Mount Vernon, New York
Mount Vernon is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is an inner suburb of New York City to the north of the borough of the Bronx; as of the 2010 census, Mount Vernon had a population of 67,292. Mount Vernon, the eighth-most populous city in the state of New York, has two major sections. South-side Mount Vernon is more urban, resembling the Bronx to the south, while North-side Mount Vernon is more residential. Mount Vernon's downtown business district is on the city's South-side, which features the City Hall, Mount Vernon's main post office, Mount Vernon Public Library, office buildings, other municipal establishments. In 1894, the voters of Mount Vernon voted, along with the voters of Kings County, Queens County, Richmond County, in a referendum on whether or not they wanted to become part of a "Greater New York City". While the results were positive elsewhere, the returns were so negative in Mount Vernon and Yonkers that those two areas were not included in the consolidated city and remained independent.
Like neighboring Wakefield, named after the plantation where George Washington resided for much of his life, Mount Vernon was named after the eponymous Virginia plantation where Washington spent his final years. The Mount Vernon Public Library, a gift to the city from Andrew Carnegie, opened in 1904 and is now part of the Westchester Library System, providing educational and computer services to county residents of all ages. During the 1960s, Mount Vernon was a divided city on the brink of a "northern style" segregation. Many blacks from the southern United States migrated north and settled in the city of Mount Vernon for better job opportunities and educational advancements. At the same time, many white Americans from the Bronx and Manhattan looked to Mount Vernon as a new "bedroom community" due to rising crime in New York City; as a result, Mount Vernon became divided in two by the New Haven Line railroad tracks of the Metro-North Railroad: North Side and South Side. The population south of the tracks became predominantly black, while that north of the tracks was white.
At the height of this segregation in the 1970s, August Petrillo was mayor. When he died, Thomas E. Sharpe was elected mayor. Upon Sharpe's death in 1984, Carmella Iaboni took office as "acting mayor" until Ronald Blackwood was elected. In 1996, Ernest D. Davis was elected the mayor of Mount Vernon. Clinton I. Young, Jr. became the city's mayor on January 1, 2008. Four years on January 1, 2012, Ernest D. Davis became the 21st mayor of Mount Vernon. In 2013, Davis was investigated for failure to report rental income. In 2015, Richard Thomas ran against Davis and defeated him in an upset victory during the September primary. Thomas had to run again in the November general election, where he received 71% of the votes to become the next Mayor of Mount Vernon. Mount Vernon has in recent years undergone a transition from a city of homes and small businesses to a city of regional commerce. Between 2000 and 2006, the city of Mount Vernon's economy grew 20.5%, making it one of the fastest-growing cities in the New York metropolitan area.
St. Paul's Church is a Mount Vernon attraction designated as a National Historic Site. Mount Vernon sites included on the National Register of Historic Places include: First United Methodist Church John Stevens House Trinity Episcopal Church Complex United States Post Office on First Street Mount Vernon is at 40°54′51″N 73°49′50″W, it is the most densely populated city in Westchester County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.4 square miles, of which 0.015 square miles, or 0.39%, is water. Mount Vernon is bordered by the village of Bronxville and city of New Rochelle to the north, by the town of Pelham and village of Pelham Manor to the east, by the Hutchinson River and the Eastchester and Wakefield sections of the Bronx to the south, by the city of Yonkers and the Bronx River to the west. Mount Vernon's elevation at City Hall is about 235 feet, reflecting its location between the Bronx River to the west and the Hutchinson River to the east. On a clear day, the Throgs Neck Bridge can be seen from 10 miles away from many parts of the city, while at night, the bridge's lights can be seen.
The city's seal, created in 1892, depicts what were considered the highest points in Mount Vernon: Trinity Place near Fourth Street, Vista Place at Barnes Avenue, North 10th Street between Washington and Jefferson places. Since it was discovered that the city's highest elevation is on New York Route 22, North Columbus Avenue, at the Bronxville line. Mount Vernon is divided into four major sections in four square miles: Downtown, Mount Vernon Heights, North Side, South Side. Downtown Mount Vernon features the Gramatan Avenue and Fourth Avenue shopping district and the Petrillo Plaza transit hub, houses the city's central government. Downtown is in the same condition, it features format. Former mayor Clinton Young vowed to make Mount Vernon a new epicenter with a new central business district, his failed plans included establishing commercial office space and rezoning to allow high density development in the downtown, as well as affordable and market rate housing. Mount Vernon Heights' elevated terrain has earned the moniker "the rolling hills of homes".
