Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. There are competing related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness. In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect, a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist or form of imaginative role enactment. During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened concentration. Hypnotised subjects are said to show an increased response to suggestions. Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion; the use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis". Stage hypnosis is performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism.
The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial. Research indicates that hypnotizing an individual may aid the formation of false-memories; the term "hypnosis" comes from the ancient Greek word ύπνος hypnos, "sleep", the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, "put to sleep" and the suffix -is. The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "neuro-hypnotism", all of which were coined by Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers in 1820; these words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers, but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked. A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, has increased suggestibility; the hypnotized individual appears to heed only the communications of the hypnotist and responds in an uncritical, automatic fashion while ignoring all aspects of the environment other than those pointed out by the hypnotist.
In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment. The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change, it could be said. For example, in 1994, Irving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i.e. a method that makes use of suggestion and employs methods to amplify its effects. In Trance on Trial, a 1989 text directed at the legal profession, legal scholar Alan W. Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more a particular characteristic is to appear, the greater extent to which it is manifested. Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; the earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid, who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, defined as: "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a fixed and abstracted attention of the mental and visual eye, on one object, not of an exciting nature."Braid elaborated upon this brief definition in a work, Hypnotic Therapeutics: The real origin and essence of the hypnotic condition, is the induction of a habit of abstraction or mental concentration, in which, as in reverie or spontaneous abstraction, the powers of the mind are so much engrossed with a single idea or train of thought, as, for the nonce, to render the individual unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, all other ideas, impressions, or trains of thought.
The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep". In his The Physiology of Fascination, Braid conceded that his original terminology was misleading, argued that the term "hypnotism" or "nervous sleep" should be reserved for the minority of subjects who exhibit amnesia, substituting the term "monoideism", meaning concentration upon a single idea, as a description for the more alert state experienced by the others. A new definition of hypnosis, derived from academic psychology, was provided in 2005, when the Society for Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, published the following formal definition: Hypnosis involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented.
The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, may contain further
Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system. In contrast to animals with radial symmetry, whose nervous system consists of a distributed network of cells, animals with bilateral symmetry have segregated, defined nervous systems, their neuroanatomy is therefore better understood. In vertebrates, the nervous system is segregated into the internal structure of the brain and spinal cord and the routes of the nerves that connect to the rest of the body; the delineation of distinct structures and regions of the nervous system has been critical in investigating how it works. For example, much of what neuroscientists have learned comes from observing how damage or "lesions" to specific brain areas affects behavior or other neural functions. For information about the composition of non-human animal nervous systems, see nervous system. For information about the typical structure of the Homo sapiens nervous system, see human brain or peripheral nervous system; this article discusses information pertinent to the study of neuroanatomy.
The first known written record of a study of the anatomy of the human brain is the ancient Egyptian document the Edwin Smith Papyrus. The next major development in neuroanatomy came from the Greek Alcmaeon, who determined that the brain and not the heart ruled the body and that the senses were dependent on the brain. After Alcmaeon’s findings, many scientists and physicians from around the world continued to contribute to the understanding of neuroanatomy, notably: Galen, Herophilus and Erasistratus. Herophilus and Erasistratus of Alexandria were the most influential Greek neuroscientists with their studies involving dissecting the brains. For several hundred years afterward, with the cultural taboo of dissection, no major progress occurred in neuroscience. However, Pope Sixtus IV revitalized the study of neuroanatomy by altering the papal policy and allowing human dissection; this resulted in a boom of research in neuroanatomy by scientists of the Renaissance. In 1664, Thomas Willis, a physician and professor at Oxford University, coined the term neurology when he published his text Cerebri anatome, considered the foundation of neuroanatomy.
The subsequent three hundred and fifty some years has produced a great deal of documentation and study of the neural systems. At the tissue level, the nervous system is composed of neurons, glial cells, extracellular matrix. Both neurons and glial cells come in many types. Neurons are the information-processing cells of the nervous system: they sense our environment, communicate with each other via electrical signals and chemicals called neurotransmitters across synapses, produce our memories and movements. Glial cells maintain homeostasis, produce myelin, provide support and protection for the brain's neurons; some glial cells can propagate intercellular calcium waves over long distances in response to stimulation, release gliotransmitters in response to changes in calcium concentration. The extracellular matrix provides support on the molecular level for the brain's cells. At the organ level, the nervous system is composed of brain regions, such as the hippocampus in mammals or the mushroom bodies of the fruit fly.
These regions are modular and serve a particular role within the general pathways of the nervous system. For example, the hippocampus is critical for forming memories; the nervous system contains nerves, which are bundles of fibers that originate from the brain and spinal cord, branch to innervate every part of the body. Nerves are made of the axons of neurons, along with a variety of membranes that wrap around and segregate them into nerve fascicles; the vertebrate nervous system is divided into the peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system is made up of all the nerves outside of the CNS that connect it to the rest of the body; the PNS is further subdivided into the autonomic nervous systems. The somatic nervous system is made up of "afferent" neurons, which bring sensory information from the sense organs to the CNS, "efferent" neurons, which carry motor instructions out to the muscles; the autonomic nervous system has two subdivisions, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic, which are important for regulating the body's basic internal organ functions such as heartbeat, breathing and salivation.
Autonomic nerves, like somatic nerves, contain efferent fibers. In anatomy in general and neuroanatomy in particular, several sets of topographic terms are used to denote orientation and location, which are referred to the body or brain axis; the pairs of terms used most in neuroanatomy are: Dorsal and ventral: dorsal loosely refers to the top or upper side, ventral to the bottom or lower side. These descriptors referred to dorsum and ventrum – back and belly – of the body; the case of the head and the brain is peculiar, since the belly does not properly extend into the head, unless we assume that the mouth represents an extended belly element. Therefore, in common use, those brain parts that lie close to the base of the cranium, through it to the mouth cavity, are called ventral – i.e. at its bottom or lower side, as defined above – whereas
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve
Ovide F. Pomerleau
Ovide F. Pomerleau is an American psychologist who pioneered the application of biobehavioral principles in preventive medicine, he is best known for his work on self-management problems and addiction, focusing in particular on the biobehavioral and genetic bases of tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence. Pomerleau was born and grew up in Waterville, the son of Ovid Pomerleau, a physician and general surgeon, Florence Pomerleau, he earned a B. A. in philosophy from Bowdoin College, followed by a M. S. in general psychology and Ph. D. in experimental psychology from Columbia University, where he trained in the laboratory of William N. Schoenfeld. In 1971 he completed postdoctoral training in clinical psychology at Temple University, where he worked with Philip H. Bobrove and Louis C. Harris. Pomerleau held a faculty appointment in the Temple University Department of Psychiatry from 1969 to 1972. During this time, he and his colleagues designed and tested a token economy at Philadelphia State Hospital at Byberry that extended earlier work on token economies in psychiatric settings by addressing the behavior not only of mentally ill patients but of paraprofessional staff.
From 1972 to 1979, Pomerleau served on the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania Department of Psychiatry, where in 1973 he and John Paul Brady founded the Center for Behavioral Medicine to develop interventions for weight management and the treatment of smoking and problem drinking, chronic behaviors associated with diminished quality of life, decreased longevity, pathophysiological damage. The Center for Behavioral Medicine was the first to employ the term “behavioral medicine” to characterize the use of an integrated biological, behavioral and social science perspective for understanding illness and health. In 1979, Pomerleau joined the faculty of the University of Connecticut Department of Psychiatry, where he collaborated with L. Everett Seyler to demonstrate and quantitate, at the human level, the release of beta-endorphin and other hypophyseal hormones in response to nicotine administration; because of the role of endogenous opioids in promoting feelings of well-being and euphoria, these findings came under attack by the tobacco industry, which at the time maintained that tobacco was not addictive.
From 1985 until his retirement in 2009, Pomerleau served on the faculty of the University of Michigan Department of Psychiatry and ran the University of Michigan Nicotine Research Laboratory, which conducted research on the subjective and biochemical effects of smoking, on the effects of pharmacological probes and laboratory stressors on measures of nicotine intake and withdrawal. He developed a "sensitivity model" of nicotine addiction based on animal and human research, subsequently supported by observations that pleasurable or euphoric responses to nicotine during early smoking experimentation predict addiction, he conducted research on the relationship of smoking and psychiatric disorders, his team was the first to document and describe the link between smoking and Adult Attention Deficit Disorder. He was an early proponent of the need for measured genetic research on smoking and nicotine addiction. In 1965, Pomerleau married Cynthia Stodola Pomerleau, subsequently his collaborator at the University of Michigan.
The couple has two daughters, Julie Pomerleau and Aimée Pomerleau. Sigma Xi: The Scientific Research Society Fellow, American Psychological Association: Division 25 Division 28 Division 38 Division 50 Fellow, American Psychological Society Fellow, Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research Fellow, Society of Behavioral Medicine Founding President, Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Ove Ferno Award, Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, President's Award, Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco “Rewarding psychiatric aides for the improvement of assigned patients.” Pomerleau OF, Bobrove PH, Smith RH. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 6:383-390. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company. “The role of behavior modification in preventive medicine.“ Pomerleau OF, Bass F, Crown V. The New England Journal of Medicine 292:1277-1282. Pomerleau, Ovide F. and Cynthia S. Pomerleau. Break the Smoking Habit: A Behavioral Program for Giving Up Cigarettes. Research Press Co.. ‘’Behavioral Medicine: Theory and Practice.’’ Pomerleau OF and Brady JP.
Baltimore: Williams, Wilkins. ISBN 978-0683069570 “Neuroendocrine reactivity to nicotine in smokers.” Pomerleau OF, Fertig JB, Seyler LE, Jaffe J. Psychopharmacology 81:61-67. “Neuroregulators and the reinforcement of smoking: Towards a biobehavioral explanation.” Pomerleau OF and Pomerleau CS. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 8:503-513. “Individual differences in sensitivity to nicotine: Implications for genetic research on nicotine dependence.” Pomerleau OF. Behavior Genetics 25:161-177. “Cigarette smoking in adult patients diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Pomerleau OF, Downey KK, Stelson FW, Pomerleau CS. ‘’Journal of Substance Abuse’’ 7:373-378. “Early experiences with nicotine among women smokers, ex-smokers, never-smokers.” Pomerleau OF, Pomerleau CS, Namenek RJ. Addiction 93:595-599. “Initial exposure to nicotine in college-age women smokers and never-smokers: A replication and extension.” Pomerleau CS, Pomerleau OF, Namenek RJ, Marks JL. ‘’Journal of Addictive Diseases’’ 8:13-19.
"Genetic research on complex behavi
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
See branches of biology. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica. It was used again in 1766 in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, phytologian generalis, by Michael Christoph Hanov, a disciple of Christian Wolff; the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus' work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective; the term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, Rhazes who wrote on anatomy and physiology.
Medicine was well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew on Aristotelian thought in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope, it was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. In 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that the basic unit of organisms is the cell and that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that all cells come from the division of other cells. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
Meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735, in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought. Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, he posited that evolution was the result of environmental stress on properties of animals, meaning that the more and rigorously an organ was used, the more complex and efficient it would become, thus adapting the animal to its environment. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would
Preventive healthcare consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Just as health comprises a variety of physical and mental states, so do disease and disability, which are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, lifestyle choices. Health and disability are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary and tertiary prevention; each year, millions of people die of preventable deaths. A 2004 study showed that about half of all deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors and exposures. Leading causes included cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, unintentional injuries and certain infectious diseases; this same study estimates that 400,000 people die each year in the United States due to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. According to estimates made by the World Health Organization, about 55 million people died worldwide in 2011, two thirds of this group from non-communicable diseases, including cancer and chronic cardiovascular and lung diseases.
This is an increase from the year 2000, during which 60% of deaths were attributed to these diseases. Preventive healthcare is important given the worldwide rise in prevalence of chronic diseases and deaths from these diseases. There are many methods for prevention of disease, it is recommended that adults and children aim to visit their doctor for regular check-ups if they feel healthy, to perform disease screening, identify risk factors for disease, discuss tips for a healthy and balanced lifestyle, stay up to date with immunizations and boosters, maintain a good relationship with a healthcare provider. Some common disease screenings include checking for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, screening for colon cancer, depression, HIV and other common types of sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, colorectal cancer screening, a Pap test, screening for osteoporosis. Genetic testing can be performed to screen for mutations that cause genetic disorders or predisposition to certain diseases such as breast or ovarian cancer.
However, these measures are not affordable for every individual and the cost effectiveness of preventive healthcare is still a topic of debate. Preventive healthcare strategies are described as taking place at the primal, primary and tertiary prevention levels. In the 1940s, Hugh R. Leavell and E. Gurney Clark coined the term primary prevention, they worked at the Harvard and Columbia University Schools of Public Health and expanded the levels to include secondary and tertiary prevention. Goldston notes that these levels might be better described as "prevention and rehabilitation", though the terms primary and tertiary prevention are still in use today; the concept of primal prevention has been created much more in relation to the new developments in molecular biology over the last fifty years, more in epigenetics, which point to the paramount importance of environmental conditions - both physical and affective - on the organism during its fetal and newborn life. Primal prevention has been propounded as a separate category of "health promotion".
This health promotion par excellence is based on the'new knowledge' in molecular biology, in particular on epigenetic knowledge, which points to how much affective - as well as physical - environment during fetal and newborn life may determine each and every aspect of adult health. This new way of promoting health consists in providing future parents with pertinent, unbiased information on primal health and supporting them during their child's primal period of life; this includes adequate parental leave - ideally for both parents - with kin caregiving and financial help where needed. Another related concept is primordial prevention which refers to all measures designed to prevent the development of risk factors in the first place, early in life. Primary prevention consists of traditional "health promotion" and "specific protection." Health promotion activities are non-clinical life choices. For example, eating nutritious meals and exercising daily, that both prevent disease and create a sense of overall well-being.
Preventing disease and creating overall well-being, prolongs our life expectancy. Health-promotional activities do not target a specific disease or condition but rather promote health and well-being on a general level. On the other hand, specific protection targets a type or group of diseases and complements the goals of health promotion. Food is much the most basic tool in preventive health care; the 2011 National Health Interview Survey performed by the Centers for Disease Control was the first national survey to include questions about ability to pay for food. Difficulty with paying for food, medicine, or both is a problem facing 1 out of 3 Americans. If better food options were available through food banks, soup kitchens, other resources for low-income people and the chronic conditions that come along with it would be better controlled A "food desert" is an area with restricted access to healthy foods due to a lack of supermarkets within a reasonable distance; these are ofte