of her ribs, although some of the latter injuries occurred after death.
A "cauliflower ear" deformity may have been caused by the recent increase of abuse she suffered, either from beating or being pulled. Sharp-force trauma was evident on the same ear. Additionally, the examination suggested, it was believed that she was most 18 to 35 years old. Her front incisors protruded from the mouth, decay was present on many teeth, some of which were missing, her curly hair was reddish-brown, collar-length, appeared to have blond highlights. Johnson's eye color listed as brown, green, or hazel. There were two earrings in each of her ears. Additionally, there was evidence she may have worn glasses, despite their absence from the crime scene. Over 50 people attended Johnson's funeral on October 27, 1999 after the autopsy and other examinations were completed, she was interred at Holy Family Cemetery in Wisconsin. Her gravestone read "Daughter: Jane Doe", along with the dates of discovery and burial, with the phrase "Gone, but not forgotten". Multiple reconstructions were created of the decedent's face to assist with visual identification of the body.
In 2012, a revised reconstruction was created by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, replacing their original. Another version of this facial composite exists, which depicts a differing facial rendition of how Racine County Jane Doe may have appeared in life. Police theorized the unidentified woman was an international visitor, a runaway child or was estranged from her family. In 2011, investigators followed a potential lead that the victim may have been Aundria Bowman, who disappeared from her adoptive parents' house in Hamilton, Michigan on March 11, 1989. DNA profiling, via her mother Cathy, demonstrated. Additional missing persons such as Tina D'Ambrosio and Karen Wells were ruled out; some believed that this case could be linked to the murder of Mary Kate Chamizo, a unidentified victim, discovered in Lake County, Illinois. Chamizo was found malnourished, had poor dentition and had been beaten to death. Three were arrested in that case. All three were cleared due to new evidence.
The remains were exhumed on October 16, 2013, for further study and transported to Milwaukee, where the body had been examined in 1999. Authorities hoped that by studying isotopic material of the bones, they would be able to tell where the woman had lived prior to her death. An anthropologist from Tennessee was employed to conduct the tests. Although the murder remained unsolved at the time, investigators stated they hoped that the case will come to a close. A press conference in 2013 explained, it was announced on July 19, 2015, that the examination of the remains had been completed and that they would be reburied on the 16th anniversary of Johnson's discovery. Authorities stated they had indeed uncovered new leads from the exhumation, but they declined to state any details. On October 20, 2016, it was announced that chemical isotope testing performed by the Smithsonian on a sample of her hair and bone suggested she was from or spent several years of her life in Alaska, Montana or portions of southern Canada.
Authorities did not comment on what testing the results are from, whether recent with hair or history from bone. Additionally, it was revealed
Europa is a 1991 political drama art film directed by Lars von Trier. It is von Trier's third theatrical feature film and the final film in his Europa trilogy following The Element of Crime and Epidemic; the film features an international ensemble cast, including French-American Jean-Marc Barr, Germans Barbara Sukowa and Udo Kier, expatriate American Eddie Constantine, Swedes Max von Sydow and Ernst-Hugo Järegård. Europa was influenced by Franz Kafka's Amerika, the title was chosen "as an echo" of that novel. A young, idealistic American hopes to "show some kindness" to the German people soon after the end of World War II. In US-occupied Germany, he takes on work as a sleeping-car conductor for the Zentropa railway network, falls in love with a femme fatale, becomes embroiled in a pro-Nazi terrorist conspiracy. Europa employs an experimental style of cinema, combining black and white visuals with occasional intrusions of colour, having actors interact with rear-projected footage, layering different images over one another to surreal effect.
The voice-over narration uses an unconventional second-person narrative imitative of a hypnotist. The film's characters, music and plot are self-consciously melodramatic and imitative of film noir conventions; the film was shot throughout Poland and in Denmark Von Trier's production company, Zentropa Entertainments, is named after the sinister railway network featured in this film, in turn named after the real-life train company Mitropa. Europa was released as Zentropa in North America to avoid confusion with Europa Europa; the film received positive reviews from critics. Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports an 85% score based on 13 reviews, with an average rating of 7.3/10. The film won three awards at the 1991 Cannes Film Festival. Upon realizing that he had not won the Palme d'Or, von Trier gave the judges the finger and stormed out of the venue; the Criterion Collection released the film on DVD in 2008. The package contained several documentaries on an audio commentary by von Trier.