Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Technical support scam
A technical support scam refers to a class of telephone fraud activities, in which a scammer claims to offer a legitimate technical support service via cold calls to unsuspecting users. Such cold calls are targeted at Microsoft Windows users, with the caller claiming to represent a Microsoft technical support department. In English-speaking countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland and New Zealand, such cold call scams have occurred as early as 2008 and originate from call centers in India so in New Delhi; the scammer will attempt to get the victim to allow remote access to their computer. After remote access is gained, the scammer relies on confidence tricks involving utilities built into Windows and other software in order to gain the victim's trust to pay for the supposed "support" services, when the scammer steals the victim's credit card account information, or to persuade the victim to login to Internet banking—claiming that a secure server is connected and that they cannot see the details—to receive a promised refund.
Technical support scams rely on social engineering. Scammers use a variety of confidence tricks to get the victim to install remote desktop software, with which they take control of the victim's computer, use various Windows components and utilities, third-party utilities, other tasks to make the victim believe that the computer has issues that need to be fixed, before proceeding for the victim to pay for "support". Technical support scams can begin in a variety of different ways, it most begins with a cold call claiming to be associated with a legitimate-sounding third-party, with a name like "Microsoft" or "Windows Technical Support", or via advertising on popular search engines such as Bing or Google, cybersquatting and/or spamming keywords related to commercial products and services that an unsuspecting user may search for, leading to web pages containing a number to be called. Some scams have been initiated via pop-up ads on infected websites instructing the potential victim to call a number.
These pop-ups resemble error messages such as the Blue Screen of Death. The scammer instructs the victim to download and install a remote access program, such as TeamViewer, LogMeIn, GoToAssist, ConnectWise Control, etc. and provide them with the details required to remote-control their computer using that program. After gaining access, the scammer attempts to convince the victim that their computer is suffering from problems that must be repaired. A number of common methods are used during many technical support scams—most of which involve misrepresenting the content and output of various Windows tools and system directories as evidence of malicious activity, such as viruses and other malware; the elderly and the vulnerable will be targeted for technical support scams, or for people who aren't familiar with computers. The scammer may direct users to Windows' Event Viewer, which displays a log of various events for use by system administrators and expert users to troubleshoot problems. Although many of the log entries are harmless notifications, the scammer may fraudulently claim that log entries labelled as warnings and errors are evidence of malware activity or that the computer is becoming corrupted, that the errors must be "fixed".
The scammer may present system folders that contain unusually named files, such as Windows' Prefetch and Temp folders, claim that the files are evidence of malware on the system. Furthermore, the scammer may open some of these files in Notepad, which shows up as "gibberish" characters known as Mojibake; the scammer claims. In reality, most of the files in Prefetch are binary files; the scammer may misuse Command Prompt tools to generate suspicious-looking output, for instance, the tree or dir /s command, which displays a listing of files and directories. The scammer may claim the innocuous program to be a malware scanner, manually enter text purporting to be an error message after the conclusion of the output, or into a blank notepad document; the scammer may misrepresent values and keys stored in the Windows Registry as being malicious, such as innocuous keys whose values are listed as not being set. The "Send To" function on Windows is associated with a globally unique identifier; the output of the command assoc, which lists all file associations on the system, displays this association with the line ZFSendToTarget=CLSID\.
The scammer may claim that this is a unique ID used to identify the user's computer, or claim that the "CLSID" listed is a "Computer Licence Security ID" that must be renewed. The scammer may claim that the system's "problems" are a result of "expired" warranties on its hardware or software, for example, Windows Product Keys and coax the victim into paying for a "renewal"; the scammer may run the obscure Syskey utility and configure a startup password known only to them, thereby locking the victim out of their own system after the computer is rebooted. The scammer may have a keylogger installed on their computer and may change the users account password and/or create a PIN number if the victim's computer runs on Windows 10 (this is because the Syskey utility is no longer included in
The California corbina is marine demersal fish in the croaker family. It can be found along sandy beaches and in shallow bays; this species travels in small groups along the surf zone in a few inches of water to depths of 20 meters. Other names include "California kingcroaker," "California whiting," and "kingfish". California corbina are uniformly grey in color with some iridescence and have an elongated and compressed body shape in comparison to other croakers. Like all members of the genus Menticirrhus, the California corbina lacks a swim bladder and is unable to produce a croaking sound, it is believed that the loss of the swim bladder evolved to facilitate living in a turbulent environment. This species and the yellowfin croaker are the only two of the eight coastal croakers found in California waters to exhibit a single barbel on the lower jaw; the California corbina's barbel is used to detect prey. The upper half of the caudal fin has a concave trailing edge, while the lower half trailing edge is convex.
The largest recorded specimen was 8.5 pounds. California corbina is reported to occur from the Gulf of California, Mexico, to Point Conception, California. However, the IUCN questions the extent of the California corbina's southern range due to the presence of similar and misidentified species that exist in the Gulf of California. California corbina are found in the surf of sandy beaches and shallow bays up to a depth of 20 meters. California corbina are found in small groups, adults have been observed traveling solitarily as well; the California corbina's diet consists of crustaceans, small fish and other small invertebrates. California corbina have been observed feeding in just a few inches of water in the upper surf. To feed, they scoop up mouthfuls of sand and separate the food by expelling the sand through the gills and spitting out bits of clam shells and other foreign matter. Males mature at 2 years of age and a length of about 10 inches and females at age 3 and about 13 inches in length.
Spawning is heaviest during July and August. The eggs are free floating. Population size and mortality of this species is unknown; the California corbina is targeted by commercial and sport fisheries. California corbina may be caught throughout the year, but fishing reaches its peak in summer and late fall. Due to the fact that California corbina live nearshore, they are most caught by fishermen on beaches and jetties; this species is caught as by-catch by shrimp trawling vessels. The IUCN has assessed the California corbina as data deficient due to outstanding questions about the species' distribution. There are no known conservation efforts that target the California corbina, part of its distribution is protected by various marine protected areas. There has been a decline in catch since the early 2000's, but it is not known if this reflects a decline in population
GSM is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in Finland in December 1991; as of 2014, it has become the global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation analog cellular networks, the GSM standard described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport by packet data transport via GPRS and EDGE. Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation UMTS standards, followed by fourth-generation LTE Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard. "GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may refer to the most common voice codec used, Full Rate.
In 1983, work began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telecommunications when the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations set up the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee and provided a permanent technical-support group based in Paris. Five years in 1987, 15 representatives from 13 European countries signed a memorandum of understanding in Copenhagen to develop and deploy a common cellular telephone system across Europe, EU rules were passed to make GSM a mandatory standard; the decision to develop a continental standard resulted in a unified, standard-based network, larger than that in the United States. In February 1987 Europe produced the first agreed GSM Technical Specification. Ministers from the four big EU countries cemented their political support for GSM with the Bonn Declaration on Global Information Networks in May and the GSM MoU was tabled for signature in September; the MoU drew in mobile operators from across Europe to pledge to invest in new GSM networks to an ambitious common date.
In this short 38-week period the whole of Europe had been brought behind GSM in a rare unity and speed guided by four public officials: Armin Silberhorn, Stephen Temple, Philippe Dupuis, Renzo Failli. In 1989 the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. In parallel France and Germany signed a joint development agreement in 1984 and were joined by Italy and the UK in 1986. In 1986, the European Commission proposed reserving the 900 MHz spectrum band for GSM; the former Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri made the world's first GSM call on July 1, 1991, calling Kaarina Suonio using a network built by Telenokia and Siemens and operated by Radiolinja. The following year saw the sending of the first short messaging service message, Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the first international roaming agreement. Work began in 1991 to expand the GSM standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the first 1800 MHz network became operational in the UK by 1993, called and DCS 1800.
That year, Telecom Australia became the first network operator to deploy a GSM network outside Europe and the first practical hand-held GSM mobile phone became available. In 1995 fax, data and SMS messaging services were launched commercially, the first 1900 MHz GSM network became operational in the United States and GSM subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In the same year, the GSM Association formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM subscribers passed 100 million in 1998. In 2000 the first commercial GPRS services were launched and the first GPRS-compatible handsets became available for sale. In 2001, the first UMTS network was launched, a 3G technology, not part of GSM. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 500 million. In 2002, the first Multimedia Messaging Service was introduced and the first GSM network in the 800 MHz frequency band became operational. EDGE services first became operational in a network in 2003, the number of worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 1 billion in 2004.
By 2005 GSM networks accounted for more than 75% of the worldwide cellular network market, serving 1.5 billion subscribers. In 2005, the first HSDPA-capable network became operational; the first HSUPA network launched in 2007. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded three billion in 2008; the GSM Association estimated in 2010 that technologies defined in the GSM standard served 80% of the mobile market, encompassing more than 5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories, making GSM the most ubiquitous of the many standards for cellular networks. GSM is a second-generation standard employing time-division multiple-Access spectrum-sharing, issued by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute; the GSM standard does not include the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System code division multiple access technology nor the 4G LTE orthogonal frequency-division multiple access technology standards issued by the 3GPP. GSM, for the first time, set a common standard for Europe for wireless networks.
It was adopted by many countries outside Europe. This allowed subscribers to use other GSM networks; the common standard reduced research and development costs, since ha
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
As the crow flies
As the crow flies, similar to in a beeline, is an idiom for the most direct path between two points. This meaning is attested from the early 19th century, appeared in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist: We cut over the fields at the back with him between us – straight as the crow flies – through hedge and ditch. According to BBC Focus, "'As the crow flies' is a pretty common saying but it isn't accurate". Crows do not swoop in the air like swallows or starlings, but they circle above their nests. Crows do conspicuously fly alone across open country, but neither crows nor bees fly in straight lines. Before modern navigational methods were introduced, crows were kept upon ships and released when land was sought. Crows instinctively fly towards land. Geodesic Great-circle distance Dundes, Alan. "As the Crow Flies: A Straightforward Study of Lineal Worldview in American Folk Speech". In Lau, Kimberley J.. What Goes Around Comes Around: The Circulation of Proverbs in Contemporary Life. Utah State University Press.
Pp. 171–187. ISBN 978-0-87421-592-2. Winfield, Charles H.. Adjudged Words and Phrases: Being a Collection of Adjudicated Definitions of Terms Used in the Law, with References to Authorities. Jersey City, NJ: J. J. Griffiths. P. 45. OCLC 3364516. "As the crow flies" The Phrase Finder. "As the crow flies" World Wide Words
Alexander Vadimovich Izosimov is a Russian businessman, noted for being the CEO of Vimpelcom between October 2003 and May 2011. Before 1996, Izosimov was with McKinsey & Co in Stockholm and London. From 2001 until 2003, he was a member of the Global Executive Management Board and Regional President for the CIS, Central Europe, Nordic regions. From 1996 to 2001, he was General Manager at Mars, Inc. for Russia and the CIS. Izosimov VimpelCom, Russia's Chair for the Global Agenda Council on the Future of Mobile Communications between October 2003 and May 2011, he serves on the Boards of Directors of GSM Association, Baltika Breweries Plc, United Confectioneries B. V. Izosimov graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute with an M. S. degree in 1987 and holds an MBA from INSEAD. Izosimov bought the most expensive house in a suburb to Stockholm, he paid 45 million Swedish kronor for this house. Official website of Vimpelcom. Profile of Alexander Izosimov