George Washington and Jefferson National Forests
The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U. S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States, they cover 1.8 million acres of land in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky. 1 million acres of the forest are remote and undeveloped and 139,461 acres have been designated as wilderness areas, which eliminates future development. George Washington National Forest was established on May 1918 as the Shenandoah National Forest; the forest was renamed after the first President on June 28, 1932. Natural Bridge National Forest was added on July 22, 1933. Jefferson National Forest was formed on April 21, 1936 by combining portions of the Unaka and George Washington National Forests with other land. In 1995, the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests were administratively combined; the border between the two forests follows the James River. The combined forest is administered from its headquarters in Virginia.
The northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, separately administered by the National Park Service, runs through the Forest. Over 2,000 miles of hiking trails, including segments of the Appalachian Trail, go through the forest. Virginia's highest point, Mount Rogers, is located in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area, part of the forest. Other notable mountains include Elliott Knob, which has one of the last remaining fire lookout towers in the eastern U. S. and Whitetop Mountain. 230,000 acres of old-growth forests. The ghost town of Lignite, Virginia lies within the forest; the deepest gorge east of the Mississippi River, Breaks Interstate Park, is located in the forest. Roaring Run Furnace is the only site on the National Register of Historic Places owned by the Jefferson National Forest; the Forests' vast and mountainous terrain harbors a great variety of plant life—over 50 species of trees and over 2,000 species of shrubs and herbaceous plants. The Forests contain some 230,000 acres of old growth forests, representing all of the major forest communities found within them.
Locations of old growth include Peters Mountain, Mount Pleasant National Scenic Area, Rich Hole Wilderness, Flannery Ridge, Pick Breeches Ridge, Laurel Fork Gorge, Pickem Mountain, Mount Rogers National Recreation Area. The Ramsey's Draft and Kimberling Creek Wildernesses in particular are old-growth; the black bear is common, enough so that there is a short hunting season to prevent overpopulation. White-tailed deer, bald eagles, weasel and marten are known to inhabit the Forests; the forests are popular hiking, mountain biking, hunting destinations. The Appalachian Trail extends for 330 miles from the southern end of Shenandoah National Park through the forest and along the Blue Ridge Parkway; the forest is within a two-hour drive for over ten million people and thus receives large numbers of visitors in the region closest to Shenandoah National Park. The George Washington National Forest is a popular destination for trail runners, it is the location for several Ultramarathons, including the Massanutten Mountain Trails 100 miler, the Old Dominion 100 miler, the Old Dominion Memorial 100 miler.
George Washington Forest is the venue for Nature Camp, a natural science education-oriented summer camp for youth. The camp is located on national forest land near the town of Virginia, it has operated at this location since the summer of 1953. Note that Jefferson National Forest is located in 22 separate counties, more than any other National Forest except Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri, which lies in 29 counties. Note that Botetourt and Rockbridge counties, at the dividing line between the two forests, include parts of both forests. Thirdly, note that the state of Kentucky has little area, with its two counties bringing up the tail end of Jefferson National Forest. Ranger offices are the Forest Service's public service offices. Maps and other information about the forests can be obtained at these locations; these offices are open Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. The Supervisor's Office in Roanoke is not located in the forest and is an administrative location. District offices are listed from north to south.
Counties are in Virginia. There are 139,461 acres of federally designated wilderness areas in the two forests under the United States National Wilderness Preservation System. All are except as indicated; the largest of these is the Mountain Lake Wilderness, at 16,511 acres. There are 17 wildernesses in Jefferson National Forest, second only to Tongass National Forest, which has 19; the first camp of the Civilian Conservation Corps NF-1, Camp Roosevelt, was established in the George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. It is now the site of the Camp Roosevelt Recreation Area. Great North Mountain Massanutten Mountain Shenandoah Mountain Monongahela National Forest—adjoining forest in West Virginia George Washington and Jefferson National Forests U. S. Forest Service, George Washington National Forest, Dry River District Collection at James Madison University's Special Collections
National Wilderness Preservation System
The National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States protects federally managed wilderness areas designated for preservation in their natural condition. Activity on formally designated wilderness areas is coordinated by the National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness areas are managed by four federal land management agencies: the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management; the term "wilderness" is defined as "an area where the earth and community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain" and "an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions." As of 2016, there are 765 designated wilderness areas, totaling 109,129,657 acres, or about 4.5% of the area of the United States. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the American transportation system was on the rise, concern for clean air and water quality began to grow.
A conservation movement began to take place with the intent of establishing designated wilderness areas. Howard Zahniser created the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956, it took nine years and 65 rewrites before the Wilderness Act was passed in 1964. The Wilderness Act of 1964, which established the NWPS, was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964; the Wilderness Act mandated that the National Park Service, U. S. Forest Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service review all federal lands under their jurisdiction for wilderness areas to include in the NWPS; the first national forest wilderness areas were established by the Wilderness Act itself. The Great Swamp in New Jersey became the first National Wildlife Refuge with formally designated wilderness in 1968. Wilderness areas in national parks followed, beginning with the designation of wilderness in part of Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho in 1970. A dramatic spike in acreage added to the wilderness system in 1980 was due in large part to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980.
A smaller spike in 1984 came with the passage of many bills establishing national forest wilderness areas identified by the Forest Service's Roadless Area Review and Evaluation process. The Bureau of Land Management was not required to review its lands for inclusion in the NWPS until after October 21, 1976, when the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 was signed into law. Over 200 wilderness areas have been created within Bureau of Land Management administered lands since consisting of 8.71 million acres in September 2015. As of August 2008, a total of 704 separate wilderness areas, encompassing 107,514,938 acres, had become part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. With the passage of the Omnibus Public Lands Act in March 2009, there were 756 wilderness areas; as of September 2015, the system includes 765 wilderness areas totaling 109,129,657 acres. On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate an area as wilderness under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964.
Multiple agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the U. S. Forest Service, are responsible for the submission of new areas that fit the criteria to become wilderness to congress. Congress reviews these cases on a state by state basis and determines which areas and how much land in each area will become part of the WPS. There have been multiple occasions in which congress designated more federal land than had been recommended by the nominating agency. Whereas the Wilderness Act stipulated that a wilderness area must be "administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness", the Eastern Wilderness Act, which added 16 National Forest areas to the NWPS, allowed for the inclusion of areas, modified by human interference; the Wilderness Act provides criteria for lands being considered for wilderness designation. Though there are some exceptions, the following conditions must be present for an area to be included in the NWPS: the land is under federal ownership and management, the area consists of at least five thousand acres of land, human influence is "substantially unnoticeable," there are opportunities for solitude and recreation, the area possesses "ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, scenic, or historical value."
Wilderness areas are subject to specific management restrictions. During these activities, patrons are asked to abide by the "Leave No Trace" policy; this policy sets guidelines for using the wilderness responsibly, leaving the area as it was before usage. These guidelines include: Packing all trash out of the wilderness, using a stove as opposed to a fire, camping at least 200 feet from trails or water sources, staying on marked trails, keeping group size small; when observed, the "Leave No Trace" ethos ensures that wilderness areas remain untainted by human interaction. In general, the law prohibits logging, mechanized vehicles, road-building, other forms of development in wilderness areas, though pre-existing mining claims and grazing ranges are permitted through grandf
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational potential. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, in Brazil. The term is used in the Australian state of Victoria; the equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa and Belgium, is provincial park. Similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar under state rather than federal administration. Local government entities below state level may maintain parks, e.g. regional parks or county parks. In general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California; as of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, according to the National Association of State Park Directors.
There are some 739 million annual visits to the country's state parks. The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail, 217,367 campsites, 8,277 cabins and lodges across U. S. state parks. The largest state park system in the United States is Alaska State Parks, with over 100 sites encompassing 3.3 million acres. Many states include designations beyond "state park" in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, state nature reserves; some state park systems include historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, established in 1885; however several public parks or maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a public park since 1825, although it did not gain the title "State Park" until 1931. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the federal government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890.
In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its northern forests as "The State Park" but, needing money, sold most of it to lumber companies within 20 years. The first state park with the designation of "state park" was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, first a national park before being transferred to the state of Michigan. Many state park systems date to the 1930s, when around 800 state parks across the country were developed with assistance from federal job creation programs like the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration. List of U. S. state parks Wilderness preservation systems in Carol. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development." Wisconsin Magazine of History: 184-204. In JSTOR Landrum, Ney C; the State Park Movement in America: A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. "Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement." Oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp: 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. "The State Park Movement: 1864-1933.
"When Forests Trumped Parks: The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950." Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp: 203-224
Harold Everett Greer was an American professional basketball player. He played for the Syracuse Nationals / Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association from 1958 through 1973. A guard, Greer was a 10-time NBA All-Star seven times, he was named to the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team and he had his uniform number retired by the 76ers. Born in Huntington, West Virginia, Greer attended Douglass Junior and Senior High School in Huntington. Douglass was an all-black school, he played as a guard for Douglass' men's basketball team. He enrolled at Marshall University and played college basketball for the Marshall Thundering Herd's basketball team, becoming the first African American to play for a public college in West Virginia. With the Thundering Herd, Greer scored 1,377 points with a.545 field goal percentage, setting a Marshall record. In 1956, Marshall won the Mid-American Conference championship, made their first NCAA men's basketball tournament appearance. Greer was named All-Mid-American Conference in 1957 and 1958.
He was named an All-American in 1958 as well. Greer finished his Marshall career averaging 10.8 rebounds per game. In 1958, his senior year, Greer averaged 23.6 points per game. Greer played for the school's baseball team in his sophomore year as a first baseman; the Syracuse Nationals selected Greer with the 13th selection in the 1958 NBA draft. Greer played for Syracuse for five seasons, raising his scoring average to 22.8 points a game in 1961. He was selected for the NBA All-Star team that year. In 1963, the Syracuse Nationals moved to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers. There, Greer teamed with Wilt Chamberlain on the 1966 -- 67 team. In the 76ers' 15 playoff games that season, Greer averaged a team-best 27.7 points. Greer had an unusual but effective free throw technique, shooting a jump shot from the charity stripe, he is considered the third-best guard of the 1960s, behind Oscar Robertson and fellow West Virginia native Jerry West. Greer played in 10 NBA All-Star Games and was the MVP of the 1968 game when he went 8-for-8 from the field and scored 21 points, a record-breaking 19 in one quarter.
