World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Schnitzelburg is a neighborhood three miles southeast of downtown Louisville, Kentucky. Schnitzelburg's boundaries are Clarks Lane to the south, Shelby Street to the west, CSX railroad tracks to the north, Goss Avenue to the east; the area was first plotted in 1866 by D. H. Meriwether and known as Meriwether's Enlargement, but actual construction didn't begin until 1891 when a streetcar line extended to the intersection of Goss and Texas Avenues; the first residents in Schnitzelburg were immigrants who arrived there from Germany: "Schnitzel" refers to a food dish, popular with Austrians and Germans. Schnitzelburg is famous for a street ball game called "Dainty," where a flat, bat-like stick is used to strike another stick on the ground, making it airborne, hit like a baseball as far as possible; every last Monday in July the World Dainty Championship is held in the neighborhood, at the corner of Goss Avenue and Hoertz Avenue, site of Hauck's Handy Store. The Dainty is a fund raiser for the Little Sisters of the Poor, it brings the community together for some great fun.
Contestants must be older to play the Dainty. Check's Cafe is located at the intersection of Hickory and Burnett Streets and is among Louisville's better known restaurants. Manual Stadium is located in Schnitzelburg; as of 2000, the population of Schnitzelburg was 4,420, of which whites are 92.7%, blacks are 5.1%, people listed as other are 3.2%, Hispanics are 1.7%. College graduates are 22.8% of the population, people w/o a high school degree are 20.7%. Females outnumber males 51.1% to 48.9%. German American History of the Germans in Louisville Images of Schnitzelburg in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections
Annexation is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state. It is held to be an illegal act, it is distinct from conquest, which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty, differs from cession, in which territory is given or sold through treaty, since annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. It follows military occupation of a territory. Annexation can be legitimized via general recognition by international bodies. International law regarding the use of force by states has evolved in the 20th century. Key agreements include the 1907 Porter Convention, the 1920 Covenant of the League of Nations and the 1928 Kellogg–Briand Pact, culminating in Article 2 of Chapter I of the United Nations Charter, in force today: "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations".
Since the use of force against territorial integrity or political independence is illegal, the question as to whether title or sovereignty can be transferred in such a situation has been the subject of legal debate. It is held that countries are under obligation to abide by the Stimson Doctrine that a state: "cannot admit the legality of any situation de facto nor... recognize any treaty or agreement entered into between those Governments... not... recognize any situation, treaty or agreement which may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928". These principles were reconfirmed by the 1970 Friendly Relations Declaration. During World War II, the use of annexation deprived whole populations of the safeguards provided by international laws governing military occupations; the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 amplified the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 with respect to the question of the protection of civilians. The authors of the Fourth Geneva Convention made a point of giving the rules regarding inviolability of rights "an absolute character", thus making it much more difficult for a state to bypass international law through the use of annexation.
GCIV Article 47, in the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the effects of annexation on the rights of persons within those territories: Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. In 1954, the residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, a Portuguese enclave within India, ended Portuguese rule with the help of nationalist volunteers. From 1954 to 1961, the territory enjoyed de facto independence. In 1961, the territory was merged with India after its government signed an agreement with the Indian government. In 1961, India and Portugal engaged in a brief military conflict over Portuguese-controlled Goa and Daman and Diu.
India invaded and conquered the areas after 36 hours of fighting, ending 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule in India. The action was viewed in India as a liberation of Indian territory. A condemnation of the action by the United Nations Security Council was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Goa and Daman and Diu were incorporated into India. During the British colonial rule in India, Sikkim had an ambiguous status, as an Indian princely state or as an Indian protectorate. Prior to Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, acting as the leader of Executive Council, agreed that Sikkim would not be treated as an Indian state. Between 1947 and 1950, Sikkim enjoyed de facto independence. However, the Indian independence spurred popular political movements in Sikkim and the ruler Chogyal came under pressure, he requested Indian help to quell the uprising, offered. Subsequently, in 1950, India signed a treaty with Sikkim bringing it under its suzerainty, controlling its external affairs, defence and communications.
