The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It holds well over 150 million items from many countries, as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. The Librarys collections include around 14 million books, along with holdings of manuscripts. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum, the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building, of exceptional interest for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972.
Prior to this, the library was part of the British Museum. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs, the core of the Librarys historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the foundation collections. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this new building. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013, the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The British Library Document Supply Service and the Librarys Document Supply Collection is based on the site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, the Library previously had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, which is no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson, facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley.
It is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century, in December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie Winterton. The building was Grade I listed on 1 August 2015, in England, Legal Deposit can be traced back to at least 1610. The other five libraries are, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the University Library at Cambridge, the Trinity College Library at Dublin, in 2003 the Ipswich MP Chris Mole introduced a Private Members Bill which became the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003. The Act extends United Kingdom legal deposit requirements to electronic documents, such as CD-ROMs, the Library holds the Asia and Africa Collections which include the India Office Records and materials in the languages of Asia and of north and north-east Africa
Adoration of the Magi
It is related in the Bible by Matthew 2,11, On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother, and they knelt down and paid him homage. Then, opening their treasure chests, they offered him gifts of gold and having been warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they left for their own country by another path. The scene was used to represent the Nativity, one of the most indispensable episodes in cycles of the Life of the Virgin as well as the Life of Christ. In the church calendar, the event is commemorated in Western Christianity as the Feast of the Epiphany, the Orthodox Church commemorates the Adoration of the Magi on the Feast of the Nativity. The term is anglicized from the Vulgate Latin section title for this passage, in the earliest depictions, the Magi are shown wearing Persian dress of trousers and Phrygian caps, usually in profile, advancing in step with their gifts held out before them. The earliest are from catacomb paintings and sarcophagus reliefs of the 4th century, crowns are first seen in the 10th century, mostly in the West, where their dress had by that time lost any Oriental flavour in most cases.
Later Byzantine images often show small pill-box like hats, whose significance is disputed, melchior represents Europe and middle age. From the 14th century onwards, large retinues are often shown, the gifts are contained in spectacular pieces of work. The subject matter is found in stained glass. Many hundreds of artists have treated the subject, a partial list of those with articles follows. See also, Adoration of the Magi in art, Adoration of the Magi, Fra Angelico and Filippo Lippi, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Hieronymus Bosch, Museo del Prado, Madrid Adoration of the Magi of 1475, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C
Flight into Egypt
The flight into Egypt is a biblical event described in the Gospel of Matthew. The episode is shown in art, as the final episode of the Nativity of Jesus in art. Within the narrative tradition, iconic representation of the Rest on the Flight into Egypt developed after the 14th century, when the Magi come in search of Jesus, they go to Herod the Great in Jerusalem and ask where to find the newborn King of the Jews. Herod becomes paranoid that the child will threaten his throne, Herod initiates the Massacre of the Innocents in hopes of killing the child. But an angel appears to Joseph in a dream and warns him to take Jesus, after a time the holy family returns from Egypt. The text states that Herod had died, Herod is believed to have died in 4 BC, and while Matthew does not mention how, the Jewish historian Josephus vividly relates a gory death. It is, however, to Judah that they are described as initially returning, although upon discovering that Archelaus had become the new king, they went instead to Galilee.
Historically, Archelaus was such a violent and aggressive king that in the year 6 AD he was deposed by the Romans, in response to complaints from the population. Galilee was ruled by a much calmer king, Herod Antipas, Matthew 2,15 cites Hosea 11,1 as prophetically fulfilled in the return of Joseph and Jesus from Egypt. and out of Egypt I called My son. Matthews use of Hosea 11,1 has been explained in several ways, a sensus plenior approach states that the text in Hosea contains a meaning intended by God and acknowledged by Matthew, but unknown to Hosea. A typological reading interprets the fulfillment as found in the history of Israel. Matthews use of typological interpretation may be seen in his use of Isaiah 7,14 and 9,1, the Septuagint reading may be explained as having been made to conform to the plurals of Hosea 11,2, they and them. See Hermeneutics and Jewish exegesis, in these tales the family is joined by Salome as Jesus nurse. The most important of these is the church of Abu Serghis, the Gospel of Luke does not recount this event, relating instead that the Holy Family went to the Temple in Jerusalem, and directly home to Nazareth.
Followers of the liberal and unorthodox Jesus Seminar thus conclude that both Lukes and Matthews birth and infancy accounts are fabrications, a theme of Matthew is likening Jesus to Moses for a Judean audience, and the Flight into Egypt illustrates just that theme. The Flight into Egypt was a subject in art, showing Mary with the baby on a donkey, led by Joseph. Before about 1525, it formed part of a larger cycle, whether of the Nativity. The family are often accompanied by angels, and in earlier images sometimes an older boy who may represent James the Brother of the Lord, interpreted as a son of Joseph, by a previous marriage
Henry VI of England
Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years War, where Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne. Henry married Charless niece, Margaret of Anjou, partially in the hope of achieving peace in 1445, the war recommenced, with France taking the upper hand, by 1453, Calais was Henrys only remaining territory on the continent. Henry experienced a breakdown after the failure of the war. Civil war broke out in 1460, leading to a period of dynastic conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was taken prisoner by Richard of York at Northampton on 10 July 1460 but was rescued that December by forces loyal to Margaret and he was deposed on 29 March 1461 following the victory at Towton by Richards son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Henry suffered another breakdown and, despite Margaret continuing to lead a resistance to Edward, he was captured by Edwards forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick, restored Henry to the throne in 1470, Henry died in the Tower during the night of 21 May 1471, possibly killed on the orders of Edward. He was buried at Chertsey Abbey, before being moved to Windsor Castle in 1484, miracles were attributed to Henry after his death, and he was informally regarded as a saint and martyr until the 16th century. He left a legacy of educational institutions, having founded Eton College, Kings College and All Souls College, William Shakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about his life, depicting him as weak-willed and easily influenced by his wife, Margaret. Henry was the child and heir of King Henry V. He was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle and he succeeded to the throne as King of England at the age of nine months upon his fathers death on 31 August 1422, he was the youngest person ever to succeed to the English throne. A few weeks on 21 October 1422 in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420 and his mother, Catherine of Valois, was 20 years old.
As Charles VIs daughter, she was viewed with suspicion by English nobles and was prevented from playing a full role in her sons upbringing. On 28 September 1423, the nobles swore loyalty to Henry VI and they summoned Parliament in the Kings name and established a regency council to govern until the King should come of age. One of Henry Vs surviving brothers, Duke of Bedford, was appointed regent of the realm and was in charge of the ongoing war in France. During Bedfords absence, the government of England was headed by Henry Vs other surviving brother, Duke of Gloucester and his duties were limited to keeping the peace and summoning Parliament. Henry Vs half-uncle Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, had an important place on the Council, after the Duke of Bedford died in 1435, the Duke of Gloucester claimed the Regency himself, but was contested in this by the other members of the Council
Rouen is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy, formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries. The population of the area at the 2007 census was 532,559. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Agglomeration community of Rouen-Elbeuf-Austreberthe, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of Veliocasses, who controlled an area in the lower Seine valley. The Gauls named the settlement Ratumacos and the Romans called it Rotomagus, Roman Rotomagus was the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis, after Lugdunum. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric, in the 10th century Rouen became the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and the residence of the dukes, until William the Conqueror established his castle at Caen.
During the early 12th century the population reached 30,000. In 1150, Rouen received its charter, which permitted self-government. During the 12th century, Rouen was probably the site of a Jewish yeshiva, at that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town, comprising about 20% of the total population. The well-preserved remains of a medieval Jewish building, that could be a yeshiva, were discovered in the 1970s under the Rouen Law Courts. In 1200, a destroyed part of Rouens Romanesque cathedral, leaving just St Romains tower, the side porches of its front. New work on the present Gothic cathedral of Rouen began, in the nave, choir, on 24 June 1204, Philip Augustus entered Rouen and annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom. The fall of Rouen meant the end of Normandys sovereign status and he demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre. A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, competing with the northern County of Flanders, the city found its market niche in the Champagne fairs.
Rouen depended on the traffic of the Seine for its prosperity. Wine and wheat were exported to England, with tin and wool received in return, in the late 13th century urban strife threatened the city, in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged
Book of hours
The book of hours is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages. It is the most common type of surviving medieval illuminated manuscript, Books of hours were usually written in Latin, although there are many entirely or partially written in vernacular European languages, especially Dutch. The English term primer is usually now reserved for books written in English. Tens of thousands of books of hours have survived to the present day, in libraries, the typical book of hours is an abbreviated form of the breviary which contained the Divine Office recited in monasteries. It was developed for lay people who wished to incorporate elements of monasticism into their devotional life, reciting the hours typically centered upon the reading of a number of psalms and other prayers. The Marian prayers Obsecro te and O Intemerata were frequently added, as were devotions for use at Mass, the book of hours has its ultimate origin in the Psalter, which monks and nuns were required to recite. By the 12th century this had developed into the breviary, with cycles of psalms, hymns, antiphons.
