Cedar Lake, Indiana
Cedar Lake is a town in Hanover and Center townships, Lake County, United States. The population was 11,560 at the 2010 census; the town is known for Cedar Lake. Cedar Lake was settled by pioneers in the mid-19th century and was named West Point. In 1839, the town, called West Point competed with the settlements of Liverpool and Lake Court House to be the county seat of Lake County, but lost out to Liverpool. By 1870, the Cedar Lake Post Office was established. After the Monon Railroad came to the lake's western shore in 1882, many new residents flocked to the area along with tourists who saw the lake as a resort destination. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Cedar Lake was a popular place for Chicagoans looking for a retreat from the city; the lake had over 50 hotels at the time and several pavilions and ballrooms that brought many well-known bands to entertain the visitors. The Lassen Hotel and Monon Park Dancing Pavilion are listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Cedar Lake is located at 41°22′2″N 87°26′18″W. According to the 2010 census, Cedar Lake has a total area of 9.61 square miles, of which 8.22 square miles is land and 1.39 square miles is water. The lake, the largest natural lake in northwest Indiana, appears to have formed from glacial meltwaters. There is an abundance of hills around the lake, which are evidence of the Valparaiso Moraine running through the area; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,560 people, 4,193 households, 3,002 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,406.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,692 housing units at an average density of 570.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.9% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.5% of the population. There were 4,193 households of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.4% were non-families.
22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.23. The median age in the town was 34.9 years. 26.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.7% male and 49.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,279 people, 3,394 households, 2,450 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,366.3 people per square mile. There were 3,681 housing units at an average density of 542.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.40% White, 0.09% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.88% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.50% of the population. There were 3,394 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.9% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families.
22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.23. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,987, the median income for a family was $50,431. Males had a median income of $41,825 versus $24,861 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,825. About 4.0% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.7% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Lake County Public Library operates the Cedar Lake Library at 10010 West 133rd Avenue. Cedar Lake is home to the Hanover Community School Corporation and the Crown Point Community School Corporation.
The Hanover School corporation operates two elementary schools: Lincoln and Jane Ball, one middle school: Hanover Central Middle School, one high school: Hanover Central High School. The Crown Point school corporation operates one elementary school in Cedar Lake: MacArthur; those in the Crown Point school system attend middle school and high school in Crown Point at Taft Middle School and Crown Point High School. Kenneth J. Schoon, Calumet Beginnings, 2003, p. 20-23 Town of Cedar Lake, Indiana website Structures offer slices of Cedar Lake's past - article by Scott Bocock, member of the Cedar Lake Historical Association
Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad
The Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad was a Class I railroad that linked Chicago to southern Illinois, St. Louis, Evansville. Founded in 1877, it grew aggressively and stayed strong throughout the Great Depression and two World Wars before being purchased by the Missouri Pacific Railroad and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Missouri Pacific merged with the C&EI corporate entity in 1976, was acquired itself by the Union Pacific Railroad; the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad was organized in 1877 as a consolidation of three others: the Chicago and Vincennes Railroad, the Evansville, Terre Haute and Chicago Railroad and the Evansville and Terre Haute Railroad. Intended to merge or purchase railroads that had built lines between the southern suburbs of Chicago and Terre Haute, Indiana through Danville, the C&EI constructed a new line from Chicago to a Mississippi River connection in extreme southern Illinois at Thebes; the management of the Chicago and Eastern Illinois and the Chicago and Indiana Coal Railway became intertwined and a connection was built between the two railroads between Goodland and Momence.
By 1894 the Eastern had merged the C&IC. The C&EI continued this vigorous growth into the next decade. In 1902, the Frisco purchased a controlling interest in the Chicago and Eastern Illinois and continued building. However, in 1913 financial problems led to the collapse of the Frisco, the Eastern was once again on its own by 1920; the C&EI spun off a variety of their lines, including the "Coal Road". The C&EI did not survive the Great Depression intact, entering bankruptcy in 1933, re-emerging just before World War II in 1940; the railroad continued its brisk growth once again, gaining access to St. Louis, Missouri in 1954; the Missouri Pacific Railroad began to purchase C&EI stock in 1961. After approval was gained from the Interstate Commerce Commission, Mopac assumed control of the C&EI in May 1967. One of the stipulations of the merger required sale of part of the railroad to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad; the line directly south of Chicago to near Danville was purchased by both railroads.
The C&EI was maintained as a separate subsidiary for a few years, but Missouri Pacific merged it in 1976. The route from Woodland Junction, Illinois through Danville into Indiana became part of L&N and its successors, while the western fork toward Thebes and St. Louis became MoPac/UP; the Chicago terminal for the C&EI passenger trains was Dearborn Station, sometimes known as'Polk Station.' The C&EI operated many streamliners. Its own trains, the Chicago to Cypress Meadowlark, the Chicago to Evansville Whippoorwill were short lived; the C&EI ran the Chicago to Evansville portion of the L&N's Humming Bird, Georgian. The railroad participated in the Chicago to Florida passenger service on the "Dixie Route", with trains such as the Dixie Limited, the Dixie Flyer, the Dixie Mail, the Dixie Flagler, the Dixiana. Miles of road operated at year end: 945 in 1925, 863 in 1967, 643 in 1970 after L&N took over its piece. Track-miles operated: 1928 in 1925, 1435 in 1967, 1067 in 1970. In 1967 it reported 3173 million ton-miles of 41 million passenger-miles.
Lyford, Will H.. History of Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad Company to June 30, 1913. Chicago: The Gunthorp-Warren Printing Company. Retrieved 2012-01-14. Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad Historical Society Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad photos A Brief History of the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad System Map 1953 Chicago and Eastern Illinois timetable
Will County, Illinois
Will County is a county in the northeastern part of the state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 677,560, an increase of 34.9% from 502,266 in 2000, making it the fourth-most populous county in Illinois. The county seat is Joliet. Will County is one of the five collar counties of the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the portion of Will County around Joliet uses the 815 and 779 area codes, 630 and 331 area code for far northern Will County, 708 area code for eastern Will County. Will County was formed in 1836 out of Iroquois, it was named after Dr. Conrad Will, a businessman involved in salt production in southern Illinois, a politician. Will was a member of the first Illinois Constitutional Convention and a member of the Illinois Legislature until his death in 1835. On January 12, 1836, Will County was formed from Iroquois County, it included besides its present area, the part of Kankakee County, Illinois lying north of the Kankakee River.
Will County lost that area when Kankakee County was organized in 1852, but since its boundaries have been unchanged. Thirty-six locations in Will County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Will County is home to Argonne National Laboratory. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 849 square miles, of which 837 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water; the Kankakee River, Du Page River and the Des Plaines River run through the county and join on its western border. The Illinois and Michigan Canal and the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal run through Will County. A number of areas are preserved as parks under the Forest Preserve District of Will County; the 17,000 acres Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie is a U. S. Forest Service park in the county on the grounds of the former Joliet Arsenal. Other parks include the Des Plaines Fish and Wildlife Area. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Joliet have ranged from a low of 13 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in June 1988.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.58 inches in January to 4.34 inches in July. DuPage County Cook County Lake County, Indiana Kankakee County Grundy County Kendall County Kane County As of the 2010 Census, there were 677,560 people, 225,256 households, 174,062 families residing in the county; the population density was 809.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 237,501 housing units at an average density of 283.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.0% white, 11.2% black or African American, 4.6% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 5.8% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 15.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.6% were German, 18.6% were Irish, 13.3% were Polish, 11.1% were Italian, 5.9% were English, 2.1% were American. Of the 225,256 households, 44.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.7% were non-families, 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.97 and the average family size was 3.41. The median age was 35.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $75,906 and the median income for a family was $85,488. Males had a median income of $60,867 versus $40,643 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,811. About 5.0% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. Will County is governed via a 26-member county board; each district elects 2 members. The County Executive, County Clerk, Auditor, Recorder of Deeds, State's Attorney and Sheriff are all elected in a countywide vote. Will County, once a Republican stronghold, has become a swing county in recent years, it voted for the national winner in every presidential election election from 1980 to 2012, but Donald Trump's unpopularity in suburban counties of the largest metropolitan areas nationwide helped Chicago-born Hillary Clinton win it along with the rest of the "collar counties" aside from McHenry in 2016.
