Barley wine is a style of strong ale of between 6-11% or 8-12% alcohol by volume. It is sometimes written as one word, barleywine. In Ancient Armenia, a style of fermented grain beverage was referred to as "κρίθινος οἶνος" - barley wine, by the Greek historian Xenophon, who mentioned to have experienced it, while being in Armenia, in his work Anabasis and Polybius in his work The Histories; these barley wines would be dissimilar to modern examples as their mention predates the use of hops by several centuries. The first beer to be marketed as barley wine was Bass No. 1 Ale, around 1870. The Anchor Brewing Company introduced the style to the United States in 1976 with its Old Foghorn Barleywine Style Ale. Old Foghorn was styled as barleywine out of fear that occurrence of the word wine on a beer label would displease regulators. In 1983, Sierra Nevada Brewing released Bigfoot Barleywine, becoming the second barley wine label in the United States. A barley wine reaches an alcohol strength of 8 to 12% by volume and is brewed from specific gravities as high as 1.120.
Use of the word wine is due to its alcoholic strength similar to a wine. Breweries in the United States release it once a year during the autumn or winter. There are two primary styles of barley wine: the American which tends to be more hoppy and bitter with colours ranging from amber to light brown and the English style which tends to be less bitter and may have little hop flavour, with more variety in colour ranging from red-gold to opaque black; until the introduction of an amber-coloured barley wine under the name Gold Label by the Sheffield brewery Tennant's in 1951, British barley wines were always dark in colour. The beer writer Michael Jackson referred to a barley wine by Smithwick's thus: "This is distinctive, with an earthy hoppiness, a wineyness, lots of fruit and toffee flavours." He noted that its original gravity is 1.062. Martyn Cornell was quoted as saying "no meaningful difference exists between barley wines and old ales", he clarified, "I don’t believe there is any such meaningful style as'barley wine'".
Barley wines are sometimes labelled with a production date, as they are intended to be aged, sometimes extensively. Many jurisdictions have different taxing schemes for potables based upon alcohol content. Since barley wine has a high alcohol content, it is, in some jurisdictions, taxed at a higher rate than other beers. Thus, barley wines tend to suffer a further price premium as compared with other beers. Many jurisdictions have different regulations regarding where beers and wines can be sold, leading to confusion regarding in which category barley wines fall and therefore limiting access. A variation on the barley wine style involves adding a large quantity of wheat to the mash bill, resulting in what is referred to as wheat wine; this style originated in the United States in the 1980s. List of barley-based beverages
Mild ale meant a young ale, as opposed to a "stale" aged or old ale. It is now more interpreted as being mildly hopped; this style of beer originated in Britain in the 17th century or earlier, has a predominantly malty palate. Modern mild ales are dark-coloured with an alcohol by volume of 3% to 3.6%, although there are lighter-hued examples as well as stronger examples reaching 6% abv and higher. Light mild is similar, but pale in colour, for instance Harveys Brewery Knots of May. There is some overlap between the weakest styles of bitter and light mild, with the term AK being used to refer to both; the designation of such beers as "bitter" or "mild" has tended to change with fashion. A good example is McMullen's AK, re-badged as a bitter after decades as a light mild. AK was referred to as a "mild bitter beer", interpreting "mild" as "unaged". Once sold in every pub, mild experienced a sharp decline in popularity in the 1960s and was in danger of disappearing, but the increase of microbreweries has led to a modest renaissance and an increasing number of milds being brewed.
The Campaign for Real Ale has designated May as Mild Month. In the United States, a group of beer bloggers organised the first American Mild Month for May 2015, with forty-five participating breweries across the country. "Mild" was used to designate any beer, young, fresh or unaged and did not refer to a specific style of beer. Thus there was Mild Ale but Mild Porter and Mild Bitter Beer; these young beers were blended with aged "stale" beer to improve their flavour. As the 19th century progressed public taste moved away from the aged taste. In the 19th century a typical brewery produced three or four mild ales designated by a number of X marks, the weakest being X, the strongest XXXX, they were stronger than the milds of today, with the gravity ranging from around 1.055 to 1.072. Gravities dropped throughout the late 19th century and by 1914 the weakest milds were down to about 1.045, still stronger than modern versions. The draconian measures applied to the brewing industry during the First World War had a dramatic effect upon mild.
As the biggest-selling beer, it suffered the largest cut in gravity when breweries had to limit the average OG of their beer to 1.030. In order to be able to produce some stronger beer -, exempt from price controls and thus more profitable - mild was reduced to 1.025 or lower. Modern dark mild varies from dark amber to near-black in colour and is light-bodied, its flavour is dominated by malt, sometimes with roasty notes derived from the use of black malt, with a subdued hop character, though there are some quite bitter examples. Most are in the range 1.030–1.036. Light mild is similar, but paler in colour; some dark milds are created by the addition of caramel to a pale beer. Until the 1960s mild was the most popular beer style in England. Pockets of demand remain in the West Midlands and North West England, but has been ousted by bitter and lager elsewhere. In 2002, only 1.3% of beer sold in pubs was Mild. Mild's popularity in Wales, in particular, persisted as a low-alcohol, sweet drink for coal miners.
Some brewers have continued to produce mild, but have found it sells better under a different name: for instance, Brains's mild was renamed Dark. Outside the United Kingdom mild is unknown, with the exception of Old in New South Wales and some microbrewery recreations in North America and Scandinavia; some notable examples of Milds are: Bank's Mild, Cain's Dark Mild, Highgate Dark Mild, Brain's Dark, Moorehouse Blackcat, Rudgate Ruby Mild, Theakston Traditional Mild A popular drink in the West Midlands, "brown and mild" is a half pint of draught mild served mixed with a half pint of bottled brown ale in a pint glass. In North West England, a mixture of half a pint of mild and half a pint of bitter is known as a "mixed". In Norfolk, the same mixture was called a pint of "twos". Mild ales are based on mild malt or pale malt. Most milds contain, in addition, a quantity of crystal malt. Milds tend to be hopped compared to pale ale and are low in alcohol. Sarah Hughes Dark Ruby Mild, brewed to a pre-World War I recipe, is a rare example of a strong Mild.
As part of the first American Mild Month, the project organizers challenged participating breweries to create a new variation on the mild ale style by brewing with American malts and hops. They defined American Mild as "a restrained, darkish ale, with gentle hopping and a clean finish so that the malt and what hops are present, shine through"
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns; these were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont, he encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call.
Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli; the enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church; some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain; the two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades.
The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea; the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492; the idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold varying opinions of the Crusaders.
To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders pillaged as they travelled, their leaders retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade. However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; the Crusades reinforced a connection between Western Christendom and militarism. The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in 1095, but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio "pilgrimage". The terminology of crusading remained indistinguishable from that of pilgrimage during the 12th century, reflecting the reality of the first century of crusading where not all armed pilgrims fought, not all who fought had taken the cross, it was not until the late 12th to early 13th centuries that a more specific "language of crusading" emerged. Pope Innocent III used the term negotium crucis "affair of the cross" for the Eastern Mediterranean crusade, but was reluctant to apply crusading terminology to the Albigensian crusade; the Song of the Albigensian Crusade from about 1213 contains the first recorded vernacular use of the Occitan crozada. This term was adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade; the modern spelling crusade dates to c. 1760. Sinibaldo Fieschi used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271–72. This conv
A microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces small amounts of beer much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries, is independently owned. Such breweries are characterized by their emphasis on quality and brewing technique; the microbrewing movement began in the United Kingdom in the 1970s, although traditional artisanal brewing existed in Europe for centuries and subsequently spread to other countries. As the movement grew, some breweries expanded their production and distribution, the more encompassing concept of craft brewing emerged. A brewpub is a pub. Although the term "microbrewery" was used in relation to the size of breweries, it came to reflect an alternative attitude and approach to brewing flexibility, adaptability and customer service; the term and trend spread to the US in the 1980s and was used as a designation of breweries that produce fewer than 15,000 U. S. beer barrels annually. Microbreweries have adopted a marketing strategy that differs from those of the large, mass-market breweries, offering products that compete on the basis of quality and diversity instead of low price and advertising.
Their influence has been much greater than their market share, which amounts to only 2% in the UK, indicated by the introduction by large commercial breweries of new brands for the craft beer market. However, when the strategy failed, the corporate breweries invested in microbreweries or, in many cases, acquired them outright. Microbreweries appeared in other countries, such as New Zealand and Australia. Craft beer and microbreweries were cited as the reason for a 15 million L drop in alcohol sales in New Zealand over 2012, with New Zealanders preferring higher-priced premium beers over cheaper brands; the website The Food Section defines a "nanobrewery" as "a scaled-down microbrewery run by a solo entrepreneur, that produces beer in small batches." The US Department of the Treasury defines nanobreweries as "very small brewery operations" that produce beer for sale. The term "farm brewery" or "farmhouse brewery" has been around for centuries. Several beer styles are considered "farmhouse" stemming from farmers brewing low ABV beer as an incentive for field workers.
Farm breweries were not large scale. This had different effects on the overall product; the term "farm brewery" has more found its way into several local and state laws, in order to give farm breweries certain agriculturally related, privileges not found under standard brewery laws. These privileges come at a price: some portion of the ingredients used in the beer must be grown on the given licensed farm brewery. "Craft brewing" is a more encompassing term for developments in the industry succeeding the microbrewing movement of the late 20th century. The definition is not consistent but applies to small, independently-owned commercial breweries that employ traditional brewing methods and emphasize flavor and quality; the term is reserved for breweries established since the 1970s but may be used for older breweries with a similar focus. A United States trade group, the Brewers Association, interested in brand transparency, offers a definition of craft breweries as "small and traditional"; the craft brewing process can be considered an art by the brewmasters.
In the United Kingdom, the "Assured Independent British Craft Brewer" initiative is run by the Society of Independent Brewers, who ensure that any beers which carry the Independent Craft Brewer logo are small and brewing quality beer. The use of cans by craft brewers in the US has doubled since 2012, with over 500 companies using cans to package their beverages. Associated with the major brewing corporations, cans are now favored by craft brewers for numerous reasons: cans are impervious to oxygen, beer-degrading light does not affect canned beer, canned beer is more portable since less room is required for storage or transportation, canned beer cools more and cans have a greater surface area for wraparound designs and decorations; the perception that bottles lead to a taste, superior to canned beer is outdated, as most aluminum cans are lined with a polymer coating that protects the beer from the problematic metal. However, since drinking directly from a can may still result in a metallic taste, most craft brewers recommend pouring beer into a glass prior to consumption.
In June 2014, the BA estimated 3% of craft beer is sold in cans, 60% is sold in bottles, kegs represent the remainder of the market. Brewpub is an abbreviated term combining the ideas of a pub or public-house. A brewpub can be a restaurant that brews beer on the premises. Beer arrived in Australia at the beginning of British colonisation. In 2004, Australia was ranked fourth internationally in per capita beer consumption, at around 110 L per year, though lower in terms of total per capita alcohol consumption; the most popular beer style in modern-day Australia is lager. The oldest brewery still in operation is the Cascade Brewery, established in Tasmania in 1824; the largest Australian-owned brewery is the family-owned Coopers, as the other two major breweries, Foster's and Lion Nathan are owned by the British-South African SABMiller and the Japanese Kirin Brewing Company respectively. Foster's Lager is made for export or under licence in other countr
Brown ale is a style of beer with a dark amber or brown colour. The term was first used by London brewers in the late 17th century to describe their products, such as mild ale, though the term has a rather different meaning today. 18th century brown ales were hopped and brewed from 100% brown malt. Today there are brown ales made in several regions, most notably England and America. Other than being top-fermented and having a darker color than pale beers, brown ales share little in common in terms of flavour profile. Beers termed brown ale include sweet, low alcohol beers such as Manns Original Brown Ale, medium strength amber beers of moderate bitterness such as Newcastle Brown Ale, malty but hoppy beers such as Sierra Nevada Brown Ale. In the 18th century, British brown ales were brewed to a variety of strengths, with original gravities ranging from around 1.060 to 1.090. Around 1800, brewers stopped producing these types of beers as they moved away from using brown malt as a base. Pale malt, being cheaper because of its higher yield, was used as a base for all beers, including Porter and Stout.
The term "brown ale" was revived at the end of the 19th century when London brewer Mann introduced a beer with that name. However, the style only became brewed in the 1920s; the brown ales of this period were stronger than most modern English versions. In 1926, Manns Brown Ale had an original gravity of 1.043 and an ABV of around 4%. Whitbread Double Brown was stronger, an OG of 1.054 and more than 5% ABV. The introduction of these beers coincided with a big increase in demand for bottled beer in the UK. In the 1930s some breweries, such as Whitbread, introduced a second weaker and cheaper brown ale, sometimes just a sweetened version of dark Mild; these beers had an original gravity of around 1.037. After World War II, most breweries stopped producing these stronger brown ales, with the exception of some breweries in the northeast of England; the majority had an OG in the range 1.030–1.035, or around 3% ABV, much like Manns Brown Ale today. North American brown ales trace their heritage to American home brewing adaptations of certain northern English beers, the English influence on American Colonial Ales.
English brown ales range from beers such as Manns Original Brown Ale, quite sweet and low in alcohol, to northeastern brown ale such as Newcastle Brown Ale, Double Maxim and Samuel Smith's Nut Brown Ale. North American examples include Brooklyn Brown Ale, they range from deep amber to brown in colour. Caramel and chocolate flavours are evident. Brown ales from northeastern England tend to be strong and malty nutty, while those from southern England are darker and lower in alcohol. North American brown ales are drier than their English counterparts, with a slight citrus accent and an aroma and medium body due to American hop varieties. Fruitiness from esters are subdued; when chilled to cold temperatures, some haziness may be noticed. Mild ale Porter Stout Root beer
Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is an olefinic natural organic hydrocarbon. It is more classified as a monoterpene. Monoterpenes are dimers of isoprenoid precursors, myrcene is a significant component of the essential oil of several plants, including bay, ylang-ylang, wild thyme, parsley and hops, it is produced semi-synthetically from myrcia, from which it gets its name. It is a key intermediate in the production of several fragrances. Α-Myrcene is the name for the structural isomer 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadiene, which has not been found in nature, is little used. Myrcene is produced by the pyrolysis of β-pinene, obtained from turpentine, it is obtained directly from plants. Terpenes arise from dehydration of terpenol geraniol. Plants biosynthesize myrcene via geranyl pyrophosphate; the mevalonate pathway gives the precursors dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. These two precursors combine to produce GPP, which isomerizes into linally pyrophosphate; the rearrangement and release of the pyrophosphate, the double bond formation creates the product myrcene.
It could in principle be extracted from any number of plants, for example wild thyme, the leaves of which contain up to 40% by weight of myrcene. Many other plants contain myrcene, sometimes in substantial amounts; some of these include cannabis, hops Houttuynia, lemon grass, Myrcia, West Indian bay tree, cardamom. Of the several terpenes extracted from Humulus lupulus, the largest monoterpenes fraction is β-myrcene. One Swiss study of the chemical composition of the fragrance of Cannabis sativa L. found β-myrcene to compose between 29.4% to 65.8% of the steam-distilled essential oil for the set of fiber and drug strains tested. Myrcene is an important intermediate used in the perfumery industry, it has a pleasant odor but is used directly. It is unstable in air, tending to polymerize. Samples are stabilized by the addition of alkylphenols or tocopherol, it is thus more valued as an intermediate for the preparation of flavor and fragrance chemicals such as menthol, citronellol, geraniol and linalool.
Myrcene is converted to myrcenol, another fragrance found in lavender, via hydroamination of the 1,3-diene by diethylamine followed by hydrolysis and Pd-catalyzed removal of the amine. Both myrcene and mycenol undergo Diels-Alder reactions with several dienophiles such as acrolein to give cyclohexene derivatives that are useful fragrances, for instance Lyral. Myrcene contributes a peppery and balsam aroma in beer. Perfume allergy