A state council was established in 1955 to allow for constitutional government under the Sikkimese monarch. Meanwhile, trouble was brewing in the state after the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for the Nepalese. In 1967 India and China went to war in Sikkim, Cho La incident where a Chinese occupation was attempted and repulsed. In 1973, riots in front of the palace led to a formal request for protection from India; the Chogyal was proving to be unpopular with the people. In 1975, the Kazi appealed to the Indian Parliament for a change in Sikkim's status so that it could become a state of India. In April, the Indian Army moved into Sikkim, seizing the city of Gangtok and disarming the Palace Guards. A referendum was held in. A few weeks on May 16, 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the monarchy was abolished. On 18 September 1955 at 10:16 am, in what would be the final territorial expansion of the British Empire, Rockall was declared annexed by the British Crown when Lieutenant-Commander
Parkways of Louisville, Kentucky
The parkway system of Louisville, Kentucky known as the Olmsted Park System, was designed by the firm of preeminent 19th century landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The 26-mile system was built from the early 1890s through the 1930s, owned by a state-level parks commission, which passed control to the city of Louisville in 1942; the system was intended to form a circuit around what was the fringes of the city of Louisville. However, there is a disconnect of several blocks between Eastern and Southern Parkways, because of a planned parkway running from the terminus of Western Parkway along the Ohio River and around to Eastern Parkway was never built. Today, the system falls under direct management of the Louisville Olmsted Parks Conservancy, under broader supervision by Louisville's Metro Parks Department The system was first proposed in 1887 by businessman Andrew Cowan, an enthusiastic early supporter of Louisville's park system, he proposed a series of parkways that would cross every turnpike near the city as the parkways connected the three proposed parks at the eastern and southern fringes of the city.
Although Cowan proposed a slow and deliberate development, Mayor Charles Donald Jacob purchased what became Iroquois Park a year and began acquiring through donations the land to build 150-foot -wide "Grand Boulevard" connecting that southern property to the city. Jacob claimed. A parks commission was created in 1890, soon hired Olmsted's firm to design the entire system; the firm delivered a report in September 1891 calling for three large parks and parkways connecting them. The parkways were intended to carry light pleasure vehicles between the parks, with no access to heavier commercial vehicles, it was not until 1958. As the city expanded and the parkways became traveled roads, they have been widened beyond their original two lanes, in many cases sacrificing the grass medians and tree-lined yards that were a part of them. Still, as of 2000, 75 % of the original trees had been replaced by new trees. There were 5,107 trees along the parkways according to a 1994 count. Between 2008 and 2011, a major project was undertaken to restore many of the trees, damaged by storms, traffic, or age and disease.
This has filled in many of the canopy gaps along the parkways, was done as much as possible in accordance with the original Olmstedian plan. Today there are various proposals being debated to ease traffic issues and restore connectivity of the city's parks via these routes. One such plan involves bike lanes and center lanes for turning. Algonquin Parkway connects the Western parkways to Southern and Eastern Parkways via Third Street, cutting east-to-west across the city; the last of the parkways to be finished, Algonquin was completed in 1928 by the Carey-Reed Company of Lexington at an initial cost of $120,000 with a width of just 20 feet at the time, although space was reserved for widening once the area became more developed. When it opened it ran from Winkler Avenue to the Kentucky State Fairgrounds; the widening was finished in the late 1930s by workers for the Works Progress Administration. Algonquin has been cited as the "most extreme" example of a parkway that has deviated from the original plan, due to a junkyard, located alongside it.
Eastern Parkway begins at an intersection with Third Street in the Belknap campus of the University of Louisville. This portion ends a few blocks from Southern Parkway, is a key gap between the parkways that has never been filled in; the portion through the University of Louisville campus was just two lanes, creating a major traffic bottleneck. This portion was replaced with a viaduct which passes over the campus, completed in October 1954 at a cost of $850,000; the viaduct was opened with a ribbon-cutting ceremony attended by mayor Broaddus, who got into his car to become the first to drive over it. However, two vehicles competing to be the second collided, creating a wreck within seconds of the road's opening. Today, the parkway has one vehicular lane in each direction, plus dedicated bicycle lanes, through campus, widening to four lanes east of the viaduct. East of the university, there is an interchange with Interstate 65, past that the parkway takes on a more residential feel for the rest of the route, with houses and apartment buildings on either side, except for near major intersections.
The parkway passes over a concrete channel Beargrass Creek on an overpass built in 1961. From Barrett to Baxter Avenue, the parkway is divided by a grassy median with mature trees; the final stretch of the parkway, past Bardstown Road, is the only two-lane portion outside of the U of L campus, although it is wide, to allow for on-street parking. Eastern Parkway ends in a roundabout at the entrance to Cherokee Park, at the center of, a 1906 statue of Daniel Boone made by Enid Yandell. Eastern Parkway is signed as US 60 from Third Street to Willow Avenue, nearly the entire length of the parkway; the right-of-way for Eastern Parkway is 100 feet wide, initial development of it was completed in late 1913. A long portion of the route was donated by John Breckinridge Castleman, accounting for the sharp jog at the Baxter Avenue intersection. Parkway Field took its name from and was located beside Eastern Parkway from 1926 until 2002; the entire length of Eastern Parkway is signed as Alternate US 60, as US 60 followed the Parkway through the city before a bypass, I-264, was created.
Eastern Parkway has an interchange with Interstate 65. Although Eastern Parkway was intended as a r
The Highlands, Louisville
The Highlands is an area in Louisville, Kentucky which contains a high density of nightclubs, eclectic businesses, many upscale and fast food restaurants. It is centered along a three-mile stretch of Bardstown Road and Baxter Avenue and is so named because it sits atop a ridge between the middle and south forks of Beargrass Creek; the commercial area extends from the intersection of Bardstown Road and Taylorsville Road/Trevillian Way in the south, to the intersection of Baxter Avenue and Lexington Road in the north, a length of 3.2 miles. A 1/2 mile section of nearby Barret Avenue contains many similar businesses; the residential area is separated from other adjacent areas like Germantown and Crescent Hill by the south and north forks of Beargrass Creek. The middle fork runs through Cherokee Park, the south fork divides Germantown from Tyler Park, after flowing past several cemeteries and undeveloped forests downstream from Joe Creason Park. Due to its large collection of night clubs and restaurants, it is locally known as "Restaurant Row".
The grid of streets east and west of Bardstown Road are single-family residences and range from working-class neighborhoods to some of the most expensive streets in Louisville, such as Spring Drive. In 2000, the Highlands had a population of nearly 33,000; the Highlands was the last area near downtown Louisville to be urbanized, since its steep 60 foot incline above the flood plain made travel difficult, the area showed no signs of urban development until just before the Civil War. Several notable families did own plantations in what is now called the Highlands, spurred by the Louisville and Bardstown Turnpike; the turnpike was first planned as early as 1784, but authorization to begin construction was delayed until 1819, thwarted by the Panic of 1819. Funds were allocated in 1829, with construction beginning in 1832. Bardstown Road was a turnpike, tolls were collected at toll gates along the way; the portion of the road nearest to Louisville was free, so as Louisville grew, the first gatehouse moved further out.
The earliest was at Beargrass Creek. It was at Speed Avenue by 1901; the second tollgate was permanently located near today's Bardstown. While the landowners were families of English descent, many of the first residents during the agricultural days were Germans, which gave the area the nickname New Hamburg. Large-scale residential development didn't begin in the area until a streetcar line extended to the area near the present-day intersection of Bardstown and Baxter in the 1890s. Nearby Cave Hill Cemetery and Cherokee Park provided recreation for the new residents. Many businesses formed with residential development back off the main road; the growth would creep down Bardstown Road. By the 1930s, the entire area today called; the streetcars last ran down Bardstown Road on Derby Day 1947, were replaced by buses. The area would continue to thrive until the 1960s, when some of the wealthier residents left for the suburbs; the main business corridor along Bardstown Road suffered, with residents expressing serious concerns about its quality in 1974.