Eventually a selection of texts was produced in much shorter volumes, many books of hours were made for women. There is some evidence that they were given as a wedding present from a husband to his bride. Frequently they were passed down through the family, as recorded in wills, the earliest surviving English example was apparently written for a laywoman living in or near Oxford in about 1240. It is smaller than a modern paperback but heavily illuminated with major initials, by the 15th century, there are examples of servants owning their own Books of Hours. In a court case from 1500, a woman is accused of stealing a domestic servants prayerbook. Very rarely the books included prayers specifically composed for their owners, some include images depicting their owners, and some their coats of arms. These, together with the choice of saints commemorated in the calendar, eamon Duffy explains how these books reflected the person who commissioned them. He claims that the character of these books was often signaled by the inclusion of prayers specially composed or adapted for their owners.
Furthermore, he states that as many as half the surviving manuscript Books of Hours have annotations, such additions might amount to no more than the insertion of some regional or personal patron saint in the standardized calendar, but they often include devotional material added by the owner. By at least the 15th century, the Netherlands and Paris workshops were producing books of hours for stock or distribution and these were sometimes with spaces left for the addition of personalized elements such as local feasts or heraldry. The book’s goal was to help his devout patroness to structure her daily life in accordance with the eight canonical hours, Matins to Compline
Virgin of Mercy
The Virgin of Mercy is a subject in Christian Art, showing a group of people sheltering for protection under the outspread cloak, or pallium of the Virgin Mary. Usually the Virgin is standing alone, though if angels hold up the cloak, the people sheltered normally kneel, and are of necessity shown usually at a much smaller scale. These may represent all members of Christian society, with crowns, mitres. Sometimes arrows rain down from above, which the cloak prevents from reaching the people, probably the oldest version known is a small panel by Duccio of c. 1280, with three Franciscan friars under the cloak, in the Pinacoteca in Siena, here the Virgin sits, only one side of the cloak is extended, and the Virgin holds her child on her knee with her other hand. The common factor between all these is the influence and presence of Western mendicant orders, especially the Franciscans, the immediate inspiration of the iconography comes from a vision reported in the Dialogus Miraculorum of the Cistercian Caesarius of Heisterbach which circulated widely from about 1230.
Beyond that, the origins of the image may relate to rituals and this gave rise in the Byzantine Rite to the Pokrov icons, although the image is not found in Byzantine art. In Germany an almost identical image was used featuring Saint Ursula, the image came in for special derision from Martin Luther, who compared it to a hen with her chicks. The liturgical feast day of Our Lady of Mercy is celebrated annually in the Latin Catholic calendar on September 24, churches dedicated to her include the cathedral of Guasdualito in Venezuela. The term Virgin of Mercy is found in a number of other contexts not directly related to the image and it is a common translation of the Eleusa type of icon of the Virgin and Child. The Virgin of Mercy is patron saint of Barcelona, celebrated in the week-long La Mercè festival each year, but in this role is not especially associated with this type of image. The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy, founded, in Barcelona, in Santería, the Virgin of Mercy is syncretized with Obatala
Annunciation to the shepherds
The Annunciation to the shepherds is an episode in the Nativity of Jesus described in the Bible in Luke 2, in which angels tell a group of shepherds about the birth of Jesus. It is a subject of Christian art and of Christmas carols. The angel explains that he has a message of good news for all people, namely that Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you, he is the Messiah, the Lord. This will be a sign to you, You will find a baby wrapped in cloths, after this, a great many more angels appear, praising God with the words Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace to those on whom his favor rests. Deciding to do as the angel had said, the travel to Bethlehem, and find Mary and Joseph. The Adoration of the shepherds follows, the King James Version of the Bible translates the words of the angels differently from modern versions, using the words Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. Most Christmas carols reflect this older translation, with It Came Upon the Midnight Clear, for example, using the words Peace on the earth, good will to men, the disparity reflects a dispute about the Greek text of the New Testament involving a single letter.
Most ancient manuscripts of the Greek New Testament have this reading, expressed in correct English, this gives the familiar Peace on earth, good will to men of many ancient Christmas carols. The Douay-Rheims Bible, translated from the Latin Vulgate, derives from the same Greek text as the original Codex Sinaiticus, in the New American Bible, this is updated to on earth peace to those on whom his favor rests. It is generally considered significant that this message was given to shepherds and this is very common in the West, though the Magi are very often omitted. Similarly, in the Nativity at Night of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, scenes showing the shepherds at the side of the crib are a different subject, formally known as the Adoration of the shepherds. This combination is first found in the 6th-century Monza ampullae made in Palestine, the landscape varies, though scenes in the background of a Nativity very often show the shepherds on a steep hill, making visual sense of their placement above the main Nativity scene.
