Cevio is the capital of the district of Vallemaggia in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. On 22 October 2006 Cevio grew by incorporating the villages of Bignasco and Cavergno municipalities in their own right. Cevio is first mentioned in 1335 as Zevio; the municipality has long been the principal town of the district. In 1858 the municipality of Linescio was separated from it. In the fall of 2006, Cavergno and Bignasco were incorporated into the municipality, despite an attempt by Bignasco to resist the incorporation in the courts. Cevio has an area, as of 1997, of 151.42 square kilometers. Of this area, 0.59 km2 or 0.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 9.56 km2 or 6.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.76 km2 or 0.5% is settled, 0.89 km2 or 0.6% is either rivers or lakes and 2.83 km2 or 1.9% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 0.1% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.1%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests.
Of the agricultural land, 0.2% is used for growing crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water. Of the unproductive areas, 1.2% is unproductive vegetation. The municipality is located in the Vallemaggia district, it is the center of the Rovana sub-district and is located at the confluence of the Maggia and Rovana rivers. It consists of a number of scattered settlements; until 1858, the village of Linescio was part of Cevio, in 2006, the former municipality of Cavergno joined Cevio. Cevio lies 23 km northwest of Locarno in the upper Vallemaggia; the mountain Pizzo Alzasca overlooks the town. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Aure St. maurice riding a horse argent holding a flag gules a cross argent and in base three fleurs de li or. Cevio has a population of 1,177; as of 2008, 14.7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -4.6%. Most of the population speaks Italian language, with German being second most common and Spanish being third.
There are 12 people who speak 1 person who speaks Romansh. The inhabitants of Cevio speak a dialect, different from standard Italian. Cevio is one of the municipalities of Ticino. Of the 476 residents, 364 are Swiss citizens; the largest non-Swiss groups are from Italy, Portugal and Herzegovina and Sri Lanka. The unusually high number of non-Swiss in the municipality is due to the abundance of jobs in the quarries and hospital; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 50.7% male and 49.3% female. The population was made up of 512 Swiss men, 107 non-Swiss men. There were 540 Swiss women, 63 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 137 or about 27.6% were born in Cevio and lived there in 2000. There were 140 or 28.2% who were born in the same canton, while 60 or 12.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 131 or 26.4% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 7 live births to Swiss citizens and were 15 deaths of Swiss citizens and 1 non-Swiss citizen death.
Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 8 while the foreign population decreased by 1. There were 3 Swiss women who immigrated back to Switzerland. At the same time, there were 8 non-Swiss men who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 4 and the non-Swiss population change was a decrease of 8 people. This represents a population growth rate of -1.0%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Cevio is. Of the adult population, 126 people or 10.3% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 112 people or 9.2% are between 30 and 39, 204 people or 16.7% are between 40 and 49, 187 people or 15.3% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 140 people or 11.5% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 133 people or 10.9% are between 70 and 79, there are 99 people or 8.1% who are over 80. As of 2000, there were 186 people who never married in the municipality. There were 235 married individuals, 52 widows or widowers and 24 individuals who are divorced.
As of 2000, there were 518 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.3 persons per household. There were 68 households that consist of only one person and 8 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 205 households that answered this question, 33.2% were households made up of just one person and 4 were adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 59 married couples without children, 56 married couples with children There were 10 single parents with a child or children. There were 4 households that were made up unrelated people and 4 households that were made some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 233 single family homes out of a total of 295 inhabited buildings. There were 44 multi-family buildings, along with 5 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 13 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single family homes 11 were built before 1919, while 10 were built between 1990 and 2000.
The greatest number of single family homes were built between 1919 and 1945
Canton of Ticino
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland. Ticino borders the canton of Uri to the north, the canton of Valais to the west, the canton of Graubünden to the northeast, Italy's regions of Piedmont and Lombardy to the south and it surrounds the small Italian enclave of Campione d'Italia. Named after the river Ticino, it is the only canton where Italian is the sole official language and represents the bulk of the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland along with the southern parts of Graubünden; the land now occupied by the canton was annexed from Italian cities in the 15th century by various Swiss forces in the last transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In the Helvetic Republic, established 1798, it was divided between the two new cantons of Bellinzona and Lugano; the creation of the Swiss Confederation in 1803 saw these two cantons combine to form the modern canton of Ticino. The name Ticino was chosen for the newly established canton in 1803, after the Ticino river which flows through it from the Novena Pass to Lake Maggiore.
Known as Ticinus in Roman times, the river appears on the Tabula Peutingeriana as Ticenum. Johann Kaspar Zeuss attributed Celtic origins to the name, tracing it to the Celtic tek, itself from an Indo-European root tak, meaning "melting, flowing". In ancient times, the area of what is today Ticino was settled by a Celtic tribe. Around the rule of Augustus, it became part of the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Western Empire, it was ruled by the Lombards and the Franks. Around 1100 it was the centre of struggle between the free communes of Milan and Como: in the 14th century it was acquired by the Visconti, Dukes of Milan. In the fifteenth century the Swiss Confederates conquered the valleys south of the Alps in three separate conquests. Between 1403 and 1422 some of these lands were annexed by forces from the Canton of Uri, but subsequently lost. Uri conquered the Leventina Valley in 1440. In a second conquest Uri and Nidwalden gained the town of Bellinzona and the Riviera in 1500; some of the land and Bellinzona itself were annexed by Uri in 1419 but lost again in 1422.
The third conquest was fought by troops from the entire Confederation. In 1512 Locarno, the Maggia Valley and Mendrisio were annexed. Subsequently, the upper valley of the Ticino River, from the St. Gotthard to the town of Biasca was part of Uri; the remaining territory was administered by the Twelve Cantons. These districts were governed by bailiffs holding office for two years and purchasing it from the members of the League; the lands of the canton of Ticino are the last lands to be conquered by the Swiss Confederation. The Confederation gave up any further conquests after their defeat at the battle of Marignano in 1515 by Francis I of France; the Val Leventina revolted unsuccessfully against Uri in 1755. In February 1798 an attempt of annexation by the Cisalpine Republic was repelled by a volunteer militia in Lugano. Between 1798 and 1803, during the Helvetic Republic, two cantons were created but in 1803 the two were unified to form the canton of Ticino that joined the Swiss Confederation as a full member in the same year under the Act of Mediation.
During the Napoleonic Wars, many Ticinesi served in Swiss military units allied with the French. The canton minted its own currency, the Ticinese franco, between 1813 and 1850, when it began use of the Swiss franc. In the early 19th century, the contemporary Franco-Danish scholar Conrad Malte-Brun stated that: “The canton of Tesino is the poorest, the people the most ignorant of any in Switzerland; until 1878 the three largest cities, Bellinzona and Locarno, alternated as capital of the canton. In 1878, Bellinzona became the only and permanent capital; the 1870–1891 period saw a surge of political turbulence in Ticino, the authorities needed the assistance of the federal government to restore order in several instances, in 1870, 1876, 1889 and 1890–1891. The current cantonal constitution dates from 1997; the previous constitution modified, was codified in 1830, nearly 20 years before the constitution of the Swiss Confederation. The canton of Ticino is in the south of Switzerland entirely surrounded by Italy.
To the north are the cantons of Valais and Uri, to the northeast the canton of Graubünden. Its area is 2,812 square kilometres, of which about three quarters are considered productive to trees or crops. Forests cover about a third of the area, but the lakes Maggiore and Lugano make up a considerable minority. Lying in the south of the Alps, the canton can be split into two at the Monte Ceneri pass; the northern, highest part, the Sopraceneri, is formed by the two major Swiss valleys around Lake Maggiore: Ticino valley and Maggia valley. The southern part, the Sottoceneri, is the region around Lake Lugano; the Ticino river is the largest river in the canton. It drains most of the canton, flowing from the northwest through the Bedretto valley and the Leventina valley to enter Lake Maggiore near Locarno, its main tributaries are the Brenno in the Blenio valley and the Moesa in the Mesolcina valley in Graubünden. The lands of most of the canton are shaped by the river, which in its mid portion forms a wide valley known a
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons
The Cristallina is a mountain of the Lepontine Alps, located in the Swiss canton of Ticino. It is situated between the valleys of Leventina, Val Bavona and Valle di Peccia (the latter two belonging to the Valle Maggia. On the west side of the mountain is located the Passo Cristallina with the Cristallina Hut. Cristallina on Summitpost
Lavizzara is a municipality in the district of Vallemaggia in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The municipality was created in 2004 by a merger of Broglio, Fusio, Menzonio and Prato-Sornico. Broglio is first mentioned in 1361 as Brono. Brontallo is first mentioned in 1574 as Bruntalo. Fusio is first mentioned in 1258 as Fuxio. Menzonio is first mentioned in 1364 as Menzone. Peccia is first mentioned in 1374 as Petia. Prato and Sornico were first mentioned in 1374; the existing village area has developed in several stages. It was divided its lands. At the end of the 16th century, it grew again through a series of agreements between the neighboring communities; the Church of S. Maria Lauretana was dedicated in 1487. In the following centuries, it was rebuilt and restored, it belonged to the Sornico parish until 1616. The significant building, Casa Pometta, is from the 17th century; the highest population in the village was during the 17th century. The slow population decline intensified in the late 19th century with emigration to the cities and to other countries.
In 1990, agriculture and livestock, which for centuries were the main sources of income, employed about a third of the workforce. In recent decades, the number of vacation homes has increased markedly; until the beginning of the 15th century, it formed a community with Menzonio and together with Bignasco and Cavergno it formed a Vicinanza. The Church of S. Maria e S. Giorgio was first mentioned in the 15th century. In the 16th century it was rebuilt, renovated several times thereafter; until 1513 it, along with Menzonio, was part of the parish of Cevio. In 1513 Menzonio broke away from Cevio, but Brontallo remained part of the parish until 1655; the greatest population was during the 17th century. The population decline accelerated into the 20th century; the road running from the village into the Val Lavizzara was completed in 1955. In 1990 less than a third of the workforce was employed in agriculture. Many of the homes in the village are now vacation homes; the population reached its peak in the 16th–17th century, but towards the end of the 18th century began a slow decline.
This slow decline accelerated after 1950 because of emigration to the cities. Most of the remaining population is elderly; the church, consecrated in 1455 to the Beata Vergine Assunta, was a Chapel of ease of Sornico until the 16th century. It was rebuilt several times in the 17th century; the local economy relied on livestock and forestry. The village possessed vast pastures and alpine pastures, which explains the small number of emigrants overseas; until the second half of the 19th century, there were two mines in the village that produced steatite. Through the construction of the dam in the Sambuco valley the amount of agricultural land has been reduced. From the 1980s a number of houses and an inn were built; the hamlet of Mogno was part of the village. In the 17th century it possessed 50 taxable fireplaces. By 1801, the population had dropped to just 40 inhabitants. Today it serves only as a holiday village. Before Mogno was incorporated in 1936 into Fusio it was part of Peccia, the land around the settlement was shared between Fusio, Peccia and Sornica.
The church of San Giovanni Battista Decollato was built in 1626 and was a chapel of ease of the parish of Peccia. Towards the end of the 17th century, it became an independent parish church. In 1940 it became part of the parish of Fusio; the church was destroyed in 1986 by an avalanche. The new building, by Mario Botta, was built in 1997 after 10 years of planning and construction work; the unique construction of the building has become a point of interest and a source of critical debate. Until the beginning of the 15th century and Brontallo formed a single municipality, together with Bignasco and Cavergno it formed a Vicinanza, under the jurisdiction of the Lavizzara valley. At the time of the Swiss Confederation rule over Ticino, Menzonio was one of seven villages in the valley; the village church was part of the parish of Cevio until 1513 when it split away to form a parish with Brontallo. In 1655, this parish was dissolved and Menzonio formed its own parish; the Church of SS Giacomo e Filippo was first mentioned in the 15th century.
The current building was built in 1585 and was rebuilt in 1644 and in 1905. In the 17th century, the population reached its peak and decreased initially because of emigration to Italy; the residents emigrated to California and they moved away from the villages to the cities of Ticino and the rest of Switzerland. For centuries the local economy was dominated by agriculture. In the 19th century there was four mills; the road that connects Menzonio with the valley floor, was built in 1949. In 2000, three-quarters of the workforce were commuters. Peccia, together with Broglio, Fusio and Sornico were part of the comunità or valley community of Lavizzara until 1374; when the valley community broke up into separate villages, Peccia was the largest in the Lavizzara region. It included the settlement of Mogno and the Valle di Peccia, independent until 1669; the common, shared land of the four communities of Fusio, Peccia and Sornico remained shared until 1929. The village was part of the parish of Sornico until 1613, after which the church of S. Antonio Abate in Peccia was elevated to become a parish church.
The church was bui
Furka Base Tunnel
The Furka Base Tunnel is a Swiss railway base tunnel on the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn's Furka–Oberalp line, a west-east railway connecting the cantons of Valais and Uri. Its west portal lies east of Oberwald, at 1,390 m above sea level and its east portal lies south of Realp, at 1,550 m; the base tunnel is 15,407 m in length, replaced the previous track that climbed to an apex of 2,160 m above sea level, thus allowing year-round service through service on the Furka–Oberalp line. The old line has been reopened by the Furka Heritage Railway for tourist trains which pass the Furka Pass via the 1.8 km long Furka Summit Tunnel. In the middle of the base tunnel, is a small access tunnel from Bedretto in the canton of Ticino; the Furka Base Tunnel is completed by a bypass tunnel around Oberwald. Prior to the opening of the base tunnel, the high-level route closed during the winter months because of heavy snowfall, large sections of the overhead electrical lines had to be dismantled. In 1976, the Parliament of Switzerland passed a bill for its construction, sponsored by Roger Bonvin, following an initial cost estimate of 76 million francs despite difficult geology.
The construction costs, had been deliberately lowballed to procure parliamentary support, rose to exceed 300 million Francs. The political fighting surrounding the cost overruns are said to have contributed to Roger Bonvin's ill health toward the end of the project and he died just before its opening in 1982. A plaque commemorating Roger Bonvin is installed as the base tunnel's entrance in Oberwald. In its initial year of operation, the base tunnel was used to transport more than 75,000 passenger cars and buses, it serves both an hourly regional train and ten daily Glacier Express trains between Zermatt and the ski resort town of St. Moritz. During the winter skiing season, traffic in the tunnel approaches maximum capacity. Media related to Furka Base Tunnel at Wikimedia Commons