Governors State University is a 6,000-student public university located in University Park, Illinois. Lewis University is a 5,200-student four-year private university located in Illinois. University of St. Francis is a 3,300-student four-year private university located in Joliet, Illinois; the county is served by Joliet Junior College in Joliet. Joliet Junior College was the first two-year higher education institution in the United States. Will County is served by 4 US Interstate Highways, 4 US Highways, 12 Illinois Highways. Four different Metra commuter rail lines connect the parts of the county with the Chicago Loop; the county is a major hub in the United States natural gas pipeline grid where pipelines from Canada and the Gulf of Mexico meet and fan out to serve the Midwest. The following major energy companies own pipeline that run through Will County: Alliance Pipeline Enbridge Integrys Energy Group Peoples Gas Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission TransCanada ANR Pipeline - Fully owned & operated Northern Border Pipeline - Partially owned & operated Vector Pipeline ExxonMobil owns and
The Dixie Highway was a United States automobile highway, first planned in 1914 to connect the US Midwest with the Southern United States. It was part of the National Auto Trail system, grew out of an earlier Miami to Montreal highway; the final result is better understood as a network of connected paved roads, rather than one single highway. It was constructed and expanded from 1915 to 1929; the Dixie Highway was inspired by the example of the earlier Lincoln Highway, the first road across the United States. The prime booster of both projects was businessman Carl G. Fisher, it was overseen by the Dixie Highway Association, funded by a group of individuals, local governments, states. In the early years the U. S. federal government played little role, but from the early 1920s on it provided increasing funding, until 1927, when the Dixie Highway Association was disbanded and the highway was taken over as part of the U. S. Route system, with some portions becoming state roads; the route was marked by a red stripe with the white letters "DH" with a white stripe above and below.
The logo was painted on utility poles. The Dixie Highway, an idea of Carl G. Fisher of the Lincoln Highway Association, was organized in early December 1914 in Chattanooga. On April 3, 1915, governors of the interested states met at Chattanooga, each selected two commissioners to lay out the route from Chicago to Miami. On May 22, 1915, the commission decided on a split route; the route left Chicago to the south via Danville and turned east to Indianapolis, where it split. The west branch headed south through Tennessee via Louisville and Nashville to Chattanooga, while the east route went east from Indianapolis to Dayton, Ohio before turning south via Cincinnati. Two alternate routes were included between Chattanooga and Atlanta, again between Atlanta and Macon, Georgia. Between Macon and Jacksonville, the west route went south to Tallahassee, Florida before turning east, while the east route had yet to be defined in detail. From Jacksonville, the route followed the east coast south to Miami along the John Anderson Highway.
The commission voted to invite Michigan and to extend a branch of the east route from Dayton north to Detroit via Toledo, as well as to study a loop around Lake Michigan and a western route between Tallahassee and Miami. Within a week, Michigan agreed to construct a loop around the Lower Peninsula, passing via South Bend, Mackinaw City and Toledo. Detroit became the northern end of the eastern division, with the old route to Indianapolis becoming a connecting link. In early April 1916, the commission approved the route between Macon and Jacksonville via Savannah and designated the more direct route via Waycross, Georgia as the central division. At the urging of locals, the eastern division was realigned to a more direct path northwest from Milledgeville, Georgia to Atlanta over the "Old Capitol Route", bypassing Macon, the old eastern division via McDonough and Macon was removed from the system in early July 1916. By early 1917, the western division had been modified in Florida to go southeast from Tallahassee via Kissimmee and Bartow to the eastern division at Jupiter.
The Carolina division, connecting to the eastern division at Knoxville and Waynesboro, was approved in mid-May 1918. By mid-1919, a short piece on Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan became part of the eastern division of the highway, extended north from Detroit to Mackinaw City and across the Straits of Mackinac. For local details about the routes, see the individual articles linked; the Western route connected Chicago and Miami, Florida via Danville in Illinois. Except for realignments made since the 1920s, the western route is now Illinois Route 1 and U. S. Route 136 to Indianapolis, Indiana State Road 37 and U. S. Route 150 to Louisville, U. S. Route 31W, U. S. Route 68, U. S. Route 431 to Nashville, U. S. Route 41, U. S. Route 231, U. S. Route 41A, U. S. Route 41 to Chattanooga. At Chattanooga, the western and eastern routes intersected. S. Route 27 to Rome and returned to U. S. Route 41 at Cartersville via U. S. Route 411. At Atlanta, the eastern route split off toward Madison, with the western continuing to Macon along the present U.