The number of shepherds shown varies also, though three is typical in the West, one or more dogs may be included, as in the Taddeo Gaddi. The Annunciation to the shepherds became less common as an independent subject in the late Middle Ages, famous depictions by Abraham Hondius and Rembrandt exist. In Renaissance art, drawing on stories of Orpheus, the shepherds are sometimes depicted with musical instruments. A charming but atypical miniature in the La Flora Hours in Naples shows the shepherds playing to the Infant Jesus, many Christmas carols mention the Annunciation to the shepherds, with the Gloria in Excelsis Deo being the most ancient. Phillips Brooks O Little Town of Bethlehem has the lines O morning stars together, proclaim the birth, / And praises sing to God the King. The originally German carol Silent Night has Shepherds quake at the sight, / Glories stream from heaven afar, the episode plays a much greater role in Charles Wesleys Hark
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman and the ancestors of all humans. It provides the basis for the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors. It provides much of the basis for the doctrines of the fall of man and original sin that are important beliefs in Christianity. In the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, chapters one through five, in the first and Eve are not mentioned. Instead, God created humankind in Gods image and instructed them to multiply, in the second narrative, God fashions Adam from dust and places him in the Garden of Eden. Adam is told that he can till the ground and eat freely of all the trees in the garden, except for a tree of the knowledge of good, Eve is created from one of Adams ribs to be Adams companion. They are innocent and unashamed about their nakedness, however, a serpent deceives Eve into eating fruit from the forbidden tree, and she gives some of the fruit to Adam.
These acts give them additional knowledge, but it gives them the ability to conjure negative and destructive concepts such as shame, God curses the serpent and the ground. God prophetically tells the woman and the man what will be the consequences of their sin of disobeying God, he banishes them from the Garden of Eden. The story underwent extensive elaboration in Abrahamic traditions, and it has been analyzed by modern biblical scholars. The story of Adam and Eve is often depicted in art, the story of the fall of Adam is often understood to be an allegory. There is no evidence that Adam and Eve ever literally existed. In the Book of Genesis, the Genesis creation narrative tells of the creation of the first humans, humankind, in Genesis 1, scholars recognize two separate accounts of the creation in the Old Testament. In the Priestly narrative, God creates the world in six days, culminating in the creation of humanity, here, in the Priestly narrative, the emphasis is on the entirety of the universe and its creation.
Here, in the Jahwist narrative, the emphasis is on the Earth within the universe, and humankinds residence on the Earth. Contrast, for example, the order of terms in Genesis 1,1 where it says that God made the heavens and the Earth with Genesis 2,4 where it says God made the Earth and the heavens. In the Jahwist version of the story, God places the man in a garden in Eden where he is permitted to till the land and tend the garden and animals, Genesis 2, 8–15. But none of the animals are found to be a companion for the man, so God causes the man to sleep
Noahs Ark is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative by which God spares Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the worlds animals from the flood. According to Genesis, God gave Noah instructions for building the ark, seven days before the deluge, God told Noah to enter the ark with his household and the animals. The story goes on to describe the ark being afloat for 150 days and coming to rest on the Mountains of Ararat, the story is repeated, with variations, in the Quran, where the ark appears as Safina Nuh. The Genesis flood narrative is similar to other flood myths from a variety of cultures. The earliest known written flood myth is the Sumerian flood myth found in the Epic of Ziusudra, searches for Noahs Ark have been made from at least the time of Eusebius to the present day. There is no evidence for a global flood, and despite many expeditions. The challenges associated with housing all living animal types, and even plants, would have made building the ark a practical impossibility.
The Hebrew word for the ark, occurs twice in the Bible, in the narrative and in the Book of Exodus. In both cases teba has a connection with salvation from waters, Noah is warned of the coming flood and told to construct the ark. God spells out to Noah the dimensions of the vessel,300 cubits in length,50 cubits in width and 30 cubits in height and it had three internal divisions, a door in the side, and a tsohar, which may be either a roof or a skylight. God instructs Noah to kapar the ark with koper, in Hebrew the first of these words is a formed from the second and, like gopher. Noah is instructed to take on board his wife, his three sons, and his sons wives and he is to take two of every living thing, and seven pairs of every clean creature and of every bird, together with sufficient food. The story of the flood closely parallels the story of the creation, a cycle of creation, un-creation, the universe as conceived by the ancient Hebrews comprised a flat disk-shaped habitable earth with the heavens above and Sheol, the underworld of the dead, below.
These three were surrounded by an ocean of chaos, protected by the firmament, a transparent. Noahs three-deck ark represents this three-level Hebrew cosmos in miniature, the heavens, the earth, there is a consensus among scholars that the Pentateuch was the product of a long and complex process that was not completed until after the Babylonian exile. For well over a century scholars have recognised that the Bibles story of Noahs ark is based on older Mesopotamian models. Because all these stories deal with events that allegedly happened at the dawn of history. But in fact, the myth of the flood that destroys all life only begins to appear in the Old Babylonian period
Dauphin of France
The Dauphin of France —strictly The Dauphin of Viennois —was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word is French for dolphin, as a reference to the depiction of the animal on their coat of arms, guigues IV, Count of Vienne, had a dolphin on his coat of arms and was nicknamed le Dauphin. The wife of the Dauphin was known as la Dauphine, the first French prince called le Dauphin was Charles the Wise, to become Charles V of France. The title was equivalent to the English Prince of Wales, the Scottish Duke of Rothesay, the Portuguese Prince of Brazil. The official style of a Dauphin of France, prior to 1461, was par la grâce de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois. A Dauphin of France united the coat of arms of the Dauphiné, which featured Dolphins, with the French fleurs-de-lis, and might, where appropriate, further unite that with other arms. Because of this, the Dauphiné suffered from anarchy in the 14th and 15th centuries, for example, he married Charlotte of Savoy against his fathers wishes.
Savoy was an ally of the Dauphiné, and Louis wished to reaffirm that alliance to stamp out rebels. Louis was driven out of the Dauphiné by Charles VIIs soldiers in 1456, after his succession as Louis XI of France in 1461, Louis united the Dauphiné with France, bringing it under royal control. The sons of the King of France hold the style and rank of Son of France, while male-line grandsons hold the style, the sons and grandsons of the Dauphin ranked higher than their cousins, being treated as the kings children and grandchildren respectively. The title was abolished by the Constitution of 1791, which made France a constitutional monarchy, under the constitution the heir to the throne was restyled Prince Royal, taking effect from the inception of the Legislative Assembly on 1 October 1791. The title was restored in potentia under the Bourbon Restoration of Louis XVIII, with the accession of his brother Charles X, Charles son and heir Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême automatically became Dauphin.
With the removal of the Bourbons the title fell into disuse, in Mark Twains Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck encounters two odd characters who turn out to be professional con men. One of them claims that he should be treated with deference, since he is really an impoverished English duke, in Baronness Emma Orczys Eldorado, the Scarlet Pimpernel rescues the Dauphin from prison and helps spirit him from France. Alphonse Daudet wrote a story called The Death of the Dauphin. It is mentioned in Cormac McCarthys Blood Meridian
David was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning in c. He is described as a man after Gods own heart in 1 Samuel 13,14 and Acts 13,22. The Hebrew prophets regarded him as the ancestor of the future messiah, the New Testament says he was an ancestor of Jesus. God is angered when Saul, Israels king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and disobeys a divine instruction to not only all of the Amalekites. Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel to anoint David, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Sauls courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech, and brave in battle. So David enters Sauls service as one of the royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king, war comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Sauls army, refusing the kings offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling.
Saul inquires the name of the heros father. Saul sets David over his army, all Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him. Saul plots his death, but Sauls son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his fathers schemes and David flees. He becomes a vassal of the Philistine king Achish of Gath, but Achishs nobles question his loyalty and Saul are killed, and David is anointed king over Judah. In the north, Sauls son Ish-Bosheth is anointed king of Israel, with the death of Sauls son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David is anointed king over all Israel. He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital. He brings the Ark of the Covenant to the city, intending to build a temple for God, Nathan prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David, Your throne shall be established forever. David wins more victories over the Philistines, while the Moabites, Amalekites, during a battle to conquer the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David seduces Bathsheba and causes the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite.
In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that shall fall upon him, in fulfillment of these words Davids son Absalom rebels. The rebellion ends at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, Absaloms forces are routed, and Absalom is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree, and killed by Joab, contrary to Davids order. Joab was the commander of Davids army, David laments the death of his favourite son, O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom