A biographical film, or biopic, is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people. Such films show the life of a historical person and the central character's real name is used, they differ from films "based on a true story" or "historical drama films" in that they attempt to comprehensively tell a single person's life story or at least the most important years of their lives. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public, biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Ben Kingsley, Johnny Depp, Jim Carrey, Jamie Foxx all gained new-found respect as dramatic actors after starring in biopics: Ben Kingsley as Mahatma Gandhi in Gandhi, Depp as Ed Wood in Ed Wood, Carrey as Andy Kaufman in Man on the Moon, Foxx as Ray Charles in Ray, Eddie Redmayne as Stephen Hawking in The Theory of Everything. In rare cases, sometimes called auto biopics, the subject of the film plays himself or herself: Jackie Robinson in The Jackie Robinson Story.
Biopic scholars include George F. Custen of the College of Staten Island and Dennis P. Bingham of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. Custen, in Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History, regards the genre as having died with the Hollywood studio era, in particular, Darryl F. Zanuck. On the other hand, Bingham's 2010 study Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre shows how it perpetuates as a codified genre using many of the same tropes used in the studio era that has followed a similar trajectory as that shown by Rick Altman in his study, Film/Genre. Bingham addresses the male biopic and the female biopic as distinct genres from each other, the former dealing with great accomplishments, the latter dealing with female victimization. Ellen Cheshire's Bio-Pics: a life in pictures examines UK/US films from the 1990s and 2000s; each chapter concludes with further viewing list. Christopher Robé has written on the gender norms that underlie the biopic in his article, "Taking Hollywood Back" in the 2009 issue of Cinema Journal.
Roger Ebert defended The Hurricane and distortions in biographical films in general, stating "those who seek the truth about a man from the film of his life might as well seek it from his loving grandmother.... The Hurricane is not a documentary but a parable." Some biopics purposely stretch the truth. Confessions of a Dangerous Mind was based on game show host Chuck Barris' debunked yet popular memoir of the same name, in which he claimed to be a CIA agent. Kafka incorporated both the surreal aspects of his fiction; the Errol Flynn film They Died with Their Boots On tells the story of Custer but is romanticized. The Oliver Stone film The Doors about Jim Morrison, was praised for the similarities between Jim Morrison and actor Val Kilmer, look-wise and singing-wise, but fans and band members did not like the way Val Kilmer portrayed Jim Morrison, a few of the scenes were completely made up. Casting can be controversial for biographical films. Casting is a balance between similarity in looks and ability to portray the characteristics of the person.
Anthony Hopkins felt that he should not have played Richard Nixon in Nixon because of a lack of resemblance between the two. The casting of John Wayne as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror was objected to because of the American Wayne being cast as the Mongol warlord. Egyptian critics criticized the casting of Louis Gossett, Jr. an African American actor, as Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in the 1982 TV miniseries Sadat. Some objected to the casting of Jennifer Lopez in Selena because she is a New York City native of Puerto Rican descent while Selena was Mexican-American; the musical biopic Bohemian Rhapsody, based on the life of Queen singer Freddie Mercury, became the highest-grossing biopic of all time in 2018. Biographical novel Biography in literature List of biographical films
Olivier Martinez is a French film actor. He became known after roles in several French films such as Un, trois, which garnered him the César Award for "Most Promising Actor", The Horseman on the Roof, The Chambermaid on the Titanic, he has appeared in Hollywood-produced features, including the drama Before Night Falls, the erotic thriller Unfaithful and playing the role of a French drug lord in the action-crime-thriller S. W. A. T.. Martinez was born in France, to a working-class family, his father was a Spanish professional boxer born in Spanish Morocco and his mother was a French secretary. He studied at the CNSAD and began his acting career in his native France in 1990. Martinez was raised Roman Catholic. In 1994, Martinez won a César Award as "Most Promising Actor" for his role in Un, trois, soleil; this was followed by a leading role in the Jean-Paul Rappeneau period film The Horseman on the Roof in 1995 in which he starred alongside Juliette Binoche as an Italian nobleman. The film was hailed as the most expensive French film at that time in history but failed to reach its $35 million budget.
