Sebbins Pond is an 20-acre body of water in Bedford, New Hampshire. It is located in the eastern part between Back River Road and the Everett Turnpike, it is named for a man with the last name of Sebbins, who in 1735 set up shop at a site near the pond to make shingles, which he dragged down to the nearby Merrimack River to ship - two years before the first permanent settlement in Bedford in 1737. Sebbins Pond is the largest body of water within the town boundaries, it is bounded on the southwest side by Camp Kettleford, owned and operated by the Swift Water Council of the Girl Scouts of the USA, which uses the pond for canoeing and swimming. The rest of Sebbins Pond is bounded by 20 private homes, many of which are former summer cabins or houses that have been winterized and expanded. There is no public access to the pond; the pond is fed by a small stream draining from nearby Silver Springs Pond. Its outlet is Sebbins Brook, which leads southeast, combines with the outfall from Sandy Pond, continues to the Merrimack River.
Like all water bodies greater than 10 acres in New Hampshire, Sebbins is a great pond, public property held in trust by the state. Camp Kettleford Swift Water Council site about Camp Kettleford Camp Kettleford Another Swift Water Council site about Camp Kettleford
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The Frederick E. Everett Turnpike called the Central New Hampshire Turnpike, is a toll road in New Hampshire, United States, running 44 miles from the Massachusetts border at Nashua north to Concord; the Everett Turnpike is named for Frederick Elwin Everett, the first Commissioner of the New Hampshire Department of Transportation. The turnpike is part of the New Hampshire Turnpike System, is operated by the New Hampshire Department of Transportation's Bureau of Turnpikes. There are two tolled sections, a southern one in Merrimack and Bedford and a northern tolled section in Hooksett and three free segments, in Nashua and Concord; each of the tolled segments cost a maximum of $1.00 cash for passenger autos passing through the mainline tollbooths, with lower rates charged on the ramp tolls for traveling shorter distances. A 30% discount is offered for users of the E-ZPass electronic toll system. Much of the turnpike's length has been overlapped by other numbered routes. Portions of the road are shared with US-3, I-93, I-293.
The southern portion of the turnpike, in Nashua, is posted as US-3, serving as an extension of the US-3 freeway from Burlington, Massachusetts. North of Exit 7 in Nashua, the turnpike runs by itself and has no number, but parallels US-3, a toll-free local road variously known as Concord Street and the Daniel Webster Highway. Approaching Bedford in the Manchester area, the turnpike is joined by I-293 which splits off from a concurrency with NH-101. At Exit 4, NH-3A joins the freeway, the concurrency passes through Manchester, near the downtown area of the city. Upon passing Manchester, Route 3A splits off at I-293's last northbound exit; the freeway passes into Hooksett, I-293 ends at an interchange with I-93. The Everett Turnpike ceases to be signed at this interchange, but joins I-93 northbound and continues towards Concord, interchanging with the southern terminus of I-89 along the way. No definitive northern terminus for the turnpike exists as far; this endpoint was at a traffic circle next to downtown Concord that has since been replaced by Exit 14 with NH-9.
There are two mainline toll plazas on the turnpike, in Bedford and Hooksett, that each charge $1.00 in cash. The Bedford mainline toll plaza, located between Exit 13 and I-293, replaced the Merrimack toll plaza in the early 1990s. Ramp tolls exist in Merrimack and Hooksett. E-ZPass readers were installed in all toll locations in 2005, the state offers a 30% discount for using it. Major rest areas combined with state-run liquor stores are located on either side of the highway in Hooksett just north of the mainline toll plaza, located on I-93 at Exit 11. On July 18, 2014, the Exit 12 ramp tolls in Merrimack were removed; the proposed Circumferential Highway around the east side of Nashua is defined as part of the turnpike. Henri A. Burque Highway, the surface road that US-3 uses to get between exit 7 of the turnpike and the Daniel Webster Highway in northern Nashua, is part of it. Shields for the Everett Turnpike consist of a rectangle with a rounded bottom, a green circle, green text that says "Everett Turnpike" above the circle, with the word "Turnpike" curved along the top edge of the circle.
For the US 3 segment in Nashua, there is an Everett Turnpike sign in Massachusetts just south of the border northbound alongside the US 3 shield on an overhead sign, several others along overhead signs through Nashua. Mile markers contain the Everett Turnpike shield in Nashua, combined US 3 and Everett Turnpike shields are posted along the side of the road on stand-alone posts, though most on-ramp signage only indicates US 3. Signs for the turnpike are most prominent on the Merrimack-Bedford segment which lacks any concurrent US or Interstate route. Along this section, the Everett Turnpike shield appears on on-ramp direction signs, along the side of the highway on signposts, on overhead reassurance signs. Along the I-293 segment in Manchester, signage is similar to the Nashua US 3 section, though mile markers have the I-293 shield instead of the Everett Turnpike shield. Though the Turnpike continues north to Concord, it is not signed north of the I-293 merge in Hooksett. On I-93 North, the exit for I-293 is signed as I-293/Everett Turnpike South, while the mainline is signed as I-93 North.
On I-293 North, Everett Turnpike signs stop with I-93 North signed by itself. There is no indication of the northern terminus on I-93 in either direction. Southbound, the first emergence of Turnpike signage is after the exit onto I-293. There are no Turnpike signs on any intersecting highways north of this exit, including I-89. There are Turnpike mile markers only from the Massachusetts state line to the interchange with I-293 and Route 101. North of there, the mile markers and sequential exit numbers relate to the concurrent Interstate highways. Prior to the September 11, 2001 attacks, exit 4 in Nashua was signed as "East Dunstable Road / FAA Center." The "FAA Center" signage was removed at the request of the Federal Aviation Administration. New Hampshire Highway System Steve Anderson's BostonRoads.com: F. E. Everett Turnpike
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Amherst, New Hampshire
Amherst is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 11,201 at the 2010 census. Amherst is home to Ponemah Bog Wildlife Sanctuary, Hodgman State Forest, the Joe English Reservation and Baboosic Lake; the town center village, where 613 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Amherst census-designated place. The village is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Amherst Village Historic District. Like many New England towns, Amherst was the result of a land grant given to soldiers – in this case, to soldiers in 1728 who had participated in King Philip's War. Settled about 1733, it was first called "Narragansett Number 3", later "Souhegan Number 3". In 1741, settlers hired the first minister. Chartered on 18 January 1760 by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth, the town was named for General Lord Amherst, who commanded British forces in North America during the French and Indian War. Lord Jeffrey Amherst is infamous for initiating the practice of giving smallpox blankets to Native Americans in a genocidal effort "to Extirpate this Execrable Race".
In 1770, Amherst became the county seat of Hillsborough County, due to its location on the county's major east-west road. It continued to prosper through the Revolutionary War and afterwards. In 1790, the southwestern section broke off and became the town of Milford, in 1803, the northwest section departed to become Mont Vernon; the development of water-powered mills allowed Milford to grow at Amherst's expense, the county seat was moved to Milford in 1866. The town population remained stagnant until after World War II, when Amherst and many surrounding towns saw an influx of newcomers as they became part of the greater Boston region. Franklin Pierce, who become the 14th President of United States of America, studied under Judge Edmund Parker in Amherst, he wed Jane Means Appleton, the daughter of a former president of Bowdoin College, in a house on the town green. The Nashua and Wilton Railroad passed through Amherst. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 34.7 square miles, of which 34.2 square miles is land and 0.54 square miles is water, comprising 1.51% of the town.
Located on the Souhegan River, Amherst is drained by Beaver and Joe English brooks. Amherst's highest point is on Chestnut Hill at the town's northern border, where the elevation reaches 865 feet above sea level. Amherst lies within the Merrimack River watershed. Amherst is bordered by Mont Vernon and New Boston to the northwest, Bedford to the northeast, Merrimack to the east, Hollis to the south, Milford to the southwest; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,201 people, 4,063 households, 3,322 families residing in the town. The population density was 327.5 people per square mile. There were 4,280 housing units at an average density of 125.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.8% White, 0.5% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.4% some other race, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 4,063 households, out of which 37.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.2% were headed by married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.2% were non-families.
14.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.0% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76, the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the age distribution of the population was 26.0% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 19.4% from 25 to 44, 36.5% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household in the town was $121,349, the median income for a family was $130,278. Male full-time workers had a median income of $102,869, versus $51,473 for females; the per capita income for the town was $49,190. About 1.8% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over. Amherst is home to Clark and Wilkins elementary schools, Amherst Middle School and Souhegan High School.
The elementary schools handle children from Amherst only. Seventh and eighth graders from neighboring Mont Vernon attend the middle school on a tuition basis, while Amherst and Mont Vernon jointly own Souhegan High School, which serves both towns. Charles G. Atherton, U. S. congressman and senator Charles Humphrey Atherton, U. S. congressman Courtney Banghart, head women's basketball coach at Princeton University. John S. Barry and eighth Governor of Michigan Samuel Bell, 14th Governor of New Hampshire Moses Billings, portrait artist Ainsworth Blunt, missionary to the Cherokee in Georgia Hubert Buchanan, prisoner of war in Vietnam Clifton Clagett, U. S. congressman Jonathan Fisk, U. S. congressman from New York Horace Greeley, founder of the Liberal Republican Party Jon "maddog" Hall, computer scientist, free software advocate Neal Huntington, General Manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates Moses Nichols, Revolutionary War era soldier and statesman Jane Means Pierce, first lady, wife of Franklin Pierce Frank Selee, manager f
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st