S. Route 41. S. Route 19, U. S. Route 319 to Tallahassee. S. Route 27 and U. S. Route 441 to Orlando. S. Route 17 and U. S. Route 41 to Miami; the Eastern route connected Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan with Miami, running via Saginaw and Detroit in Michigan. In Michigan's Upper Peninsula, the highway followed what is now M-129 from Sault Ste. Marie to Pickford and west to follow a short portion of former U. S. Route 2, replaced by Mackinaw Trail, it crossed the Straits of Mackinac and used what is now U. S. Route 23 and old U. S. Route 10 to Detroit, it still exists in Michigan as the name of a secondary road from Saginaw southeast to the county line, from southeast Flint to northwest Pontiac, from Flat Rock southwest to Monro
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Peotone is a village in Will County, United States. The population was 4,142 at the 2010 census, an increase from 3,385 in 2000; the city is about 43 miles south of Chicago. The city is home to the Peotone High School Blue Devils. Peotone is a name derived from the Potawatomi language meaning "come here". Downtown Peotone Historic District Peotone Mill Peotone is located at 41°19′46″N 87°47′42″W. According to the 2010 census, Peotone has a total area of 1.873 square miles, of which 1.87 square miles is land and 0.003 square miles is water. Main roads are Illinois Route 50, Interstate 57, Wilmington-Peotone Road, Rathje Road, Joliet Road. Peotone is about nine miles west of Beecher, six miles north of Manteno, six miles south of Monee and is 20 miles east of Wilmington; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,385 people, 1,268 households, 930 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,232.4 people per square mile. There were 1,299 housing units at an average density of 856.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 97.93% White, 0.27% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.30% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.36% of the population. There were 1,268 households out of which 37.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.17. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $56,404, the median income for a family was $61,768.
Males had a median income of $47,500 versus $26,636 for females. The per capita income for the village was $23,415. About 0.7% of families and 0.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.9% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over. Peotone Elementary School, located in town Peotone, serves kindergarten through 3rd grade. Peotone Intermediate Center Green Garden Elementary School in Green Garden Township, serves 4th and 5th grades; the Connor Shaw Center is home to the Pre-K Center. Peotone Junior High School serves grades six through eight, has been located in the former Peotone High School building since the 2001-2002 school year. Several referendums have been orchestrated to build a new sports complex at the new high school, but have failed. In 2000, a new high school was built on the northwest side of Peotone. While the school was designed for a capacity of 600 students, its student enrollment for the 2010-2011 fiscal year was 687; the school mascot of all schools, from elementary through high school, is the Blue Devil.
As of 2008, Peotone schools had a total enrollment of 2,107 students in kindergarten through 12th grade. In 2014, the Peotone School Board, in a 4-3 vote, decided to close the Wilton Center Elementary School in Wilton Township; the remaining elementary schools were reformatted to grade centers. Peotone has long been the proposed site of a new airport to serve the Chicago area; as is the case with the construction of airports, the proposal is controversial. In 1967, the Chicago Tribune ran several editorials regarding the need for a third airport in Peotone. Proponents point out that the existing facilities at O'Hare and Midway airports cannot meet the transportation needs of the Chicago area, that the development will bring economic prosperity to Chicago Southland, an area deprived of economic development, as well as the rest of the state. Politicians backing plans include former Governor Rod Blagojevich. Congressman Jerry Weller, the former representative of the district in which the airport would be located, Will County Executive Larry Walsh.
The efforts were supported by then-state senator Barack Obama. Opponents to the plan are concerned about the environmental disruption that would be caused by new airport construction and the roads that would be needed to support it, they point out that Gary/Chicago International Airport in Gary, Indiana exists, is closer to Chicago than Peotone, is undergoing expansion to support heavier use with minimal environmental impact. Politicians opposing the Peotone airport plan include former Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley, former Gary Mayor Scott King, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels, Representative Pete Visclosky from Indiana. Former Representative Jesse Jackson, Jr. was the head of a private group in Cook County looking to take ownership of the proposed airport. A state-backed IDOT plan is more friendly to the citizens of the actual footprint of the proposed airport by giving local control of the airport to Will County officials instead. In the science-fiction novel The Boy Who Would Live Forever, the fifth in the Gateway series, Frederik Pohl has a character fly out of "Peotone International Airport".
The late Pohl lived in Illinois. Village of Peotone, Illinois
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai