Anheuser-Busch Companies, LLC is an American brewing company headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri. Since 2008, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev which has its North American regional management headquarters in St. Louis; the original Anheuser-Busch InBev was formed through successive mergers of three international brewing groups: Interbrew from Belgium, AmBev from Brazil and Anheuser-Busch. Hence, since 2008, Anheuser-Busch has been a division of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, now the world's largest brewing company; the company employs over 30,000 people, operates 12 breweries in the United States, until December 2009, was one of the largest theme park operators in the United States, with ten theme parks through the company's family entertainment division, Busch Entertainment Corporation. Anheuser-Busch InBev is the largest beer producer in the world. In 1852, German American brewer and saloon operator George Schneider opened the Bavarian Brewery on Carondelet Avenue between Dorcas and Lynch streets in South St. Louis.
Schneider's brewery expanded in 1856 to a new brewhouse near Crittenden streets. In 1860, the brewery was purchased on the brink of bankruptcy by William D'Oench, a local pharmacist, Eberhard Anheuser, a prosperous German-born soap manufacturer. D'Oench was the silent partner in the business until 1869, when he sold his half-interest in the company. From 1860 to 1875, the brewery was known as E. Anheuser & Co. and from 1875 to 1879 as the E. Anheuser Company's Brewing Association. Adolphus Busch, a wholesaler who had immigrated to St. Louis from Germany in 1857, married Eberhard Anheuser's daughter, Lilly, in 1861. Following his service in the American Civil War, Busch began working as a salesman for the Anheuser brewery. Busch purchased D'Oench's share of the company in 1869, he assumed the role of company secretary from that time until the death of his father-in-law. Adolphus Busch was the first American brewer to use pasteurization to keep beer fresh. By 1877, the company owned a fleet of 40 refrigerated railroad cars to transport beer.
Expanding the company's distribution range led to increased demand for Anheuser products, the company expanded its facilities in St. Louis during the 1870s; the expansions led production to increase from 31,500 barrels in 1875 to more than 200,000 in 1881. To streamline the company's refrigerator car operations and achieve vertical integration, Busch established the St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company in 1878, charged with building and leasing refrigerator cars. To serve these cars and switch them in and out of their St. Louis brewery, Anheuser-Busch founded the Manufacturers Railway Company in 1887; the shortline operated until 2011. During the 1870s, Adolphus Busch toured Europe and studied the changes in brewing methods which were taking place at the time the success of pilsner beer, which included a locally popular example brewed in Budweis. In 1876, Busch introduced Budweiser, with the ambition of transcending regional tastes, his company's ability to transport bottled beer made Budweiser the first national beer brand in the United States, it was marketed as a "premium" beer.
The company was renamed Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association in 1879. The Busch family controlled the company through the generations until Anheuser-Busch's sale to InBev in 2008. During the 1880s and 1890s, Busch introduced a series of advertisements and marketing giveaways for the company, including bottle openers, corkscrews, pocketknives and prints. Among the most well-known of these giveaways was Custer's Last Fight, a lithograph print of a painting by St. Louis artist Cassilly Adams; as a marketing tactic, Busch distributed thousands of copies of the print to bars in 1896, the same year Anheuser-Busch introduced its new "super-premium" brand, Michelob. More than one million copies of the print were produced, it became "one of the most popular pieces of artwork in American history."At the turn of the 20th century, Anheuser-Busch continued to expand its production facilities to keep up with demand. In 1905, the company built a new stockhouse in St. Louis, by 1907 it produced nearly 1.6 million barrels of beer.
As demands for the prohibition of alcohol in the United States grew, Anheuser-Busch began producing non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages. After the death of Adolphus Busch in 1913, control of the company passed to his son, August Anheuser Busch, Sr. who continued to combat the rise of prohibitionists. As part of an effort to improve the respectability of drinking, August Busch built three upscale restaurants in St. Louis during the 1910s: the Stork Inn, the Gretchen Inn, the Bevo Mill; as with all breweries in the country, the Temperance movement and eventual Prohibition in the United States dealt a major blow to the company in the 1910s through the 1930s. Some of the products sold by Anheuser-Busch to survive during Prohibition included brewer's yeast, malt extract, ice cream, Bevo, a nonalcoholic malt beverage, or "near beer". In 1957, Anheuser-Busch became the largest brewer in the United States. In 1981, Anheuser-Busch International, Inc. was established as a subsidi
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Milford, New Jersey
Milford is a borough located in western Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. At the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 1,233, reflecting an increase of 38 from the 1,195 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 78 from the 1,273 counted in the 1990 Census. Milford was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 15, 1911, from portions of Holland Township, based on the results of a referendum held on May 8, 1911; the borough's incorporation was confirmed on March 13, 1925. The borough is located on the Delaware River in the western portion of Hunterdon County, known as the Hunterdon Plateau; the Borough dates to the mid-18th century when a grist mill was established beside a river in what was Bethlehem Township. After the mill was destroyed by fire in 1769, the settlement became known as Burnt Mills in Alexandria Township; the area was renamed as "Lowreytown" after Thomas Lowrey purchased land in the area in 1796. The community became known as "Millford" or "Millsford" by the beginning of the 19th century, but by 1844 the name had lost a letter or two.
By 1863 it was spelled as "Milford". The community was incorporated in 1911 but the official incorporation was not registered until 1925. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.226 square miles, including 1.149 square miles of land and 0.077 square miles of water. Milford borders Holland Township. Milford borders the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and is connected to Upper Black Eddy, Bridgeton Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission's free Upper Black Eddy-Milford Bridge over the Delaware River; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,233 people, 520 households, 331.240 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,073.4 per square mile. There were 552 housing units at an average density of 480.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.32% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.19% of the population. There were 520 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.3% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.93. In the borough, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 32.8% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 97.0 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $75,948 and the median family income was $79,653. Males had a median income of $52,679 versus $42,778 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $32,823.
About 0.9% of families and 2.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. At the 2000 United States Census there were 1,195 people, 469 households and 323 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,037.7 per square mile. There were 484 housing units at an average density of 420.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.57% White, 0.17% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.33% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.01% of the population. There were 469 households of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 220.127.116.11% of the population were under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males. The median household income was $54,519 and the median family income was $62,167. Males had a median income of $46,500 and females $31,765; the per capita income was $25,039. About 1.8% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. Milford is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office; the Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Milford, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetin
Balic Winery is a winery in the Mays Landing section of Hamilton Township in Atlantic County, New Jersey. The vineyard was first planted in the early 19th century by descendants of the original settlers of Mays Landing. Balic is the third-oldest active winery in the state, after Renault Winery and Tomasello Winery, having opened in 1966. Balic is one of the largest winegrowers in New Jersey; the winery is named after its founder. Balic Winery is in the Outer Coastal Plain AVA, produces wine from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin blanc, Pinot noir, Sangiovese, Vidal blanc, Viognier and Zinfandel grapes. Balic makes fruit wines from almonds, blueberries, cranberries, pomegranates and strawberries, it is the only winery in New Jersey that produces wine from Vranac, a red vinifera grape indigenous to Montenegro. Balic is best known for its signature pomegranate wine, they advertise the medical benefits from antioxidants in pomegranate wine. Balic has a plenary winery license from the New Jersey Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, which allows it to produce an unrestricted amount of wine, operate up to 15 off-premises sales rooms, ship up to 12 cases per year to consumers in-state or out-of-state.
Balic is not a member of the Garden State Wine Growers Association or the Outer Coastal Plain Vineyard Association. The winery operates outlet stores in five New Jersey towns – Clinton, Vernon and Clark. Alcohol laws of New Jersey American wine Judgment of Princeton List of wineries and distilleries in New Jersey New Jersey Farm Winery Act New Jersey Wine Industry Advisory Council New Jersey wine
Amalthea Cellars is a winery in the West Atco section of Wainslow in Camden County, New Jersey. The vineyard was first planted in 1976, opened to the public in 1981. Amalthea has 10 acres of grapes under cultivation, produces 5,000 cases of wine per year; the winery is named after Amalthea, a moon of Jupiter, reflecting the owner's scientific background and love of mythology. Amalthea Cellars is in the Outer Coastal Plain AVA, produces wine from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Pinot gris, Rayon d'Or, Rkatsiteli, Sauvignon blanc, Traminette, Villard blanc, Viognier grapes. Amalthea makes fruit wines from blueberries and peaches, it is the only winery in New Jersey that produces wine from Rayon d'Or, a white hybrid grape developed in France in the early twentieth century. Amalthea was a participant at the Judgment of Princeton, a wine tasting organized by the American Association of Wine Economists that compared New Jersey wines to premium French vintages; the winery advocates traditional winemaking techniques, uses egg whites and oak barrels to produce its wine.
Amalthea has a plenary winery license from the New Jersey Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, which allows it to produce an unrestricted amount of wine, operate up to 15 off-premises sales rooms, ship up to 12 cases per year to consumers in-state or out-of-state. Amalthea is a member of the Garden State Wine Growers Association and the Outer Coastal Plain Vineyard Association. Alcohol laws of New Jersey American wine Judgment of Princeton List of wineries and distilleries in New Jersey New Jersey Farm Winery Act New Jersey Wine Industry Advisory Council New Jersey wine Garden State Wine Growers Association Outer Coastal Plain Vineyard Association Amalthea Cellars home page
Rheingold Beer, introduced in 1883, is a New York beer that held 35 percent of the state's beer market from 1950 to 1960. The company was sold by the founding Jewish American Liebmann family in 1963. According to the New York Times, "Rheingold Beer was once a top New York brew guzzled by a loyal cadre of workingmen who would just as soon have eaten nails as drink another beer maker's suds." Its VP-Technical Joseph Owades claims credit for Rheingold's developing the first light beer. Rheingold shut down operations in 1976, when they were unable to compete with the large national breweries, as corporate consolidation and the rise of national breweries led to the demise of dozens of regional breweries; the label was revived in 1998 by partner Mike Mitaro. The beer's evocative name is an allusion to Germany's great river Rhein as well as Richard Wagner's opera Das Rheingold. In 1940, Philip Liebmann, great-grandson of the founder, Samuel Liebmann, started the "Miss Rheingold" pageant as the centerpiece of its marketing campaign.
Beer drinkers voted each year on the young lady who would be featured as Miss Rheingold in advertisements. In the 1940s and 1950s in New York, "the selection of Miss Rheingold was as anticipated as the race for the White House." The first Miss Rheingold was Spanish-born Jinx Falkenburg. When Nat King Cole became the first major black entertainer to host a television show, advertisers stayed away—but not Rheingold; as early as 1965, Rheingold aired television ads featuring African American, Puerto Rican and Asian actors, to appeal to its racially diverse customer base. The company's headquarters was in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn. Rheingold was the official beer of the New York Mets, its advertisements featured John Wayne, Jackie Robinson, Sarah Vaughan and the Marx Brothers, they sponsored The Jackie Robinson Show which aired on 660 WRCA radio in New York City on Sunday evenings between 6:30 and 7 PM during the late 1950s and early 1960s. The company shut down four years after the construction of the twin towers of the World Trade Center was completed.
During the cleanup of the WTC site following the collapse of the towers on September 11, 2001, numerous Rheingold beer cans were found in the rubble, having been hidden in the beams of the building decades earlier by construction workers who had drunk the beers on the job. Coincidently 12 years before the 9/11 attack, on 11 September 11, 1989, the New York Times had published an article that included an old radio jingle for Rheingold beer:My beer is Rheingold, the dry beer. Think of Rheingold whenever you buy beer. It's not bitter, not sweet. Won't you try extra dry Rheingold beer? According to an October 18, 1999 New York Observer article, Mike Mitaro's Rheingold Brewing Company LLC bought the brand in 1998. Walter Liebmann, a director of the new company, is a relative of Rheingold's founding family; when Rheingold re-launched, they revived the Miss Rheingold pageant. The new Miss Rheingold contestants no longer wore white gloves -- "They had tattoos, they were pierced. They were badasses." In 2003, The Village Voice noted Rheingold for "the best marketing campaign co-opting hipster drinking habits."
In 2004, Rheingold stirred controversy in New York City with a series of ads which mock New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg's ban on smoking in bars and enforcement of city laws which prohibit dancing in bars which do not have a "cabaret license." Bloomberg responded by drinking Coors in public. In 2005, Drinks Americas of Wilton Ct. whose brands include Trump Vodka and Dr. Dre Cognac, purchased Rheingold Brewing. Drinks Americas has reformulated the Rheingold product for follow through distribution throughout the US; the date of the release is unknown. A reformulated Rheingold beer was introduced to the New York Metropolitan market, as well as Cincinnati and Georgia, in August 2010. Les Paul recorded a popular radio commercial for Rheingold in 1951. Humorist and radio personality Jean Shepherd was the radio spokesman for Rheingold's radio ads on New York Mets broadcasts in the 1970s. In the 1956 Requiem for a Heavyweight, the character played by Anthony Quinn is in a bar and the woman, looking for him to be a counselor at a camp wants to have a beer and the bartender brings them two bottles of Rheingold.
In the 1959 film It Happened to Jane, newspaper reporter Matilda Runyon drinks Rheingold at home and warns her husband Clarence to stay away from her beer supply. In the first episode of "Ro. Go. Pa. G." The man on the flight speaks about Rheingold girls to the hostess, he asks her only for a Rheingold Beer. In the film The Godfather, a Rheingold delivery truck can be seen in the background while Sonny beats up his brother-in-law Carlo. Rheingold built the truck for the movie. In the film Cops and Robbers, the lead character Joe has a pool-side television encased in a protective Rheinghold TV wrapper. In the film Sophie's Choice, Nathan Landau throws a beer to Stingo. In the film Silver Bullet, Arnie Westrum is first seen singing a drunken rendition of the Rheingold beer song. In the film A Bronx Tale, a Rheingold beer neon sign can be seen in the window of the Chez Bippy corner bar, as several men are lined up by the police following a neighborhood shooting. In the film Quiz Show, A neighbor of quiz champion Herb Stempel is seen holding a bottle of Rheingold beer as Stempel returns home from a television appearance.
In the movie Just Looking, which takes place in 1955, Rheingold beer and advertisements are shown throughout. In the movie Down to Earth, Rheingold is the drink of choice of main character Lance Barton, who asks for it repeat
New Jersey distilled spirits
The production of distilled spirits in New Jersey has not been a large industry in the state. Strict alcoholic beverage control laws in place during and after Prohibition prevented the industry from growing for a century. In 2013, the state passed a law creating a craft distillery license, and issued the first new distillery license since Prohibition to Jersey Artisan Distilling New Jersey has a long distilling history dating to the colonial era when large landowners converted surplus fruit into brandy, sugar into rum, grain into whiskey. As of 2013, the state is home to two licensed distilleries. Laird & Company, in the Scobeyville section of Colts Neck, is the oldest licensed distillery in the United States, received License No. 1 from the U. S. Department of the Treasury in 1780. By 1834, New Jersey boasted 388 distilleries. In 2013, the New Jersey Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control issued its first distillery license in 94 years, to Jersey Artisan Distilling, based in Fairfield, in Essex County.
That same year Cooper River Distillers in Camden received a state distillery license. In 2015 Jersey Spirits Distilling Co. received licensing and as of 2017 there are 20 craft distilleries in the state. New Jersey presently has several licensed distilleries, Laird & Company licensed with a Rectifier and Blender license, Jersey Artisan Distilling which has a Plenary Distillery license, Jersey Spirits Distilling Co, Corgi Spirits at The Jersey City Distillery, All Points West Distillery which have Craft Distilling licenses. Laird is the nation's only remaining producer of applejack. Presently none of the company's distilling takes place in New Jersey. Laird's obtains all its apples from Virginia's Shenandoah Valley and distills its products in Virginia. Distilling at its New Jersey facilities ceased in 1972 and Laird's blends and bottles its products in Scobeyville. To operate in the state of New Jersey, distillery owners must first obtain licenses from the federal and state governments; the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the U.
S. Department of the Treasury issues a permit for the operation of a distilled spirits plant in accordance with federal regulations, the requirements of both the Federal Alcohol Administration Act and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; the permit is issued after the approval of a filed application for the permit and a passing of an inspection of the distillery facilities by a federal government inspector. This permit allows the production, rectifying and storage of distilled spirits and beverages. Examples of distilled spirits include neutral spirits or alcohol, gin, blended applejack, tequila and liqueurs. New Jersey's laws and regulations regarding alcohol are overseen by the Department of Law and Public Safety's Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, managed by the state's Attorney-General; the division issues licenses to distilleries to operate within the state, offering four distinct Class A Manufacturer's Licenses. Federal excise taxes are levied on production of distilled spirits intended for human beverage consumption.
Taxes are collected on undenatured distilled spirits, including those used manufacture of medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavoring extracts, perfume and drawnback to the producer at the end of the fiscal year. Distilled spirits intended for industrial or research use that are denatured, or used by research laboratories, hospitals and government agencies is exempt from federal excise taxes. New Jersey excise taxes on distilled spirits for human beverage consumption are levied at a rate of $5.50 per gallon. Federal law prohibits alcoholic beverages from being shipped through the mail. New Jersey prohibits the shipment of beer and spirits to customers by requiring a liquor license to transport alcohol, but not having any class of liquor license that grants permission to ship beer or spirits. United Parcel Service and Federal Express will ship wine to a person's home, but will only deliver beer or hard liquor to a licensed business. Alcohol laws of New Jersey Beer in New Jersey List of wineries and distilleries in New Jersey New Jersey Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control New Jersey wine