In 1996/7 he appeared in Bertrand Blier's romantic comedy My Man alongside Anouk Grinberg, Gérard Lanvin, Valeria Bruni Tedeschi. In 1997 he played a leading role in Bigas Luna's drama The Chambermaid on the Titanic alongside Romane Bohringer, set during the time of the Titanic's sinking voyage in 1912. Martinez portrays a French foundry worker who wins a strongman contest and the prize of a trip to view the departing maiden voyage of the ill-fated Titanic; the film was well-received. Martinez first came to mainstream attention in Hollywood films with his performance in Julian Schnabel's Before Night Falls opposite Javier Bardem and Johnny Depp; the screenplay is based on the autobiography of the same name of Reinaldo Arenas, published in English in 1993. The film was critically acclaimed, although Martinez's performance was overshadowed by that of Bardem in the eyes of critics, he was noted for his performance opposite Diane Lane in Unfaithful. He has since appeared in a television adaptation of The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, S.
W. A. T. and Taking Lives. He starred as Gabriel in the 2007 movie adaptation of Blood and Chocolate, a popular book. Martinez plays prefect of Mamertine Prison in Paul, Apostle of Christ. Martinez began a relationship with singer Kylie Minogue after meeting her at the 2003 Grammy Awards ceremony, they remained on friendly terms. Minogue was reported to have been "saddened by false accusations of disloyalty", she defended Martinez, acknowledged the support he had given during her treatment for breast cancer. Martinez began dating American actress Halle Berry in 2010 after meeting on the set of the action thriller film Dark Tide, they confirmed their engagement in March 2012. On 22 November 2012, Martinez was treated at a Los Angeles hospital after being injured in a physical altercation with Canadian model Gabriel Aubry, Berry's former partner and father of her daughter. Aubry and Berry had been involved in a custody battle centered on Berry's desire to move with their daughter and Martinez to his native France, a request denied by a judge less than two weeks prior to the altercation, on the grounds that it would interfere with Berry and Aubry's joint custody arrangement.
The custody dispute was resolved at the end of November. Berry and Martinez married in a private ceremony in France on 13 July 2013, their son, was born in October 2013 in Los Angeles. After two years of marriage, in 2015 the couple announced; the divorce became final in December 2016. Olivier Martinez on IMDb "Olivier!", Cinetropic.com
José Lezama Lima
José Lezama Lima was a Cuban writer and poet, considered one of the most influential figures in Latin American literature. Born in the Columbia Military Encampment close to Havana in the city of Marianao where his father was a colonel, Lezama lived through some of the most turbulent times of Cuba's history, fighting against the Machado dictatorship, his literary output includes the semi-autobiographical, baroque novel Paradiso, the story of a young man and his struggles with his mysterious illness, the death of his father, his developing sensuality and poetic sensibilities. Lezama Lima edited several anthologies of Cuban poetry and the magazines Verbum and Orígenes, presiding as the patriarch of Cuban letters for most of his years. Lezama Lima spent little time outside of his home country, making a trip to Mexico in 1949 and Jamaica in 1950). Lezama's poetry and two novels draw images and ideas from a vast array of world cultures and historical time periods; the Baroque style that he forged relied upon his Góngora-influenced syntax and his stunning constellations of unlikely images, which drew from Ancient Chinese and Egyptian philosophical texts and mythological narratives.
Lezama Lima's first published work, the long poem "Muerte de Narciso," brought him national acclaim at the age of twenty-seven and established his well-wrought style and classical subject matter. In addition to his poems and novels, Lezama wrote many essays on figures of world literature such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Valéry, Góngora and Rimbaud as well as on Latin American baroque aesthetics. Most notably the essays published as La Expresión Americana lay out his vision of the European baroque, its relation to the classical, the American baroque. Lezama Lima was buried in the Colon Cemetery, Havana, he was influential for Cuban and Puerto Rican writers of his generation and the next, such as Virgilio Piñera, Reinaldo Arenas, Fernando Velázquez Medina, René Marqués, Giannina Braschi, who depict his life and works in their writing. Muerte de Narciso Enemigo rumor Aventuras sigilosas La fijeza Dador Fragmentos a su imán Paradiso Oppiano Licario Analecta del reloj La expresión americana Tratados en La Habana La cantidad hechizada Baroque New Worlds: Representation, Counterconquest, ed. Lois Parkinson Zamora, Monika Kaup Jose Lezama Lima: Selections, ed. Ernesto Livon-Grosman Reading anew: José Lezama Lima's rhetorical investigations, Juan Pablo Lupi Assimilation/Generation/Resurrection: Contrapuntal Readings in the Poetry of José Lezama Lima, Ben A. Heller From modernism to neobaroque: Joyce and Lezama Lima, César Augusto Salgado Una Familia Habanera by Eloisa Lezama-Lima Solventando las diferencias: la ideología del mestizaje en Cuba.
Duno Gottberg, Madrid, Iberoamericana – Frankfurt am Main, Vervuert, 2003. Unmothered Americas: Poetry and universality by Rodriguez Matos, Columbia University, 2005. Writing of the formless: José Lezama Lima and the end of time, Jaime Rodríguez Matos José Lezama Lima Digital Collection at the Cuban Heritage Collection at The University of Miami
Venice Film Festival
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. The Big Three are internationally acclaimed for giving creators the artistic freedom to express themselves through film. Founded in Venice, Italy, in August 1932, the festival is part of the Venice Biennale, an exhibition of Italian art founded by the Venice City Council on 19 April 1893; the range of work at the Venice Biennale now covers Italian and international art, dance, music and cinema. These works are experienced at separate exhibitions: the International Art Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Music, the International Theatre Festival, the International Architecture Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Dance, the International Kids' Carnival, the annual Venice Film Festival, arguably the best-known of all the events; the festival is held in late August or early September on the island of the Lido in the Venice Lagoon.
Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. The festival continues to be one of the world's most fastest-growing; the 76th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled for 28 August to 7 September 2019. During the 1930s, the government and Italian citizens were interested in film. Of the money Italians spent on cultural or sporting events, most of it went for movies; the majority of films screened in Italy were American, which led to government involvement in the film industry and the yearning to celebrate Italian culture in general. With this in mind, the Venice International Film Festival was created by Giuseppe Volpi, Luciano de Feo, Antonio Maraini in 1932. Volpi, a statesman, wealthy businessman, avid fascist, Benito Mussolini's minister of finance, was appointed president of the Venice Biennale the same year. Maraini served as the festival's secretary general, de Feo headed its executive committee. On the night of 6 August 1932, the festival opened with a screening of the American film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on the terrace of the Excelsior Palace Hotel.
A total of nine countries participated in the festival. No awards were given at the first festival, but an audience referendum was held to determine which films and performances were most praiseworthy; the French film À Nous la Liberté was voted the Film Più Divertente. The Sin of Madelon Claudet was chosen the Film Più Commovente and its star, Helen Hayes, the best actress. Most Original Film was given to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, its leading man, Fredric March, was voted best actor. Despite the success of the first festival, it did not return in 1933. In 1934, the festival was declared to be an annual event, participation grew from nine countries to seventeen; that year the festival gave its first official awards, namely the Mussolini Cup for Best Italian Film, the Mussolini Cup for Best Foreign Film, the Corporations Ministry Cup. Seventeen awards were given: fourteen to films and three to individuals. Five films received; the third installment of the festival in 1935 was headed by its first artistic director, Ottavio Croze, who maintained this position until World War II.
The following year, a jury was added to the festival's governing body. The majority of funds for the festival came from the Ministry of Popular Culture, with other portions from the Biennale and the city of Venice; the year 1936 marked another important development in the festival. A law crafted by the Ministry of Popular Culture made the festival an autonomous entity, separate from the main Venice Biennale; this allowed additional fascist organizations, such as the Department of Cinema and the Fascist National Federation of Entertainment Industries, to take control of the festival. The fifth year of the festival saw the establishment of its permanent home. Designed and completed in 1937, the Palazzo del Cinema was built on the Lido; the Palazzo has since been the site for every Venice Film Festival, with the exception of the three years from 1940 to 1942, when the festival was moved away from Venice for fear of bombing. However, Venice received no damage during that time; the 1940s represent one of the most difficult moments for the festival itself.
Nazi propaganda movie Heimkehr was presented in 1941 winning an award from the Italian Ministry of Popular Culture. With the advent of the conflict the situation degenerated to such a point that the editions of 1940, 1941 and 1942, subsequently are considered as if they did not happen because they were carried out in places far away from Lido. Additionally, the festival was renamed the Italian-German Film Festival in 1940; the festival carried this title until 1942. The festival resumed full speed after the war. For the first time, the 1946 edition was held in the month of September, in accordance to an agreement with the newly-born Cannes Film Festival, which had just held its first review in the spring of that year. With the return of normalcy, Venice once again became a great icon of the film world. In 1947 the festival was held in the courtyard of the Doge's Palace, a most magnificent backdrop for hosting a record 90 thousand participants; the 1947 festival is considered one of the most successful editions in the history of the festival.
In 1963 the winds of change blow during Luigi C
John Christopher Depp II is an American actor and musician. He has been nominated for ten Golden Globe Awards, winning one for Best Actor for his performance of the title role in Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street and has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Best Actor, among other accolades. Depp rose to prominence on the 1980s television series 21 Jump Street, he is regarded as one of the world's biggest film stars. He has gained praise from reviewers for his portrayals of screenwriter-director Ed Wood in Ed Wood, undercover FBI agent Joseph D. Pistone in Donnie Brasco, author J. M. Barrie in Finding Neverland, Boston gangster Whitey Bulger in Black Mass. Depp is the third highest-grossing actor worldwide, as films featuring Depp have grossed over US$3.7 billion at the United States box office and over US$10 billion worldwide. He has been listed in the 2012 Guinness World Records as the world's highest-paid actor, with earnings of US$75 million, his most commercially successful films are the Pirates of the Caribbean series, which grossed US$4.5 billion, the Fantastic Beasts film series, which grossed US$1.3 billion, Alice in Wonderland, which grossed US$1 billion and the Chocolate Factory, which grossed US$474 million, The Tourist, which grossed US$278 million.
Depp had a supporting role in Oliver Stone's 1986 Vietnam War film Platoon and played the title character in the 1990 romantic dark fantasy Edward Scissorhands. He found box office success in the adventure film Sleepy Hollow, the swashbuckler film series Pirates of the Caribbean, the fantasy films Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Alice in Wonderland, the animated comedy western Rango, most Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald. Depp has collaborated on nine films with director and friend Tim Burton. Depp was inducted as a Disney Legend in 2015, he has performed in numerous musical groups, including forming the rock supergroup Hollywood Vampires along with Alice Cooper and Joe Perry. Depp was born in Owensboro, the youngest of four children of Betty Sue Palmer, a waitress, John Christopher Depp, a civil engineer. Depp is of English ancestry, with some Dutch and French, he is descended from a French Huguenot immigrant and from colonial freedom fighter Elizabeth Key Grinstead, daughter of a British nobleman and an indentured African woman.
Depp moved during his childhood. He and his siblings lived in more than 20 different places settling in Miramar, Florida in 1970. Depp's parents divorced in 1978 when he was 15, his mother married Robert Palmer, whom Depp has called "an inspiration to me."With the gift of a guitar from his mother when he was 12, Depp began playing in various garage bands. A year after his parents' divorce, he dropped out of Miramar High School to become a rock musician, he attempted to go back to school two weeks but the principal told him to follow his dream of being a musician. He played with a band that enjoyed modest local success; the Kids set out together for Los Angeles in pursuit of a record deal, changing their name to Six Gun Method, but the group split up before signing a record deal. Depp subsequently collaborated with the band Rock City Angels and co-wrote their song "Mary", which appeared on Rock City Angels' debut Geffen Records album Young Man's Blues. On December 20, 1983, Depp married Lori Anne Allison, the sister of his band's bass player and singer.
During their marriage she worked as a makeup artist while he worked a variety of odd jobs, including a telemarketer for pens. His wife introduced him to actor Nicolas Cage. Depp and Allison divorced in 1985. Depp's first film role was in the horror film A Nightmare on Elm Street, in which he played the boyfriend of heroine Nancy Thompson and one of Freddy Krueger's victims. After a starring role in the comedy Private Resort, Depp was cast in the lead role of the skating drama Thrashin' by the film's director, but the decision was overridden by its producer. Instead, Depp appeared in a minor supporting role as a Vietnamese-speaking private in Oliver Stone's Vietnam War drama Platoon. Depp became a popular teen idol during the late 1980s, when he starred as a police officer who goes on an undercover operation in a high school in the Fox television series 21 Jump Street, which premiered in 1987, he accepted this role to work with actor Frederic Forrest. Despite his success, Depp felt that the series "forced into the role of product."
He subsequently decided to appear only in films. In 1990, Depp played the title character in Tim Burton's film Edward Scissorhands, in which he starred opposite Dianne Wiest and Winona Ryder; the film was a critical and commercial success that established him as a leading Hollywood actor and began his long association with Burton. Producer Scott Rudin has stated that "basically Johnny Depp is playing Tim Burton in all his movies". In his introduction to Burton on Burton, a book of interviews with the director, Depp called Burton "... a brother, a friend... and brave soul". Depp's first film release in 1990 was a musical comedy set in the 1950s. Although it was not a box office success upon its initial release, over the years it has gained cult classic status. Depp had no film releases in the following two years, with the exception of a brief cameo in Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare, the sixth install
National Board of Review Award for Best Actor
The National Board of Review Award for Best Actor is one of the annual film awards given by the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr