Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. In Croatian and Bosnian, only the Latin alphabet is used. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles; as a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period.
Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian and Bosnian. In Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, has the official status, it is an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski. Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Cyrillic is in everyday use in Republika Srpska; the Serbian language in Croatia is recognized as a minority language, the use of Cyrillic in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity.
In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet whereas 36% write in Cyrillic. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet value for each letter: According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s; the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
There was no distinction between lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, others; the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution to Vienna. There he met a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform its orthography, he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina which he spoke.
Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina and Croatia today. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, published in 1868, he wrote several books. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, Я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ; the alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death. From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters: He added one Latin letter: And 5 new ones: He removed: Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches. It is the second-oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world; the Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of the population in Serbia and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located in Serbia and Herzegovina, Croatia, but all over the world where Serb diaspora lives; the Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church; the Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava, becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča, its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346, was known afterwards as the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć. This patriarchate was abolished by the Ottoman Turks in 1766; the modern Serbian Orthodox Church was re-established in 1920 after the unification of the Patriarchate of Karlovci, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade and the Metropolitanate of Montenegro.
Christianity spread to the Balkans beginning in the 1st century. Florus and Laurus are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century. Constantine the Great, born in Niš, was the first Christian Roman Emperor. Several bishops seated in what is today Serbia participated in the First Council of Nicaea, such as Ursacius of Singidunum. In 380, Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius decreed that his subjects would be Christians according to the Council of Nicea formula. Greek was used in the Byzantine church. With the definite split in 395, the line in Europe ran south along the Drina river. Among old Christian heritage is the Archbishopric of Justiniana Prima, established in 535, which had jurisdiction over the whole of present-day Serbia. However, the Archbishopric did not last, as the Slavs and Avars destroyed the region sometime after 602, when the last mention is made of it. In 731 Leo III attached Illyricum and Southern Italy to Patriarch Anastasius of Constantinople, transferring the papal authority to the Eastern Church.
The history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the work De Administrando Imperio, compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. The DAI drew information on the Serbs among others, a Serbian source; the Serbs were said to have received the protection of Emperor Heraclius, Porphyrogenitus stressed that the Serbs had always been under Imperial rule. His account on the first Christianization of the Serbs can be dated to 632–638; the establishment of Christianity as state religion dates to the time of Prince Mutimir and Byzantine Emperor Basil I. The Christianization was due to Byzantine and subsequent Bulgarian influence. At least during the rule of Kocel in Pannonia, communications between Serbia and Great Moravia, where Methodius was active, must have been possible; this fact, the pope was aware of, when planning Methodius' diocese as well as that of the Dalmatian coast, in Byzantine hands as far north as Split. There is a possibility that some Cyrillomethodian pupils reached Serbia in the 870s even sent by Methodius himself.
Serbia was accounted Christian as of about 870. The first Serbian bishopric was founded at Ras, near modern Novi Pazar on the Ibar river. According to Vlasto, the initial affiliation is uncertain; the early Ras church can be dated to the 9th–10th century, with the rotunda plan characteristic of first court chapels. The bishopric was established shortly after 871, during the rule of Mutimir, was part of the general plan of establishing bishoprics in the Slav lands of the empire, confirmed by the Council of Constantinople in 879–880; the names of Serbian rulers through Mutimir are Slavic dithematic names, per the Old Slavic tradition. With Christianization in the 9th century, Christian names appear; the next generations of Serbian royalty had Christian names, evident of strong Byzantine missions in the 870s. Petar Gojniković was evidently a Christian prince, Christianity was spreading in his time; the Bulgarian annexation of Serbia in 924 was important for the future direction of the Serbian church, by at latest, Serbia must have received the Cyrillic alphabet and Slavic religious text familiar but not yet preferred to Greek.
In 1018–19, the Archbishopric of Ohrid was established after the Byzantines conquered Bulgaria. Greek replaced Bulgarian Slavic as the liturgical language. Serbia was ecclesiastically administered into several bishoprics: the bishopric of Ras, mentioned in the first charter of Basil II, became part of the Ohrid archbishopric and encompassed the areas of southern Serbia, by the rivers Raška, Ibar and Lim, evident in the second charter of Basil II. In the chrysobulls of Basil II d
Milan Pavkov is a Serbian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Serbian SuperLiga club Red Star Belgrade. After episodes with FK Novi Sad and FK Mladost Bački Petrovac, Pavkov joined ČSK Čelarevo for the 2013–14 season. In the first season playing for new club, Pavkov scored 8 goals. After the 2014–15 season, in which Pavkov finished as the best goalscorer of the Serbian League Vojvodina with 18 goals in 27 matches, ČSK Čelarevo was promoted in the First League. After solid games with ČSK Čelarevo, Pavkov went on trial with Vojvodina in the summer of 2015, signed a contract, he made his Serbian SuperLiga debut in the in a match against Mladost Lučani, played on 9 August 2015. On 2 June 2016, Vojvodina mutually terminated their contract. On 4 July 2016, Pavkov signed a three-year contract with Serbian SuperLiga side Radnički Niš. Pavkov scored 2 goals against Voždovac on 10 September 2016, being nominated for the best player of the 8th SuperLiga fixture, he scored 3 more goals until the end of 2016, in matches against Partizan and Red Star Belgrade.
At the beginning of 2017, Pavkov transferred to Red Star Belgrade on a two-and-a-half year deal for a €300,000 fee in two installments. He made his debut replacing Damien Le Tallec in the 85th minute of the match against Novi Pazar on 18 February 2017, he scored one goal for reserves in home defeat against Kolubara. After he missed the rest of season because of injury, Pavkov returned in squad for the next season. Pavkov made his first appearance, of the new season, in the first leg of the first qualifying round for 2017–18 UEFA Europa League, replacing Richmond Boakye in the last minutes of the match against Floriana. On 27 July 2017, Pavkov moved back to Radnički Niš on a one-year loan deal. On 13 May 2018, Pavkov was sent off during the away match against Spartak Subotica, the first red card in his professional career. During the 2017–18 Serbian SuperLiga campaign, Pavkov scored 23 goals on 33 played matches, making himself second scorer of the season, behind Aleksandar Pešić. Returning to Red Star in 2018, Pavkov passed the whole summer pre-season with the club under coach Vladan Milojević.
After Aleksandar Pešić left the club, Pavkov was named into the 20-man squad for the first leg of the first qualifying round for 2018–19 UEFA Champions League campaign, against Spartaks Jūrmala. He joined that match as a substitute for injured Nikola Stojiljković in 18th minute of the game. On 12 August 2018, Pavkov made his first start for Red Star, when he scored a twice in 3–0 victory over Spartak Subotica. On 6 November, he scored both goals in a 2–0 win against Liverpool in the Champions League group stage. On 12 December 2018, Pavkov signed an extension of his contract with Red Star to December 2022. Pavkov was called up to the Serbian national team for the first time in March 2019 for games against Germany and Portugal, replacing Aleksandar Prijović who had to withdraw from the squad due to injury, he made his debut on 20 March 2019 as a substitute against Germany, replacing Luka Jović. He received a straight red card in the 90th minute of the game for a challenge on Leroy Sané; as of 6 November 2018 ČSK Čelarevo Serbian League Vojvodina: 2014–15 Milan Pavkov stats at utakmica.rs Milan Pavkov at FootballDatabase.eu Milan Pavkov at WorldFootball.net Milan Pavkov at Soccerbase Milan Pavkov – UEFA competition record Milan Pavkov at National-Football-Teams.com
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
For the mountain in Kosovo, see Veternik Mountain. Veternik is a suburban settlement of the city of Serbia, its population numbers 17,454 and most of its inhabitants are ethnic Serbs. Over the years in the 1990s, it grew with size and inhabitants thus merging with Futog to the west and Novi Sad to the east; the settlement was named in honour of the assault of the Serbian army in the Veternik mountain area during the breach of the Macedonian front in World War I. It was first called Novi Veternik, but was changed into Veternik; the name Veternik. In Serbian Cyrillic, the settlement is known as Ветерник, in Serbian Latin and Croatian as Veternik, in Hungarian as Hadikliget; the first settlement at this location was mentioned in 1848 and its name was Neu Ilof. It was a settlement for workers; the modern settlement was founded in 1918 as a settlement for Serb veterans from World War I. During World War II, the Hungarian occupational authorities relegated the population of the village across the Danube, settled Hungarians from Bukovina into their houses.
After the war, the population returned and settlement developed in the next period: from only 789 inhabitants that were recorded by the 1948 census, the population of Veternik rose to 18,626 in 2002. The population of Veternik grow 100% in a decade, from 10,271 in 1991 census up to 18,626, according to the 2002 census; this is because of the civil wars in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and post-war immigration from these two countries. According to the 2011 census Veternik had a population of 16,895 inhabitants, 1,731 less than 2002 censusHistorical population: 1961: 1,908 1971: 5,730 1981: 9,556 1991: 10,271 2002: 18,626 2011: 17,454 Officially, Veternik holds suburban settlement status, as it is part of the agglomeration of Novi Sad. Today, Veternik has merged with Novi Sad completely. Besides basic village infrastructure, Veternik is home to an institution for Handicapped Children and Young People. List of places in Serbia List of cities and villages in Vojvodina Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996.
Elementary school Marija Trandafil The Home for Handicapped Children and Young People in Veternik FC Veternik Viskol
Futog is a suburban settlement of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The name Futog derives from Old Church Slavonic term for “on the mouth” - vo utok. In Serbian, the town is known as Futog, in Croatian as Futog, in Hungarian as Futak, in German as Alt-Futok; the town has a population of 18,582. Ethnic groups include: Serbs = 16,828 Hungarians = 279 Yugoslavs = 226 othersThe population of the village includes a quarter under 15 years old, 66% work-capable people, 10% farmers. Historical population: 1948: 5,366 1953: 6,049 1961: 8,256 1971: 10,614 1981: 14,664 1991: 16,048 2002: 18,582 2011: 18,641 It is situated in the southern Bačka, 14 km far from Novi Sad, on the middle of the Danube stream. Neighbouring settlements are Begeč in the west and Rumenka in the north. Danube river is located in the south of the town. Futog is divided into Novi Futog; the town is 8 km long in west–east direction around the main street. Its area is 8,561 ha. Futog area outspreads on alluvial plain and inductional plane. Near Futog are two river isles, an effluent pulped in pond.
Climate is medium-continental, influenced by the Danube. Winds are Košava and Breeze. Precipitation is 700 mm a year. Hydrography include the Danube river and the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal. Plants are corn, industrial plants and well-known cabbage. Animals are ducks, rabbits, pheasant, etc. Archeological localities in the area include: Sesije, Gornje Šume, Bokternica and Pašnjak. Although there are traces of Slavs in Bačka from old antic period, Slavic presence in this area is confirmed by the data from 9th century, when the area was part of the Bulgarian Empire and Bulgarian voivod Salan ruled in Bačka. Presence of Hungarians is dated in the 10th century, after Salan was defeated by the Hungarian forces. Futog was first time mentioned in 1224. Before the Tatar invasion, settlement was known as Batkay. In the 15th century it was an important market town. During the Hungarian administration, Futog was part of the Bacsensis County and was a possession of the Futaky family in the 14th century, possession of the Jób Garai in the middle 15th century.
In 1526-1527 it was part of the state of Emperor Jovan Nenad, between 1528 and 1686 it was part of the Ottoman Empire. During the Ottoman administration, Futog was part of the Sanjak of Segedin and was populated by Serbs and Muslims. According to the Ottoman traveler from the 17th century, Evliya Çelebi, the town of Vutok had a fortress, 4 Muslim religious buildings, including mosque of Sulejman-han and 3 masjids, as well as about 180 houses. After 1686, it was part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1715, the population of Futog was composed of 130 Serbian and 7 Hungarian houses, while in 1720, it was composed of 126 Serbian and 14 Hungarian houses; the area was colonized by Germans. Near the Serb-populated Old Futog, Germans founded new settlement known as the New Futog. Sizable number of Germans settled in Old Futog as well. Colonization of Germans was ended in 1774. Between 1696 and 1868, Futog had annual princes; the prince had a symbolical function. The Estate of Futog was a possession of the King's Chamber 1686-1703, of General Baron Josef Nechem 1703-1721, of Josef Odwyer 1721-1731, of Count Friedrich Lorenz Caurian 1731-1744, of Mihailo Čarnojević 1744-1769, of Count András Hadik 1769-1801, of Count Brunszvik 1801-1852, of Count Rudolf Chotek 1852-1921.
In the 18th and the first half of the 19th century, Futog was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 Futog was part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serb autonomous region within Austrian Empire, while between 1849 and 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Austrian province. After the abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, Futog was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County. In 1910, population of the Old Futog was ethnically mixed, while population of the New Futog was German. Other smaller ethnic groups in the town included Slovaks. In 1918, Futog, as part of the Banat, Bačka and Baranja region, became part of the Kingdom of Serbia. Since December 1, 1918, it was part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. From 1918 to 1922, Futog was part of the Novi Sad County, from 1922 to 1929 part of the Bačka Oblast, from 1929 to 1941 part of the Danube Banovina. During World War II, after Axis Powers invaded and partitioned Yugoslavia, the town came under Axis occupation and was attached to Bács-Bodrog County of Horthy's Hungary.
After the defeat of Axis Powers, in 1944, one part of local German population left from the area, together with defeated German army. The antifascist council for the liberation of Yugoslavia declared the remaining German population as public enemies and sent them to communist prison camps. After the abolishment of the camps in 1948, the remaining German population left from Yugoslavia because of economical reasons. Since 1944, the town is part of Yugoslav Vojvodina, a part of socialist Serbia within new socialist Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, Futog was settled by Serb families which originated from Bosnia and Srem. Population censuses conducted. After decades of population increase, 2011 census recorded decreasing population tendency. A baroque Serbian Orthodox Church “Sveti Vrači Ko