Behavioural sciences explore the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behavior through the study of the past and naturalistic observation of the present, disciplined scientific experimentation and modeling, it attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective conclusions through rigorous formulations and observation. Examples of behavioral sciences include psychology, psychobiology and cognitive science. Behavior science deals with human action and seeks to generalize about human behavior as it relates to society. Behavioural sciences include two broad categories: neural — Information sciences and social — Relational sciences. Information processing sciences deal with information processing of stimuli from the social environment by cognitive entities in order to engage in decision making, social judgment and social perception for individual functioning and survival of organism in a social environment.
These include psychology, cognitive science, neural networks, social cognition, social psychology, semantic networks and social neuroscience. On the other hand, Relational sciences deal with relationships, communication networks and relational strategies or dynamics between organisms or cognitive entities in a social system; these include fields like sociological social psychology, social networks, dynamic network analysis, agent-based model and microsimulation. Insights from several pure disciplines across behavioural sciences are explored by various applied disciplines and practiced in the context of everyday life and business; these applied disciplines of behavioural science include: organizational behavior, operations research, consumer behaviour and media psychology. The terms behavioural sciences and social sciences are used interchangeably. Though these two broad areas are interrelated and study systematic processes of behaviour, they differ on their level of scientific analysis of various dimensions of behaviour.
Behavioural sciences abstract empirical data to investigate the decision processes and communication strategies within and between organisms in a social system. This involves fields like psychology, social neuroscience ethology, cognitive science. In contrast, social sciences provide a perceptive framework to study the processes of a social system through impacts of social organization on structural adjustment of the individual and of groups, they include fields like sociology, public health, anthropology and political science. Many subfields of these disciplines cross the boundaries between social sciences. For example, political psychology and behavioral economics use behavioural approaches, despite the predominant focus on systemic and institutional factors in the broader fields of political science and economics. Behaviour Human behaviour List of academic disciplines Science Fields of science Natural sciences Social sciences History of science History of technology George Devereux: From anxiety to method in the behavioural sciences, The Hague, Paris.
Mouton & Co, 1967 Fred N. Kerlinger. Behavioural Research: A Conceptual Approach. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. ISBN 0-03-013331-9. E. D. Klemke, R. Hollinger & A. D. Kline. Introductory Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Prometheus Books, New York. Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes, eds.. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 26 v. Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-043076-8 Media related to Behavioural sciences at Wikimedia Commons
Ernest James Goddard, was an Australian professor of biology. Ernest James Goddard was born on 20 February 1883 in Newcastle, New South Wales, one of six sons born to Alfred and Elizabeth Goddard, he attended Maitland High School and his family moved to Sydney for he and his brother's education at the University of Sydney where he studied first a B. A. in 1904, took a BSc in 1906, with honours in zoology and palaeontology. Goddard was appointed a junior demonstrator in Biology whilst in the final years of his Science degree, upon his graduation in 1906. Professor Edgeworth David employed him as a biologist for the Royal Society Expedition of Fiji. Upon his return from Fiji in 1908, he became a Macleay Linnean Research Fellow in Zoology at the University of Sydney, he received the first D. Sc. degree awarded by the University of Sydney in 1910. Much of the content of this dissertation was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of New South Wales; this led to him being offered the Chair of Zoology and Mineralogy at Victoria College, South Africa.
The Department of Geology would be split from his role, he would oversee zoology. Goddard continued to publish in the areas of his PhD research on leeches and earthworms, he undertook a zoological survey of South Africa upon commencing work there, chose a site for the South African Marine Biological and Oceanographic Station. Many of his papers considered the Antarctic. Goddard was interested in many social questions. Following WW1, racial tensions in South Africa increased. Despite making his zoology department the largest in South Africa, being selected to join the Quest expedition to Antarctica as an oceanographer and marine biologist in 1922, Goddard applied for the Chair of Biology at the University of Queensland and was successful, taking up the post in 1923. At Brisbane, Goddard was an active organiser and public speaker, promoting science in the public arena though lectures and newspaper publicity, he was interested in agricultural and economic biology, particularlyentomology. He spoke on the use of cactoblastis in prickly pear eradication and was supervisor of the Bunchy Top Investigation committee, investigating this disease in bananas, in 1924.
Goddard became the first Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture in 1927. He became involved with the establishment of a Faculty of Medicine a degree in Dentistry. After many years of negotiation and with Goddard defending his department's biology courses in the Dentistry Diploma course, the Faculty of Dentistry was established in 1935 with Goddard as the first dean. From 1931, Goddard worked toward establishing a Medical School getting the Masonic Lodge to donate their old building for an Anatomy School. In 1935, Goddard acted as spokesman on a visit to the Queensland Premier, William Forgan Smith, was so persuasive that it was announced in Parliament the next day that a Faculty of Medicine would be established in 1936. Other programs Goddard worked upon included the establishment of a Physiotherapy course, which came into being after the Faculty of Medicine was approved, he was keen to establish a marine biology station in Queensland and attempted to persuade the University Senate to purchase Dunk Island in 1927, continued to put forward a number of island options over the next 20 years.
Glass houses and laboratories for plant pathology, entomology and an insectarium were acquired through grant money and a forestry course commenced in 1924.. Goddard helped form the Entomological Society of Queensland in 1923, he was President of the Royal Society of Queensland in 1927, the Queensland Naturalists' Club, the Australian-American Association. He was Chairman of the Queensland branch of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science. From 1936–1939 he was seconded to the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Stock as science coordinating officer. In a paper to the zoology section of the A. N. Z. A. A. S, Goddard appealed for "an end to anthropocentrism in the study of Man. Instead he called for the "discovery and dissemination of principles that will enable us to envisage with scientific precision the interdependence and inter-reaction of the animal organism or individual and its environment". While setting up the marine biology research station at Heron Island which he had toiled to establish and where he planned to retire to continue research, Goddard died of a heart attack on the island on 17 January 1948.
He was survived by his wife. The Goddard Biological Sciences building fronting the Great Court of the University of Queensland was named for him. After his death, the Goddard Memorial Fund was set up, the money from which helped to establish the Heron Island Research Station run by the Great Barrier Reef Committee; the University of Queensland would take over its operation in 1970, first as a partner and as owner in 1980. The Ernest James Goddard Oration was established by the Queensland Branch of the Australian Dental Association to commemorate his work as a pioneer of dental education in Queensland; the most recent was the 20th oration in 2008
Mary Wandesford was a devout religious unmarried woman, noted for creating an Anglican vocation for women similar to herself. The vocation still stands today. Mary was born as the eldest daughter of five children, of Sir Christopher Wandesford, 1st Baronet Wandesford of Kirklington, his wife Eleanor Lowther, the daughter of Sir John Lowther of Lowther Hall, they derived most of their wealth from coal mines in their Estate at Castlecomer in Ireland. Mary's brother, George Wandesford, was made Viscount Castlecomer in 1707, she was baptized in the church at Kirklington on 23 June 1655. To pursue her religion, Mary Wandesford moved from her family's estate in rural Yorkshire to the city of York. There, she associated herself with the religious sphere; this included her expenditures in service to the church. One offering still notable today are the black gilded iron gates of the York cathedral, she is known for a charity. Wandesford had never married and in her will, dated 4 November 1725, left funds for the creation of a "religious house of Protestant retirement" in York for ten poor unmarried woman, thereby creating a religious community for single women.
It was the norm during the time, though not a law. However, as a single woman, Wandesford exercised her freedom in her will, it was notable because of the lack of religious vocationals available for Anglican women, a circumstance she tried to change by her own means through her will. She bequeathed sizeable properties in Brompton on Swale, with a mortgage worth up to £1,200 and an additional £1,200 in South Sea Company Stocks and annuities, profits of which were not only used for the endowment of the institution, but to pay for a schoolmaster to teach poor children at Kirklington, it was her wish that at her funeral, "six of the poorest unmarried women in Kirklington may have white vales from head to foot prepared for them and white gloves, carry corps into the church... Let the white vales be such cloth as will do them service hereafter." To oversee this project, Wandesford named four trustees in her will, that of archbishop of York, two canons at the Minster, her nephew John Wandesford, rector of Kirklington.
By involving powerful clergymen into her scheme, she acquired their blessings and protection needed to help make this building possible. Her family was less than fond of this idea, her nephew a minor, contested the will in 1726, in the Court of Chancery by the Duke of Newcastle. In 1737, a full decade after Mary's death, the court upheld her will, but not until they ordered that women over fifty may inhabit the house. "Borthwick Catalogue." Wandesford, Mary, 1655-1726 -. Accessed April 6, 2016. Https://borthcat.york.ac.uk/index.php/wandesford-mary-1655-1726. Froide, Amy M. Never Married: Singlewomen in Early Modern England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. FROIDE, AMY M.. 2009. "The Religious Lives of Singlewomen in the Anglo-atlantic World: Quaker Missionaries, Protestant Nuns, Covert Catholics". In Women, Religion & the Atlantic World, 1600-1800, edited by Daniella Kostroun and Lisa Vollendorf, 60–78. University of Toronto Press. Https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt2ttv8q.7. Price, George.
Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Exchequer from Easter Term, 54 Geo. III. to Both Inclusive.. London: W. Clarke and Sons, 1816. Thornton and Charles Jackson; the Autobiography of Mrs. Alice Thornton of East Newton, Co. York. Durham: Pub. for the Society by Andrews and, 1875. Troubat, Francis J. George Price, Edmund Robert Daniell, Thomas M'Cleland, John Wightwick. Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Exchequer, at Law and in Equity, in the Exchequer Chamber in Equity and in Error. Philadelphia: R. H. Small, 1835. Mary Wandesford Genealogy
Transgender Dysphoria Blues is the sixth studio album by the American punk rock band Against Me!. The album was released on January 2014 by Total Treble Music and Xtra Mile Recordings; the album deals with gender dysphoria, following Laura Jane Grace's gender transition and coming out. The band first announced work on a new album in November 2011 The first sessions for the album were a false start, where the band started recording some basic tracks and went on tour, decided to scrap and start over when they got back from tour; the record was recorded except for vocals when drummer Jay Weinberg quit the band. The band first tried to have fill-in drummer Atom Willard record drum tracks to match the recorded tracks, but it wasn't working. Starting from scratch, the band began recording the album a final time at Studio 606 in February 2013. In May 2013, long-time bassist Andrew Seward left the band. A month Fat Mike of NOFX joined the band in the studio, playing on three songs, two of which appear on the album.
That same month, tracking for the album was completed. Will Hermes of Rolling Stone rated the album three-and-a-half stars out of five, called it "A series of bracing songs about a self-destructive girl in a boy's body, it's a thematic offspring of Lou Reed", noted how "it takes balls to come out this way, in this genre" wishing Laura "God-speed, sister." Hermes said that the album musically "sticks to the band's established brand of warrior-cry punk metal", this "limits the range of what might be an braver new world, one glimpsed on the softer acoustic'Two Coffins.'"Loudwire ranked the album 23 in their "66 best rock albums of the decade" in November 2019 The album debuted on the Billboard 200 at No. 23, their highest debut yet on the chart. It debuted at No. 6 on Top Rock Albums, with 10,000 copies sold in its first week. It has sold 45,000 copies in the United States as of August 2016. All tracks are written by Laura Jane Grace. Laura Jane Grace – lead vocals, bass, art direction, producer James Bowman – guitar, backing vocals Atom Willard – drums, percussion Fat Mike – bass Billy Bush – recording engineer Steak Mtn – design and illustration
Koyla is an Indian 1997 Hindi-language action thriller film directed, co-written and produced by Rakesh Roshan, which stars Shahrukh Khan, Madhuri Dixit and Amrish Puri, with Johnny Lever, Ashok Saraf, Salim Ghouse and Himani Shivpuri in supporting roles. Mohnish Bahl makes a special appearance; the film was released worldwide on 18 April 1997 and became a box-office hit, grossing over ₹28.5 crore worldwide against a budget of ₹11.90 crore. Some scenes of the film were shot in Arunachal Pradesh. Shankar is a handsome mute man, raised by the powerful Raja, to whom he is loyal. However, Raja treats him like a slave, he is tormented and unnecessarily beaten by Raja's younger brother Brijwa, a sadistic and violent psychopath. The elderly Raja is a ruthless and cruel man with a large appetite for young women who kills anyone who dares to defy him, however he has proven to be unable to perform in the bedroom and continues to fall asleep as he is bored of his beautiful secretary Bindiya, who lusts after Shankar.
His doctor suggests a younger woman. One day Raja sees Gauri, a happy young innocent village girl, begins to dream about her and wishes to marry her, despite her greedy aunt and uncle want her to marry Raja, Gauri wants to see a picture of her future husband first. Aware that Gauri would reject the elderly Raja, he sends her a photo of Shankar. Gauri falls in love with him and the wedding proceeds. However, before the ceremony is completed, she discovers that it's not Shankar whom she is marrying and faints; when Gauri regains consciousness, she discovers Raja trying to "consummate" with her and learns they're married, which shocks her. She refuses to submit herself to him by attempting suicide, so he imprisons and tortures her. One night Gauri tries to commit suicide, however and his friend save her and she meets Shankar, she accuses him of ruining her life. However. Shankar's friend reveals that Shankar was innocent in this whole affair, a shocked Gauri tries to apologize, but Shankar leaves before she can.
One night, Bindya is frustrated by Raja's inability to perform and goes to Shankar, but instead finds Raja's brother Brijwa waiting for her. He attempts to rape her. Not being able to proceed to thrash his master's brother, he takes a beating and gets framed for attempting to rape Bindya by Brijwa and is badly beaten by Raja. Bindya confesses that she went to Shankar and is sent to a brothel controlled by Chandi Bai as punishment by Raja; when Gauri's brother Ashok comes to see her, Raja forces her to lie to him which she does and says that she is happy as Raja threatens to kill him if she refuses, Shankar reveals the truth to him and Raja kills him when he comes to rescue her. Moments before he dies, Ashok makes. An enraged Raja begins a murderous search to find Gauri and Shankar, after a long chase through the mountains and jungle, Shankar uses the survival skills he learned as Raja's servant to kill Raja's men and his men leave due to being disadvantaged. During that time and Shankar begin to fall in love.
But unexpectedly, who has returned with reinforcements, sees Shankar and Gauri near a waterfall and manage to capture them by shooting Gauri in the arm. Shankar is brutally beaten by Brijwa and the corrupt DIG and Raja slits his throat leaves him to die in the mountains. There, Bindya saves Gauri from what had been done to her, in the process, she gets killed by Brijwa. Shankar is found and saved by a village boy who brings him to and his father who operates on his throat while he is still unconscious; the healer, who discovers that Shankar is not mute by birth, is able to repair some of the damaged nerves in Shankar's throat, enabling him to speak. Shankar recalls that when he was a boy, his father discovered diamonds in the coal mine, however he and his wife were murdered in front of Shankar by two mysterious men. Shankar recovers and returns, first, he kills Brijwa and is reunited with Gauri after rescuing her from the same men that killed his parents, bought Gauri. Shankar, in the process, discovers that Raja was the person who made him mute and who ordered his parents to be killed so he could steal their wealth.
He kills Raja's two henchmen and the DIG finally manages to corner Raja, who apologizes to Shankar for his wrongdoings to him, but Shankar disregards this and kills him by setting him on fire. At last and Gauri embrace each other at peace. Shah Rukh Khan as Shankar Madhuri Dixit as Gauri Amrish Puri as Raja Sahab Johnny Lever as Chhote Deepshikha as Bindya Salim Ghouse as Brijwa Ashok Saraf as Raja Saab's doctor Ranjeet as Dilavar Jack Gaud as Ranvir Pradeep Rawat as D. I. G. Kunika as Rasili Himani Shivpuri as Chandabai Mohnish Behl as Ashok Razzak Khan as a party guest Shubha Khote as Gauri's aunt Rakesh Roshan got the idea of making Koyla when he was shooting for his another directorial venture, delayed-since 1992 and released in 2000, titled Karobaar: The Business of Love; the film tells the story o
The cartographic Renaissance of the sixteenth century in Europe was based on a rapid increase in geographical knowledge sourced from exploration and discovery, the European map of the world "had doubled in size within just over a century." In the important trading centers of Rome and Venice, many individual maps were printed in Italy from about 1544. Each publisher worked independently; these maps varied in size. Over time, it became common to bind maps together into composite works. Although the word "atlas" was not in use for these composite works until 1570, they now are termed "IATO atlases" or, more "Lafreri atlases" (one of the leading publishers of the period, Antonio Lafreri is thought to have been the first to add an engraved title page to a collection of maps – around 1570 or 1572 about the same time as the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum was published in Antwerp; each of the atlases was put together from a list of many different available maps, chosen to satisfy the needs or request of the individual customer.
About sixty or seventy of these atlases survive most held in institutions. The atlases are important in the history of cartography, for many sixteenth-century Italian maps survive only in these atlases. Collectors of antique maps value Lafreri atlases for their lovely engraving style and because of their rarity; the most notable cartographers involved in publication of the Lafreri maps and atlases include: Giacomo Gastaldi – based in Venice. Library of Congress. Primary source map of the Great Siege of Malta, published in Rome, 1565