Of particular concern was the neglected Mid-City Mall, with frequent complaints about crime and its deteriorated appearance due to lack of maintenance. Four neighborhood associations organized a boycott of the mall starting in February 1975, as a result, foreclosure on the mall began in late 1976, it was placed in receivership in 1977, the mall has been improved in the following decades. The cooperation that led to the boycott created a strong community sentiment that the right changes could be made along the business corridor. Many older buildings had been razed to make space for more modern fast-food restaurants and drive-in banks, there was concern that nothing would remain of the streetcar suburb era corridor; this led to the creation of the Highlands Commerce Guild in 1977. The Highlands area would begin to rebound commercially in the 1980s as antique shops and other "oddity" stores moved to Bardstown Road for the many vacant store fronts which were located right off the street and for the area's elegant architecture.
Many young professionals were attracted to the area for its location near downtown and amenities such as Cherokee Park and pedestrian-friendly shopping. By the early 1990s the area had become the city's main nightclub and upscale restaurant district, as well as the cultural center for the city's music and gay scene. Today many of its neighborhoods have among the highest percentage of college graduates and average income in Louisville. Neighborhood income and education levels are highest in the areas farthest from the city center, decrease heading toward downtown; the gentrification of the Highlands has had a spillover effect on adjacent areas such as Butchertown and Clifton, as they developed their own upscale club and shopping districts. In the 2000s the Highlands has continued to thrive, as several new mixed-use developments and additional restaurants have been established. An area of contention with some residents is whether there is too great a density of bars and nightclubs in the 900 block of Baxter Avenue.
In 2004, some residents of the Original Highlands threatened a wet-dry vote to prevent more bars from opening along Barret Avenue.
Belknap is an urban neighborhood three and a half miles east of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA. The neighborhood is bound by Douglass Boulevard, Dundee Road and Newburg Road, it is part of a larger area of Louisville called the Highlands. Belknap is described as the neighborhood in the heart of The Highlands; the Belknap neighborhood was once farm land, two miles south of where Bardstown Road began at Highland Avenue. There was a stagecoach stop at Douglass Boulevard and Bardstown Road called the "Two-mile House." Abraham Lincoln frequented. As the city of Louisville grew, so did the Highlands; the Catholic parish St. Francis of Assisi built its first church on the Michael Zimlich property in 1886. Zimlich sold 24 acres in 1901, paving the way for one of the first commercial strips along Bardstown and Dundee roads. In 1909, the Eiler family sold a 22 foot easement for the streetcar turnaround and the annexation of the loop occurred, now called Douglass Loop. Zimlich sold 26 more acres, between 1916 and 1918 Boulevard Napoleon was developed.
When 30 acres of adjacent property, owned by the Heintzmann family, was sold, it became the first section of University Park, so named because it would lead to the University of Louisville. The street names were changed in 1918 to Ivy League school names, such as Harvard and Yale, to connect to the new subdivision. However, a building bond to facilitate the new campus was rejected by voters in 1920, the plan never materialized; the original school on Sils Avenue was named for William Richardson Belknap and opened in 1916, two years after his death. When the school opened, it was a city school; the county children had to go to Maple Grove, present day location of Air Devil's Inn, across from Bowman Field on Taylorsville Road. In the 1920s, there was another annexation, the final annexation occurred in 1958; the sixth class cities were incorporated in the 1920s, making Strathmoor Manor within the boundaries of the Belknap neighborhood. In 1923, the University of Louisville sold their property, the development style in the area changed.
Some of the land was sold to William F. Randolph, who preferred the curvilinear features that followed the natural contours of the land and other developers followed his lead; when the Fred Kaelin farm was auctioned from a mule truck in 1923, there were two homes on the property. One still stands on Eastview Avenue; the other was razed to build a Walgreens drug store at Trevilian Way. The stone part of a house on Lakeside Drive was the springhouse for the farm. Lakeside Swim Club opened in 1924 at the site of a former rock quarry; this private club is known for its steep, 40 foot rock walls and huge quarry "lake" – a 3.2 million US gallon swimming pool, with a flat concrete bottom and depths ranging from 3 to 20 feet. The Trough Springs property once belonged to Jonathan Clark, brother of George Rogers and William Clark, it was built. The Doup cemetery, at 2700 Bardstown Road, was incorporated in 1812. In 1949, Bellarmine University was founded in the area. In 2010, Kroger petitioned the Louisville Metro Planning Commission to install a five bay gasoline station in the back of the old Hollywood Video store in the 2400 block of Bardstown Road.
Kroger forecast the gasoline station would sell 50,000 gallons of gasoline each week at the proposed location behind homes located on Trevillian Way and Lakeside Drive. The Belknap Neighborhood Association opposed the gasoline station based upon existing binding elements prohibiting a gasoline station, expected impact on traffic, property values and quality of life; the Louisville Metro Planning Commission considered the case in an epic five-and-a-half-hour meeting on August 19, 2010. The commission denied Kroger's request by a unanimous vote with one abstention; the denial is the first case in which Kroger was denied the ability to build a gas station in Kentucky. The Belknap Neighborhood Association voted unanimously in 2011, to support the restoration and landmarking of the iconic Hogan's Fountain Pavilion in Cherokee Park. Belknap was the first Louisville neighborhood to come out in support of the E. J. Schickli masterpiece, considered by residents the most recognizable landmark in the Louisville Highlands.
Belknap made two financial donations in 2011, 2012, to support the campaign to restore the TeePee and challenged all other Highland Neighborhood Associations to step up and do the same. The structure, otherwise known as the TeePee or Witch's Hat is named the McCall Shelter in honor of Alderman C. W. "Ches" McCall, killed in an auto accident in 1962. The Belknap neighborhood has many styles and ages of houses, the different styles represent more than a century of development; some include: Bungalow, Arts & Crafts Movement, American Foursquare and Dutch Colonial. A handful of antebellum structures remain, including a former farmhouse on Eastview Avenue, a barn behind a house near the Douglass Loop. Belknap was recognized by Louisville Magazine in October 2010 as one of the most livable and lovable neighborhoods in Louisville and Jefferson County, Kentucky. In 2012, the neighborhood received a national award from Neighborhoods, USA; the recognition by Neighborhoods, USA is the first time a Kentucky neighborhood was recognized by this organization.
A diverse and eclectic neighborhood, Belknap is rated as one of the most walkable neighborhoods in Louisville, based upon walkabilityscore.com. Belknap has one of the highest voter registrati
Germantown is a neighborhood three miles southeast of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Germantown is a general term for an area of Louisville from the Original Highlands to St Joseph and Bradley neighborhoods that were predominantly settled by Germans; the actual neighborhood is bounded by Barrett Ave, Eastern Parkway, the South Fork of Beargrass Creek. The area was settled as small farms and butcher shops by German immigrants in the 1870s. At this time area was nicknamed'Frogtown' because the adjacent Beargrass Creek flooded the area, causing numerous epidemics of malaria; the flooding problem was solved. The area was subdivided and developed during the 1890s, when the largest collection of shotgun houses in the city of Louisville was built. In 1907, a bridge was built across the South Fork of Beargrass Creek which allowed French settlers north of the creek, in an area called Paristown, to attend the one Catholic church in the area; the German-Paristown Neighborhood Association was founded in 1973, making it one of Louisville's first neighborhood associations.
Today the area is undergoing a transition to a younger, more educated demographic. Many homes in the neighborhood are being renovated and urban homesteading is common; as of 2000, the population of Germantown was 3,867, of which 93.9% are white, 4.2% are black, 1.6% are listed as other, 0.7% are Hispanic. College graduates are of the 17.9% population, people without a high school degree are 29.3%. Females outnumber males 52.9% to 47.1%. Butchertown, Louisville History of the Germans in Louisville Images of Germantown in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections