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Guernica and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain. The town of Guernica is united in one municipality with neighbouring Lumo, as Gernika-Lumo; the population of the municipality is 16,224 as of 2009. Gernika is best known to those residing outside the Basque region as the scene of the April 26, 1937, Bombing of Guernica, one of the first aerial bombings by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe, it inspired the painting Guernica by Pablo Picasso. This village is situated at 10m altitude, in the region of Busturialdea, in the valley of the Oka river, its mouth is known as Urdaibai's estuary's heart. Gernika borders on the following townships: North: Forua and Arratzu. East: Ajangiz South: Muxika West: Errigoiti The town of Guernica was founded by Count Tello on April 28, 1366, at the intersection of the road from Bermeo to Durango with the road from Bilbao to Elantxobe and Lekeitio; the strategic importance of the site was increased by the fact that it lay on a major river estuary, where vessels could dock at the port of Suso.
In time, it took on the typical shape of a Basque town, comprising a series of parallel streets and a transverse street called Santa María, with a church at each end of the built-up area. Life in the town became rigidly structured, with the aim being to preserve the privileges of the dominant middle classes; this pattern continued unaltered until the late 17th century. On a small hillock in the town, stands the Meeting House and the famous Tree of Gernika. By ancient tradition and indeed other peoples in Medieval Europe, held assemblies under a tree an oak, to discuss matters affecting the community. In Biscay, each administrative district had its appointed tree, but over the centuries, the Tree of Guernica acquired particular importance, it stood on a site known as Gernikazarra, beside a small shrine. The laws of Biscay continued to be drawn up under this tree until 1876, with each town and village in the province sending two representatives to the sessions, known as General Assemblies; this early form of democracy was recorded by the philosopher Rousseau, by the poet Wordsworth, by the dramatist Tirso de Molina and by the composer Iparragirre, who wrote the piece called Gernikako Arbola.
When the Domain of Biscay was incorporated into the kingdom of Castile, the king of Castile visited Guernica and swore an oath under the Tree promising to uphold the fueros or local laws of Biscay. The oath of King Ferdinand, known as the "Catholic Monarch", on June 30, 1476, is depicted in a painting by Francisco de Mendieta popularly known as El besamanos. On July 3, 1875, during the Carlist Wars, the pretender to the throne Don Carlos of the house of Hapsburg visited Guernica and swore the oath. Throughout the 19th century, there were frequent meetings under the Tree, including both General Assemblies and other political events. By the 18th century, there was a square at the centre of the town, flanked by the town hall, a public gaol housing prisoners from all over the Lordship of Biscay, a hospital and a poor-house for local people. Day-to-day life comprised agriculture and trade; this was a time of continual conflicts with the neighbouring parish of Lumo over disputed land. These disputes were not settled until 1882, when the two parishes joined together to form Gernika-Lumo.
The first industrial concerns were set up in the early years of the 20th century. This encouraged population growth, the town grew from 4,500 inhabitants in 1920 to 6,000 in 1936. On April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, Guernica was the scene of the Bombing of Guernica by the Condor Legion of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe and the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. According to official Basque figures, 1,654 civilians were killed, but German sources report a round figure of 300 civilians killed in the bombing, according to the German Bundeswehr Magazine; the raid was requested by Francisco Franco to aid in his overthrowing the Basque Government and the Spanish Republican government. The town was devastated, though the Oak of Guernica survived; the Bombing of Guernica is considered to be the beginning of the Luftwaffe doctrine of terror bombing, where civilian targets were selected to demoralize the enemy. Pablo Picasso painted his famous Guernica painting to commemorate the horrors of the bombing and René Iché made a violent sculpture the day after the bombing.
The bombing went on continuously for three hours. Celebrations were staged in 1966 to mark the 600th anniversary of the founding of the town; as part of these celebrations, a statue of Count Tello, made by local sculptor Agustín Herranz, was set up in the Fueros square. At present, Gernika-Lumo has 16,244 inhabitants, it is a town with a prosperous service sector, is home to industrial companies, as well as good cultural and educational amenities. Guernica is the seat of the parliament of the province of Biscay, whose executive branch is located in nearby Bilbao. In prior centuries, Lumo had been the meeting place of the traditional Biscayan assembly, Urduña and chartered towns like Guernica were under the direct authority of the Lord of Biscay, Enkarterri and the Durango area had separate assemblies. All would hold assemblies under local big trees; as time passed, the role of separate assemblies was superseded by the single assembly in Guernica, by 1512, its oak, known as the Gernikako Arbola
Not to be confused with Abanto in Aragón. Abanto y Ciérvana-Abanto Zierbena is a municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain. Abanto was divided into concejos, Susoko Abanto or Abanto de Suso and Yusoko Abanto or Abanto de Yuso, nowadays administratively divided into neighborhoods or wards: Susoko Abanto Abanto Campillo Gallarta Balastera Florida Las Calizas Picón Santa Juliana Triano Yusoko Abanto Cotorrio Las Carreras Las Cortes El Once Olabarrieta Murrieta Putxeta San Pedro Abanto Sanfuentes January 1842 – January 1843 Andrés José de San Martín January 1843 - July 1843 Emeterio del Alisal July 1843 - March 1844 Benigno Ruiz de Murga March 1844 – 1846/01/01 José María de Arechabaleta 1846/01/01 – 1847/01/03 Juan Francisco del Merro 1847/01/03 – 1850/01/01 Miguel de Escuza 1850/01/01 – 1854/01/01 Pablo de los Heros 1854/01/01 – 1854/10/02 Francisco de Robledo 1854/10/02 – 1857/03/12 José González y El Cerro 1857/03/12 – 1859/01/01 Cosme de Allende 1859/01/01 – 1861/01/01 Miguel de Escuza 1861/01/01 – 1865/01/01 José de Aranguren 1865/01/01 – 1867/01/01 Ruperto de Lejarza 1867/01/01 – 1869/01/01 Manuel de Garay y Laza 1869/01/01 - March 1872 Agapito de Sasia March 1872 – September 1873 Antonio Hurtado September 1873 – January 1874 Agustín Yarto January 1874 – 1875/01/01 Antonio de Escuza 1875/01/01 – 1876/01/01 Maximino de Uriarte 1876/01/01 – 1876/03/07 Manuel Chave 1876/03/07 – 1876/04/11 Juan Ángel de Allende 1876/04/11 – 1877/04/01 José Antonio Escuza 1877/04/01 – 1879/07/01 Mamerto Bermeosolo 1879/07/01 – 1881/07/01 Juan Ángel de Allende 1881/07/01 – 1885/07/01 Mariano de Olabarría 1885/07/01 – 1890/01/01 Calisto López Sáez 1890/01/01 – 1891/07/01 Eugenio Solano 1891/07/01 – 1894/01/01 Agustín Iza Rementería 1894/01/01 - October 1900 Calisto López Sáez 1900/11/03 – 1904/01/01 Agustín Iza Rementería 1904/01/01 – 1906/01/01 Agustín Garmendia 1906/01/01 – 1910/01/01 Bernardo Ruiz Elizondo 1910/01/01 - January 1912 Alejo Egusquizaga Bilbao Urtarrila 1912 - January 1914 Manuel Asla January 1914 – 1916/01/01 José Salcedo Zubaran 1916/01/01 – 1918/01/01 Luis Sanjinés 1918/01/01 – 1920/01/01 Fabriciano Torróntegui 1920/01/01 – 1923/10/01 Antonio Pujana Meave 1923/10/01 – 1924/03/26 Dionisio Ureta Balparda 1924/03/26 – 1930/03/12 Tomás Quintana Martín 1930/03/12 – 1931/01/31 Dionisio Ureta Balparda 1931/01/31 – 1931/04/15 Francisco de Uribe Urioste 1931/04/15 – 1931/04/28 Nemesio Merodio Ramos 1931/04/28 – 1934/11/14 Antonio Pujana Meave 1934/11/14 – 1936/02/23 José Colón Laza 1936/02/23 – 1937/07/02 Antonio Pujana Meave 1937/07/02 – 1938/02/09 Luis Sanjinés Renovales 1938/02/09 – 1952/05/03 José Colón Laza 1952/05/03 – 1955/08/29 Eugenio Mendicote Mardones 1955/08/29 – 1959/12/05 Juan Ramón Sánchez-Serrano Múgica 1959/12/05 – 1964/08/26 Francisco Garaygordobil Barrutia 1964/08/26 – 1969/12/14 Tomás Alonso García 1969/12/14 – 1974/09/10 José Antonio Romero Onaindia 1974/09/10 – 1979/04/19 Luis Andrés Merodio García 1979/04/19 – 1983/05/23 Francisco Puerto Balmisa 1983/05/23 - Uztaila 1987 Luis María Vallejo López Uztaila 1987 – 1991/06/15 Francisco Puerto Balmisa 1991/06/15 - 1995 Luis María Vallejo López 1995 - 2003 Juan José Mezcorta Puertollano 2003 - 2013 Manuel Tejada Lanbarri 2013 - in charge Maite Etxebarria Azpiolea Zierbena
Gorliz is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, which lies within the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in northern Spain. The town had 5,664 inhabitants in 2014. Gorliz consists of the following neighborhoods: Elexalde, Santa María, Gandia, San José, Guzurmendi and Orabille, its economy is based on the services sector. Its principal source of income is the tourism. Over last years it has become one of the most touristic centres in Biscay. One of the biggest attractions of the municipality is nearby pine forest. Near the northernmost part of the beach, sometimes considered as the separated Beach of Astondo, lie the Petrified Dunes of Astondo, which were declared a Site of Community Importance. Churches such as the Church of the Immaculate Conception, founded in the 10th century and remodeled in 1781, the church of Santa María are attractions. In Cabo Villano, Billao in Basque, about 30 minutes from downtown, magnificent views can be enjoyed along the lighthouse. In this area there are cannons and underground galleries built after the Spanish Civil War by Francoist Spain, using prisoners of war on the Republican side, in anticipation of a hypothetical landing of the Allies after World War II that never came.
Gorliz has a camping, a youth hostel and many other places of interest. With a length of 842m and a width of 120m, the modeled Gorliz beach has an excellent bathing water quality, it is accessible from the BI-2120 road to Mungia, taking the exit from the Saratxaga roundabout to Gorliz and taking the BI-3158, that goes to Gorliz Hospital. There are several bus lines close directly to the beach and from the last stop on line 1 of the underground Metro Bilbao, "Plentzia", it is a pleasant walk of around 2 km along the edge of the River Butroe estuary to Gorliz beach. At the beginning of the 20th century, the properties of the baths of sea, the new medicine for rehab and a new concept of free time fixed new habits and treatments, but the history of this first marine sanatorium of the Biscayan coast was born from the ideas of several doctors, between whom Dr. Enrique Areilza stood out; the idea attracted the attention of the Deputation of Biscay, presided in those moments by Luis de Salazar. From 1979-2007 Górliz's mayors belonged to the Basque Nationalist Party.
In 2007 there were separate EA and PNV. The PNV was again the most voted, but obtained a simple majority of 40% of the valid votes, which earned him only six of the 13 councillors. Emma Calzada of the Independent Group was elected mayor of Gorliz, with the votes of his group, the Basque PP, Ezker Batua - Berdeak - Aralar and Eusko Alkartasuna. 1 2 3 On June 29, San Pedro festivity, a pilgrimage takes place in the neighborhood of Iberre. The main festivity of Gorliz is celebrated around July Santiago day; the festive activities include Basque Poliphony. The neighborhood Andra Mari celebrates its singular festivities the first weekend of August, with its traditional paella contest and with the pilgrimage on August 5 in honor of the Virgin of Andra Mari de Aguirre and Las Nieves; the third weekend of August the festivities of Urezarantza-Fano neighborhood take place. On December 8, feast of Immaculate Conception, a Christmas fair and a snails in "vizcaina" style contest are celebrated. GÓRLIZ in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Etxebarri, Doneztebeko Elizatea is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Basque Community, in the North of Spain. Since 13 January 2005, the name of "Etxebarri, Doneztebeko Elizatea" has been changed to "Etxebarri" to simplify the name, it translates as "new home/house". Prior to the introduction of Standard Basque, the town's name was spelled Echevarri. Etxebarri has an area of 33.38 square kilometres and a population of 10,337 people, with a density of 2421.72 inhabitants/km2. Being so close to Bilbao has had a direct effect on Etxebarri; until a few decades ago, Etxebarri was a small nucleus in which its rural population worked in industrial areas. Both the population and the industrial land increased because of the congestion of Bilbao and the need for space for the installation of industries. Therefore, there was a significant increase in new population in the locality. In addition, since 2004, the Metro Bilbao underground train has reached Etxebarri.
In fact, the threshold stipulated. It has a metro station of the rapid transit service Metro Bilbao and a train station of the commuter rail service EuskoTren. ETXEBARRI, ANTEIGLESIA DE SAN ESTEBAN - ETXEBARRI DONEZTEBEKO ELIZATEA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Etxebarri city council
Lekeitio is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Basque Country, 53 km northeast from Bilbao. The municipality has 7,293 inhabitants and is one of the most important fishing ports of the Basque coast. Tourism has an important role during the summer seasons, when the town is a resort with one beach called Isunza and the nearby Carraspio beach in the town of Mendexa; the most important monument is the church of a gothic basilica from the 15th century. Lekeitio is the birthplace of Resurrección María de Azkue, one of the most important Basque scholars of the 19th century; the celebration of San Pedro takes place from June 29, saints day, to July 1. It begins with a mass in honor of a procession with his image; the mass is celebrated in the church of Santa Maria, from there the procession starts to walk the streets of the town. The festivities are in honor of the patron of the town, San Antolin, are celebrated from 1 to 8 September. One of the most popular parts of the festival geese.
This is held on 5 September, the aim being to hold on for as long as possible to a goose, hanging from a rope that crosses the harbor from one dock to the other. The rope has one side fixed and on the other side there is a group of men pulling the rope to raise and lower it. In the middle of the rope there is a goose drenched in oil. There are a lot of boats that take part and all of them have to go, in the order assigned through a random lottery in the morning, to the place the goose is and one participant from each boat has to grab the goose by the neck as as possible. Once the boat has advanced to the front, the men at the end of the rope start pulling it, lifting the goose with the member holding it. Once the participants reach the top, the men let him drop from there, before pulling him up again, they continue like that until the participant lets the goose go or until the neck of the goose gets broken. The one who makes most elevations wins the competition; this day has been documented since the 5th century and it is said that its origins are older.
This act has been celebrated since 1877. The geese run, as it is called, was done on land. Several changes have taken place in this festival because in the past all the boats were sailed by 13 sailors. Only sailors were allowed to participate and there were strict regulations governing the speed and size of the boat, which had to be manned by 12 oarsmen and the captain. If there was any doubt about the winner they arranged a race; the festival is controversial among animal rights activists, who have called for it to be stopped. During the festival people wear denim work clothes combined with a white shirt. A 15m-long panel of etchings was discovered in the Armintxe Cave in 2016. Two of the etchings were of lions - the first seen in Basque Country; the art dates from 12,000 to 14,500 years ago. Resurrección María de Azkue: Priest, writer and culture promoter. One of the creators of Euskaltzaindia and the first Euskaltzailburu, or head of Euskaltzaindia. Santiago Brouard: Doctor and politician, member of Herri Batasuna.
Member of the Spanish senate and deputy mayor of Bilbao. Buenaventura Zapirain: Composer and organist. Eusebio Erkiaga: Writer. Miren Agur Meabe: Writer. LEKEITIO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Lekeitio Town Hall Basilic of Lekeitio and Assumption of Saint Mary Basque Country, Without Borders Lekitxo Interneten. Web site information of Lekeitio
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.
This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.
Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.
There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.
From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as «the botxo», that is, «the hole», since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the XIX century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Mu