It is home to the city's commercial corridor, a
MTA Regional Bus Operations
MTA Regional Bus Operations is the surface transit division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. It was created in 2008 to consolidate all bus operations in New York City operated by the MTA; as of February 2018, MTA Regional Bus Operations runs 234 local routes, 71 express routes, 18 Select Bus Service routes. Its fleet of 5,725 buses is the largest municipal bus fleet in the United States and operates 24/7; the division comprises two brands: MTA New York City Bus. While MTA Bus is an amalgamation of former private companies' routes, MTA New York City Bus is composed of public routes that were taken over by the city before 2008; the MTA operates paratransit services and operated Long Island Bus. As of 2018, MTA Regional Bus Operations' budgetary burden for expenditures was $773 million. Regional Bus Operations is only used in official documentation, not publicly as a brand; the current public brands are listed below: MTA New York City Bus – most routes within the City of New York, operated by the New York City Transit Authority and subsidiary Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority.
MTA Bus – service administered by the New York City Department of Transportation and operated by seven companies at the time of takeover, concentrated in Queens, with some routes in the Bronx and Brooklyn, most express service from Brooklyn and the Bronx to Manhattan. The seven former companies were, Command Bus Company, Inc.. Liberty Lines Express, Inc.. The most common scheme is a straight blue stripe across the sides of the bus against a white base, with no colors on the front or back, black window trim. From 1977 until late 2007, the livery was a full all-around stripe with a black rear, until late 2010, the scheme was a stripe with a blank rear. Buses operated in Select Bus Service bus rapid transit service are wrapped with a light blue-and-white wrap below the windows. In spring 2016, a new livery was introduced based on navy blue, light blue, yellow, with a blue front and sides, a light blue and yellow wave, a yellow back; this new livery will replace the blue stripe on a white base livery.
Many RBO's operational changes have been at the management level, with the creation of a unified command center and consolidation of management for all bus operations, with the aim of reducing redundancies in the agency. Other changes have included eliminating the MTA Bus call center, folding it into that of MTA New York City Transit, the unification of the fare policy for all of the MTA's services; the history of the MTA's bus operations follows the history of the New York City Transit Authority known as MTA New York City Transit, created on June 15, 1953 by the State of New York to take over operations operated by the New York City Board of Transportation. In 1962 the State established the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority as a subsidiary of NYCT to take over operations operated by two private companies, Fifth Avenue Coach Lines, Inc. and Surface Transit, Inc. Both NYCT and MaBSTOA operate service pursuant to a lease agreement with the City of New York. City involvement with surface transit in the city began in September 1919, when Mayor John Francis Hylan, through the New York City Department of Plant and Structures, organized private entrepreneurs to operate "emergency" buses to replace four abandoned storage battery streetcar lines: the Madison Street Line and Delancey Streets Line, Avenue C Line, Sixth Avenue Ferry Line.
Many routes were soon added, replacing lines such as the Brooklyn and North River Line and Queens Bus Lines, the DP&S began operating trolleys in Staten Island to replace the Staten Island Midland Railway's system. Another city acquisition was the Bridge Operating Company, which ran the Williamsburg Bridge Local trolley, acquired in 1921 by the DP&S. Unlike the other lines, this one remained city-operated, was replaced by the B39 bus route on December 5, 1948, by transferred to the New York City Board of Transportation. With the city takeover of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation's surface subsidiary, the Brooklyn and Queens Transit Corporation, on June 2, 1940, the city gained a large network of trolley and bus lines, covering all of Brooklyn and portions of Queens. On February 23, 1947, the Board of Transportation took over the Staten Island bus network of the Isle Transportation Company. Further acquisitions were made on March 30, 1947, with the North Shore Bus Company in Queens, September 24, 1948, with the East Side Omnibus Corporation and Comprehensive Omnibus Corporation in Manhattan.