He was chosen to the All-NBA Second Team seven times, scored 21,586 points during his NBA career. When he retired after the 1972-73 season, he ranked as the all-time leader in games played and was in the top ten in both points scored and field goals made; as of his death, Greer is the franchise record holder for points scored, field goals, field goal attempts, games played, minutes played. In 1980, Greer coached the Philadelphia Kings of the Continental Basketball League, he coached the basketball team for Germantown Academy in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania. Greer's hometown has honored his success by holding "Hal Greer Day" in 1966, by renaming 16th Street, which carries West Virginia Route 10 as the main artery between the campus/downtown area and Interstate 64, as "Hal Greer Boulevard" in 1978; the 76ers retired Greer's uniform number, No. 15, in 1976. Marshall's men's basketball team retired Greer's No. 16. Marshall University inducted Greer into its Athletics Hall of Fame for his career in basketball and baseball in 1985.
In 1982, Greer was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame along with Slater Martin, Frank Ramsey, Willis Reed, coach Clarence Gaines, contributor Alva Duer. Greer is recognized as one of the first African-American athletes enshrined in a major sports hall of fame from West Virginia, he was named one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996. The 76ers installed a statue of Greer at their training complex in 2017. Averaged 22 ppg to lead 76ers to NBA Championship Played in 10 consecutive NBA All-Star Games NBA All-Star Game MVP Set record for most points scored in a quarter during an All-Star Game Seven-time All-NBA Second Team Scored 21,586 career points, including 50 in one game vs. Boston Celtics Scored 1,876 points in 92 playoff games and 120 points in 10 All-Star Games His jerseys were retired by Marshall University and the Philadelphia 76ers Greer and his wife, had a son and two daughters. Greer died on April 2018, following a brief illness; the 76ers announced his death on April 16.
They honored. For the remainder of the playoffs, the Sixers wore a black armband on the sleeve of their jersey with a small patch with the number 15. List of National Basketball Association career scoring leaders List of National Basketball Association franchise career scoring leaders List of National Basketball Association career free throw scoring leaders List of National Basketball Association career minutes played leaders List of NBA players who have spent their entire career with one franchise Basketball Hall of Fame profile
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Barboursville, West Virginia
Barboursville is a village in Cabell County, West Virginia, United States. It is located near the second largest city in Huntington; the population was 3,964 at the 2010 census. Barboursville is a part of WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. New definitions from February 28, 2013 placed the population at 363,000. Barboursville was platted in 1813; the Barboursville Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. The Thornburg House was separately listed in 1991. Barboursville contains the historic Miller House, a building constructed in 1835 by local pioneer William Clendenin Miller, grandson of Major George Clendenin Barboursville is located at 38°24′40″N 82°17′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 4.19 square miles, of which, 4.09 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. The confluence of the Mud River and the Guyandotte River is just north of the village.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,964 people, 1,528 households, 904 families residing in the village. The population density was 969.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,625 housing units at an average density of 397.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 94.1% White, 3.1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 1,528 households of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.8% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.76. The median age in the village was 38.8 years. 16.8% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the village was 52.7% male and 47.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,183 people, 1,365 households, 877 families residing in the village; the population density was 864.1 people per square mile. There were 1,465 housing units at an average density of 397.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.77% White, 0.82% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.72% of the population. There were 1,365 households out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.82. In the village, the population was spread out with 19.4% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $35,139, the median income for a family was $45,167. Males had a median income of $32,952 versus $26,469 for females; the per capita income for the village was $19,848. About 5.4% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Barboursville is home to the Huntington Mall, the largest indoor mall in the state of West Virginia, with more than 1.5 million square feet of retail space. The mall is anchored by Macy's, JCPenney, Books-A-Million, Field & Stream, TJMaxx, HomeGoods and Dicks Sporting Goods. Another busy retail area in Barboursville is the Merritt's Creek Farm Shopping Center just off I-64 Exit 18; the development contains a Target, Home Depot, Office Depot, Marshalls, Dress Barn, Massage Envy, O'Charleys, Orange Theory Fitness, Game Stop, numerous other smaller tenants.
There have been two announced major retail developments for the Barboursville area. In 2015, Interstate Realty, of Bristol, TN, announced plans to construct a new retail development named Tanyard Station; the development will be built on a 52-acre site, a CSX rail yard along US Route 60. It is slated to be one of the largest retail developments built in Cabell County with over 400,000 square feet of planned retail space, it will be home to 20 restaurants and retailers, including a grocery store, bank, gas station, many others. Since its announcement, the development has been plagued by many delays and setbacks including an endangered bat species being found on the property. To accommodate the development, US Route 60 will be widened and intersection upgrades will be made and will include installation of several new traffic lights and signals. An official groundbreaking for the development was held on October 16, 2017 with the announcement of the first four tenants being Menards, ALDI, LongHorn Steakhouse, Sheetz.