The final Brooklyn trolleys were the Church Avenue Line and McDonald Avenue Line, discontinued on October 31, 1956, though the operated Queensboro Bridge Local remained until 1957. Thus, in the late 1950s, the city operated all local service in Staten Island and Brooklyn, about half the local service in Queens, several routes in Manhattan. Several private companies operated buses in Queens, the Avenue B and East Broadway Transit Company operated a small Manhattan system, but by far the largest system was the Fifth Avenue Coach Company and Surface Transit, which operated all Manhattan routes and all Bronx routes, plus two into Queens and one within Queens. After a strike in 1962, the city condemned the assets of the bus companies. To facilitate the anticipat
Driving Alexandria Safely Home is the public bus system for the city of Alexandria, operated by the Alexandria Transit Company. The Alexandria Transit Company's DASH system provides safe and courteous bus service within the City of Alexandria, connects with Metrobus, Virginia Railway Express, all local bus systems. DASH serves all of the Alexandria Metrorail Stations and the Pentagon Metrorail station during morning and evening peak periods. Alexandria Transit Company is a non-profit service corporation wholly owned by the City of Alexandria and operates 124 buses, which consists of the King Street Trolleys. ATC provides a fixed-route bus service within the City of Alexandria on nine routes and carries more than four million passengers annually. ATC operates transit services within portions of the City of Alexandria and between the City and the Pentagon Metrorail Station. ATC's purpose is to supplement the regional rail and bus service provided by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority and to provide a local bus service to the City of Alexandria.
In 1981, in anticipation of the opening of the Metrorail stations and the subsequent reordering of Metrobus service, the City Council authorized a feasibility study for a city-sponsored bus system. In 1982, the study recommended a five-route system. In 1983, the City Council developed an RFP for management companies to develop a detailed plan for the operation of transit service in the City of Alexandria; the city chose to establish a non-profit public service cooperation that would be wholly owned by the City. This arrangement provided means by which: The transit system could be run as a business-type enterprise, City Council could retain overall policy control yet be free from the day-to-day operation of a transit system. On October 23, 1983 the City Council set up a Transitional Task Force and, on January 24, 1984, instructed the City Attorney to proceed with the incorporation of a non-profit company; the certificate of incorporation was issued by the State Corporation Commission on January 31, the organizational meeting of the company was held February 6.
In January 1984, the General Manager employed by the Management Company, awarded the management contract reported for duty and final preparations began for the opening of revenue service on March 11. DASH carries over 12,000 passengers per weekday within the City of Virginia; the AT8 route, which runs through the Duke Street corridor, is DASH's busiest route with about 3,000 rides per weekday. In 2011, DASH ordered three new 40' Gillig Low Floor diesel-electric hybrid buses, which are 5' longer than the rest of the DASH fleet; these buses went into service in April 2012. Five additional 40' Gillig Low Floor diesel-electric hybrid buses went into service in March 2013; the new 40' buses are used on the AT8 route to reduce crowding. On July 28, 2014, DASH introduced the new AT9 Crosstown Route; the AT9 provides crosstown connections between Mark Center, Southern Towers, Northern Virginia Community College, Bradlee Shopping Center, Shirlington Transit Center in Arlington, Parkfairfax and Potomac Yard.
DASH's current base fare as of July 1, 2018 is $1.75 for riders paying SmarTrip. In 2007, DASH converted its buses to allow the use of the WMATA SmarTrip, an electronic debit farecard. DASH continued to accept and issue paper transfers until they were eliminated altogether January 1, 2013. ^operates under the King Street Trolley branding Official site
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. This happens twice every weekday; the term is used for a period of peak congestion that may last for more than one hour. The term is broad, but refers to private automobile transportation traffic when there is a large volume of cars on a road but not a large number of people, or if the volume is normal but there is some disruption of speed. By analogy to vehicular traffic, the term Internet rush hour has been used to describe periods of peak data network usage, resulting in delays and slower delivery of data packets; the name is sometimes a misnomer, as the peak period lasts more than one hour and the "rush" refers to the volume of traffic, not the speed of its flow. Rush hour may be 6 -- 4 -- 8 pm. Peak traffic periods may vary from city to city, from region to region, seasonally; the frequency of public transport service is higher in the rush hour, longer trains or larger vehicles are used.
However, the increase in capacity is less than the increased number of passengers, due to the limits on available vehicles, staff and, in the case of rail transport, track capacity including platform length. The resulting crowding may force many passengers to stand, others may be unable to board. If there is inadequate capacity, this can make public transport less attractive, leading to higher car use and shifting the congestion to roads. Transport demand management, such as road pricing or a congestion charge, is designed to induce people to alter their travel timing to minimize congestion. Public transport fares may be higher during peak periods. Season tickets or multi-ride tickets, sold at a discount, are used in rush hours by commuters, may or may not reflect rush hour fare differentials. Staggered hours have been promoted as a means of spreading demand across a longer time span—for example, in Rush Hour and by the International Labour Office. In the morning, evening, Sydney and Melbourne, Auckland and Christchurch are the most congested cities in Australia and New Zealand respectively.
In Melbourne the Monash Freeway, which connects Melbourne's suburban sprawl, to the city is heavily congested each morning and evening. In Perth, Mitchell Freeway, Kwinana Freeway and various arterial roads are congested between peak hours, making movement between suburbs and the city quite slow. Efforts to minimise traffic congestion during peak hour vary on a state by state and city by city basis. In Melbourne, congestion is managed by means including: Inbound transit lanes on busy freeways which are limited to motorcycles and other vehicles with more than one occupant during busy periods. Free travel on metropolitan trains before 7am. Passengers must exit the system at their destination station before 7am. Dedicated bus lanes on major inner city roads such as Hoddle Street. Introduction of dedicated bicycle lanes in the inner city area to encourage cyclists and deter dual-track vehicles. Prohibition of parking along busy roads during peak traffic periods to create an extra lane for traffic.
In Sydney, congestion is managed by many means including: Buses increase frequency from 4 per hour to 12 per hour on the Metrobus network, other routes increase limited and express services The CityRail network runs double-decker electric multiple unit trains that allowed many more passengers to board the trains compared to the 1950s single-level'Red Rattlers', and'Silver Ghosts'. Time-of-day ticket prices allow train commuters to board trains before 6 am or after 7 pm at a cheaper rate on single or day return tickets Transit and/or HOV Lanes are installed on many major arterial roads, The ClearWays project, which allows for broken-down trains on the Sydney Trains network to not affect the running of trains on separate lines due to building bypasses, loop-backs alongside the existing track The Sydney Light Rail Dulwich Hill Line, the only operational light rail line in Sydney, increases headways during peak hour, providing services up to every eight minutes. Traffic congestion is managed through the Traffic Management Centre via a network of Closed Circuit TV's, with operators able to change the timing of traffic signals to reduce wait times Most major motorways have the ability for Contra-flow to allow continuing flow of traffic in case of a major accident Older motor ways have been upgraded from two lanes in each direction, to three lanes in each direction Motor way toll booths have been replaced with electronic toll systems.
In São Paulo, each vehicle is assigned a certain day of the week in which it cannot travel the roads during rush hour. The day of the week for each vehicle is derived from the last digit in the licence plate number and the rule is enforced by traffic police; this policy is aimed at reducing the number of vehicles on the roads and encouraging the use of buses and the urban train systems. In Toronto, rush hour lasts from 8:00-9:00 in the morning and from 2 pm until at least 7:30–8 pm. Montreal, has rush hour times from 6:30–8:30 am and 3:30–6 pm. In the cities of Edmonton and Calgary, rush hour typicall
Select Bus Service
Select Bus Service is a brand used by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Regional Bus Operations for bus rapid transit service in New York City. SBS began service in 2008 in order to improve reliability on long, busy corridors. SBS routes use camera-enforced bus lanes; the first route was the Bx12 along the Pelham Parkway. Twenty-one more routes are proposed through 2027. However, in summer 2018, the MTA announced that it was considering delaying the implementation of SBS routes outside Manhattan until 2021 because of the city's upcoming bus-network redesign. In 2002, Schaller Consulting conducted a study on potential bus rapid transit services in New York City. In 2004, the MTA in conjunction with the New York City Department of Transportation and New York State Department of Transportation, performed an initial study on bus rapid transit, with 80 corridors studied citywide. In late 2004, the MTA identified five corridors for implementation of bus rapid transit, one in each of the five boroughs: the Fordham Road/Pelham Parkway corridor in the Bronx, First Avenue and Second Avenue in Manhattan, Merrick Boulevard in Queens, Nostrand Avenue in Brooklyn, Hylan Boulevard in Staten Island.
Four bus priority corridors were identified for implementation or expansion: Madison Avenue, Fifth Avenue, 34th Street, Webster Avenue. The Merrick Boulevard corridor was scrapped because of community opposition related to loss of parking. However, the corridor is being considered again as part of the Bus Forward study in 2017; the Select Bus Service program was unveiled to the public on March 25, 2008. At the time of the announcement, the MTA and then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg had stated that implementation on other corridors was contingent on the passage of congestion pricing, which did not make it for a vote in the legislature; the first Select Bus Service corridor, on the Bx12 along 207th Street, Fordham Road, Pelham Parkway, was placed into service on June 29, 2008. The next line, the M15, saw Select Service begin on October 10, 2010 after the delivery of new low-floor buses; the M34/M34A line was started on November 13, 2011. A 34th Street busway was planned that would require eliminating 34th Street as a through street, but it was dropped in favor of the standard SBS model.
The B44 Rogers/Bedford/Nostrand Avenues bus route, the fifth Select Bus Service corridor in the city, was implemented on November 17, 2013 after the arrival of new fare machines. The S79 Hylan Boulevard/Richmond Avenue route slated to be converted to SBS in 2013, was moved up to September 2, 2012. A sixth corridor, the second for the Bronx, began service on the Bx41 Webster Avenue route on June 30, 2013. Another Select Bus Service route on Webster Avenue, which will be extended to run between LaGuardia Airport and Fordham Plaza alongside the local Bx41 route, is proposed for implementation. A seventh corridor, the third for Manhattan, the M60 125th Street–Triborough Bridge–Astoria Boulevard bus route to LaGuardia Airport, was converted to SBS on May 25, 2014. An eighth Select Bus Service route was planned in the 2014–2017 Financial Plan; the eighth Select Bus Service corridor, the fourth in Manhattan, was for the M86 running on 86th Street, scheduled to start running on June 28, 2015, but pushed back to July 13, 2015.
The ninth corridor, the second for Brooklyn, is the B46 on Utica Avenue. When implemented, the local and Select Bus Service route of the B46 changed northern terminals to improve reliability. Planned for implementation in fall 2015, it was instituted on July 3, 2016; the tenth corridor, the first for Queens, is the Q44 limited bus route running on East 177th Street and Main Street, which began on November 29, 2015. Selected stops in the Bronx were combined into much busier stops for faster service, some stops in Queens have been replaced by the Q20A/B local routes; as both the Q20 branches do not enter the Bronx and the Q44 ran local late nights only, the Q44 gained 24/7 SBS service between the Bronx Zoo and Jamaica. The Q20A replaced the Q44 local in Queens late nights. On September 25, 2016, the eleventh corridor and the second for Queens, the Q70, was rebranded as the "LaGuardia Link" and became a SBS route; as opposed to other SBS routes, the Q70 is wrapped in a light blue scheme with clouds and airplanes in order to encourage more people to use public transportation when using the airport.
This marked MTA Bus's first SBS route, as well as the second for the eleventh overall. The M23, the twelfth corridor and the fifth in Manhattan, became a Select Bus Service route on November 6, 2016 with dedicated bus lanes and countdown clocks at some stops, replacing M23 local service at the cost of $1.7 million. The M79 became an SBS route on May 2017, with the installation of bus lanes along its route; the Bx6, after the completion of bus lanes and widened sidewalks, became an SBS route on September 3, 2017. It supplements the local service by stopping at high riders