Taipei Songshan Airport
Taipei Songshan Airport is a mid-size commercial airport and military airbase located in Songshan, Taiwan. The airport covers an area of 182 hectares; the civilian section of Songshan Airport Taipei International Airport, has scheduled flights to domestic destinations in Taiwan and international destinations including Seoul and select cities in mainland China. Songshan serves only a small portion of the international flights for Taipei using the larger Taoyuan International Airport. Songshan Airport is the base of certain Republic of China Air Force units as part of the Songshan Air Force Base; the Songshan Base Command's main mission is to serve the President and Vice President of the Republic of China. The airport was built in 1936 during Japanese rule with its origins as a Japanese military airbase, the Taihoku Airfield known as Matsuyama Airfield. After World War II, in 1946, it was taken over by the Republic of China Air Force. Before the end of the Chinese Civil War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the airport provided flight routes between Shanghai and Taipei via Fuzhou.
Shared military and civilian use—both domestic and international—began on 16 April 1950 in the reconstructed Civil Aeronautics Administration Taipei Airport. Domestic destinations have been Kaohsiung, Taichung and Tainan; the first international destinations were Seattle, Pusan, Manila and Hong Kong. The first international airlines included Northwest Airlines, Pan American Airlines, Hong Kong Airways; the airport became too small to handle an increased number of passengers after a series of expansions. This worsened when new wide-body jets became common at the airport. Therefore, all international activities were relocated to Chiang Kai-shek International Airport after its inauguration on 26 February 1979; the passenger load at the airport dropped from 6.2 million in 1978 to 2.9 million in 1979. At its peak in 1997, the airport handled over 15.3 million passengers annually. Service to Taichung and Chiayi was stopped in mid-2007 after the load factor dropped due to Taiwan High Speed Rail start of revenue service in January 2007.
Passenger volume decreased from 6.7 million in 2006 to 4.4 million in 2007. Due to the opening of the high speed rail line, on 1 March 2008, Uni Air suspended its service to Kaohsiung, while Far Eastern Air Transport suspended its service to Tainan. TransAsia Airways decided to stop flights to Tainan and Kaohsiung after 1 August 2008. In early 1999 when the construction of Taipei 101 had just started, Taiwan's Civil Aeronautics Administration changed this airport's certain SID and STAR procedures to avoid possible collision with the building; the 677-meter Fuxing North Road Underground Passage was constructed between 1997 and 2006 under this airport's runway to link the north and south side of this airport. Regular cross-Strait charter flights to China started on 4 July 2008, with Songshan receiving the majority of flights. Direct flights to China were an issue of contention. Then-mayor Ma Ying-jeou had been pressing to make Songshan Airport Taipei's main International terminal, citing that its location close to the city center would make it preferable for business travelers.
However, building height restrictions around the airport raised concerns about flight safety, blocking of radio communications, noise pollution, a reduced number of flights. The continuing growth of Taipei City means that Songshan airport is situated in the heart of downtown Taipei. Compared to Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport, Songshan Airport saves travelers about 30 minutes due to its location inside Taipei City's central business district, but the city suffers from the noise, restrictions on urban planning, traffic congestion the airport brings about. In the 2002 and 2006 Taipei Mayor Election DPP candidates Lee Ying-yuan and Frank Hsieh both proposed the plan to close Songshan Airport, developed its land into road, huge park, detention basin and sports arena, since the Taiwan High Speed Rail could take up the traffic load between Taipei and western Taiwan cities, the remaining service to outlying islands and eastern Taiwan could be taken over by the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport after the completion of Taoyuan International Airport Access MRT System by the end of 2016.
The MRT system will make the international potential of Songshan airport less attractive. The Songshan Airport closing proposal was deferred under the Taipei City Government which has long been dominated by the Pan-Blue Coalition, who prefers the downtown airport connection concept with Shanghai and Tokyo. Due to the introduction of Taiwan-China flights and future international potential, the airport is undergoing extensive renovations, the first phase of, expected to be completed by October 2010; the second and third phase renovations are expected to be completed by March and October 2011, respectively. However, as of November 2011 renovations are still in progress. A new international cargo terminal is being built in anticipation of a new air route between Taiwan and Japan; the unused Terminal 2 was refurbished to accommodate arriving flights while the main Terminal, now Terminal 1, was rearranged to handle increased passenger traffic. On 29 March 2011, the renovated Terminal 2 was re-opened to handle domestic flights.
Songshan Airport is seen to have the potential to attract business travelers within Pacific Asia due to its location in downtown Taipei. Fl
7-Eleven Inc. is a Japanese-owned American international chain of convenience stores, headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The chain was known as Tote'm Stores until it was renamed in 1946, its parent company since 2005, Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd. operates and licenses 67,480 stores in 17 countries as of December 2018. Seven-Eleven Japan is headquartered in Chiyoda and held by Seven & I Holdings Co. Ltd.. The most recent franchise agreement gives up to 59% of a franchise's gross profit to the company; the company's first outlets were named "Tote'm Stores" because customers "toted" away their purchases. Some stores featured genuine Alaskan totem poles in front of the store. In 1946, the chain's name was changed from "Tote'm" to "7-Eleven" to reflect the company's new, extended hours, 7:00 am to 11:00 pm, seven days per week. In November 1999, the corporate name of the US company was changed from "The Southland Corporation" to "7-Eleven Inc." In 1927, Southland Ice Company employee John Jefferson Green began selling eggs and bread from one of 16 ice house storefronts in Dallas, with permission from one of Southland's founding directors, Joe C.
Thompson, Sr. Although small grocery stores and general merchandisers were available, Thompson theorized that selling products such as bread and milk in convenience stores would reduce the need for customers to travel long distances for basic items, he bought the Southland Ice Company and turned it into Southland Corporation, which oversaw several locations in the Dallas area. In 1928, Jenna Lira brought a totem pole as a souvenir from Alaska and placed it in front of the store; the pole served as a marketing tool for the company. Soon, executives added totem poles in front of every store and adopted an Alaska Native-inspired theme for their stores. On, the stores began operating under the name "Tote'm Stores". In the same year, the company began constructing gasoline stations in some of its Dallas locations as an experiment. Joe Thompson provided a distinct characteristic to the company's stores, training the staff so that people would receive the same quality and service in every store. Southland started to have a uniform for its ice station service boys.
This became the major factor in the company's success as a retail convenience store. In 1931, the Great Depression affected the company; the company continued its operations through re-organization and receivership. A Dallas banker, W. W. Overton Jr. helped to revive the company's finances by selling the company's bonds for seven cents on the dollar. This brought the company's ownership under the control of a board of directors. In 1946, in an effort to continue the company's post-war recovery, the name of the franchise was changed to 7-Eleven to reflect the stores' new hours of operation, which were unprecedented at the time. In 1963, 7-Eleven experimented with a 24-hour schedule in Austin, after an Austin store stayed open all night to satisfy customer demand. On, 24-hour stores were established in Fort Worth and Dallas, Texas, as well as Las Vegas, Nevada. In 1971, Southland acquired convenience stores of the former Pak-A-Sak chain owned by Graham Allen Penniman, Sr. of Shreveport, Louisiana.
With the purchase in 1964 of 126 Speedee Mart franchised convenience stores in California, the company entered the franchise business. The company signed its first area licensing agreement in 1968 with Garb-Ko, Inc. of Saginaw, which became the first U. S. domestic area 7-Eleven licensee. In the late 1980s, Southland Corporation was threatened by a rumored corporate takeover, prompting the Thompson family to take steps to convert the company into a private model by buying out public shareholders in a tender offer. In December 1987, John Philp Thompson, the chairman and CEO of 7-Eleven, completed a $5.2 billion management buyout of the company. The buyout suffered from the effects of the 1987 stock market crash and after failing to raise high yield debt financing, the company was required to offer a portion of stock as an inducement to invest in the company's bonds. Various assets, such as the Chief Auto Parts chain, the ice division, hundreds of store locations, were sold between 1987 and 1990 to relieve debt incurred during the buyout.
This downsizing resulted in numerous metropolitan areas losing 7-Eleven stores to rival convenience store operators. In October 1990, the indebted Southland Corp. filed a pre-packaged Chapter 11 bankruptcy in order to transfer control of 70% of the company to Japanese affiliate Ito-Yokado. Southland exited bankruptcy in March 1991, after a cash infusion of $430 million from Ito-Yokado and Seven-Eleven Japan; these two Japanese entities now controlled 70% of the company, with the founding Thompson family retaining 5%. In 1999, Southland Corp. changed its name to 7-Eleven, Inc. citing the divestment of operations other than 7-Eleven. Ito-Yokado formed Seven & I Holdings Co. and 7-Eleven became its subsidiary in 2005. In 2007, Seven & I Holdings announced that it would be expanding its American operations, with an additional 1,000 7-Eleven stores in the United States. For the 2010 rankings, 7-Eleven climbed to the No. 3 spot in Entrepreneur Magazine's 31st Annual Franchise 500, "the first and most comprehensive ranking in the world".
This was the 17th year 7-Eleven was named in the top 10. In 2010, the first "green" 7-Eleven store opened in DeLand, Florida; the store features U. S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Environmental Design elements; the environmentally-friendly design brings the store savings in energy costs. That same year, 7-Eleven went mobile with the launch of the Slurpee drink's iPhone and An
Port of Keelung
The Port of Keelung known as Keelung Harbor, is located in the vicinity of Keelung City, Taiwan. It is operated by Taiwan International Ports Corporation, Taiwan's state-owned port management company; the 1858 Treaty of Tientsin specified Tamsui as an open port. The Port of Keelung opened few years in 1886. In the Japanese colonial period, the Governor-General of Taiwan started the development of Keelung Harbor. By the early and middle 20th century, it was the largest port in Taiwan at the time; the Port of Keelung brought prosperity to the city of Keelung, with Keelung growing into the 4th largest city in Taiwan. Following the defeat of the Japanese in the Second World War, the Japanese army retreated from Taiwan through the Port of Keelung, it was the main port through which Chinese officials entered Taiwan to take over Taiwan from Japan. With the rapid economic growth in Taiwan during the 1960s-70s, the Port of Keelung became one of the busiest ports in the world. In 1984, Port of Keelung was the 7th busiest cargo port in the world.
The port forms a narrow waterway with 2,000 meters in length and 400 meters in width that extends from the inner harbor in the southwest to the port mouth in the northwest. The port serves destinations to the Matsu Islands and Okinawa; the Port of Keelung is accessible from Keelung Station of the Taiwan Railways. Keelung Santisima Trinidad List of East Asian ports Transportation in Taiwan
Fuzhou romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area. Fuzhou lies on the north bank of the estuary of the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, Ningde's Gutian County lies upriver, its population was 7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05%. In 2015, Fuzhou was ranked as the 10th Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas in the world by Brookings Institution. Fuzhou is listed as No.20 in China Integrated City Index 2016's total ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform Commission. Fuzhou in Chinese is "有福之州", meaning "a city with good luck." The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century, says that Fuzhou's name came from Mount Futo, a mountain northwest of the city.
The mountain's name was combined with -zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture," in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States period, area of Fuzhou was sometimes referred to as Ye, Fuzhou was incorporated into China proper during Qin dynasty; the city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries before settling on Fuzhou in 948. In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng, literally:'The Banyan City'. In older English publications, the name is variously romanized as Foochow, Foo-Chow, Fuchow, Fūtsu, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew, Hokchew; the remains of two Neolithic cultures—the Huqiutou Culture, from around 5000 BC, the Tanshi Mountain Culture, from around 3000 BC—have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area. During the Warring States period, Han Chinese began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue, suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a family of non-Han tribes who once inhabited most of southern China.
In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom fell to the state of Chu. Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Han and Yue culture to create Minyue, their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City. The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule; the Qin dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" —roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture—and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery. The area seems to have continued independent of Chinese control for the next century; the Han dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, Emperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu as King of Minyue, a walled city called Ye was built.
The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou. In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies during the Han–Minyue War and annexed its territory and people into China. Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jiangnan area, the Yue ethnic group was assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants; the area was re-organized as a county in 85 BC. During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River fleets. In 282, during the Jin dynasty, two artificial lakes known as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system; the core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. In 308, during the War of the Eight Princes at the end of the Jin dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, followed by subsequent waves during periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland.
The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to shift to the Ye area during the Sui dynasty. In 725, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions developed; the years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian and Guangdong areas. In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang dynasty gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909; the Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous.
Fuzhou prospered during the Tang dynasty. Buddhism was adopted by the citizens who built many Buddhist temples in the area. Fuzhou underwent a major dramatic surge in i
Qijin District, Kaohsiung
Qijin District is a district of Kaohsiung City, covering Qijin Island. It is the second smallest district in Kaohsiung City after Yancheng District. Qijin forms the original core of the Kaohsiung, established by the fisherman Hsu Ah-hua in the mid-17th century, he realized the attractiveness of the location when he was forced to seek shelter from a typhoon in the Taiwan Strait and returned with settlers from the Hung, Cai, Li, Pan families and an idol of the Chinese sea goddess Mazu. This was housed in a thatch structure that formed the first Chi Jin Mazu Temple; the town grew up around the temple grounds. Qijin Island was once connected to the mainland at the southern tip, but in 1967, this link was severed to create a second entry point to the Port of Kaohsiung. Two islands and one reef in the South China Sea are administered by Kaohsiung City as parts of Cijin District: Pratas Islands Taiping Island Zhongzhou Reef The district consists of Qixia, Zhenxing, Fuxing, Shijian, Nanshan, Zhongzhou and Zhongxing Village.
The representative for Qijin on the city council is Lee Chiao-Ju. Most of its residents are employed by the shipping industry. There is a park on the north western shore. National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology Kaohsiung Municipal Cijin Junior High School Kaohsiung Municipal Cijin Elementary School Kaohsiung Municipal Dashan Elementary School Kaohsiung Municipal Zhongzhou Elementary School Chi Jin Mazu Temple Cihou Fort Cijin Shell Museum Cijin Wind Turbine Park Kaohsiung Lighthouse Rainbow Church War and Peace Memorial Park and Theme Hall YM Museum of Marine Exploration Kaohsiung The "Cross Harbor Tunnel" connects Cijin Island at the EBC tip to the rest of Kaohsiung on mainland Taiwan. Cijin District is accessible by two ferry piers, the Cijin Ferry Pier at the northern tip of the island and the Zhongzhou Ferry Pier at the middle of the island. Cijin District Office, Kaohsiung City
The Yuan dynasty the Great Yuan, was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It preceded the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, the conquest was not complete until 1279, his realm was, by this point, isolated from the other khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368 which ended in Ming dynasty defeating the Yuan dynasty, the rebuked Genghisid rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty; some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others only used their native language and the'Phags-pa script. The Yuan dynasty was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire.
In official Chinese histories, the Yuan dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven. The dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu. In the Proclamation of the Dynastic Name, Kublai announced the name of the new dynasty as Great Yuan and claimed the succession of former Chinese dynasties from the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors to the Tang dynasty. In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates: the Chagatai, the Golden Horde, the Ilkhanate; as such, the Yuan was sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. However, while the claim of supremacy by the Yuan emperors was at times recognized by the western khans, their subservience was nominal and each continued its own separate development. In 1271, Kublai Khan imposed the name Great Yuan. "Dà Yuán" is from the clause "大哉乾元" in the Commentaries on the Classic of Changes section regarding the first hexagram Qián.
The counterpart in the Mongolian language was Dai Ön Ulus rendered as Ikh Yuan Üls or Yekhe Yuan Ulus. In Mongolian, Dai Ön was used in conjunction with the "Yeke Mongghul Ulus", resulting in ᠳᠠᠢᠦᠨᠶᠡᠬᠡᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠦᠯᠦᠰ, meaning "Great Yuan Great Mongol State"; the Yuan dynasty is known by westerners as the "Mongol dynasty" or "Mongol Dynasty of China", similar to the names "Manchu dynasty" or "Manchu Dynasty of China" which were used by westerners for the Qing dynasty. Furthermore, the Yuan is sometimes known as the "Empire of the Great Khan" or "Khanate of the Great Khan", which appeared on some Yuan maps, since Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Great Khan. Both terms can refer to the khanate within the Mongol Empire directly ruled by Great Khans before the actual establishment of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1271. Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes of the steppes and became Great Khan in 1206, he and his successors expanded the Mongol empire across Asia. Under the reign of Genghis' third son, Ögedei Khan, the Mongols destroyed the weakened Jin dynasty in 1234, conquering most of northern China.
Ögedei offered his nephew Kublai a position in Hebei. Kublai was unable to read Chinese but had several Han teachers attached to him since his early years by his mother Sorghaghtani, he sought the counsel of Chinese Confucian advisers. Möngke Khan succeeded Ögedei's son, Güyük, as Great Khan in 1251, he granted his brother Kublai control over Mongol held territories in China. Kublai built schools for Confucian scholars, issued paper money, revived Chinese rituals, endorsed policies that stimulated agricultural and commercial growth, he adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia renamed Shangdu. Many Han Chinese and Khitan defected to the Mongols to fight against the Jin. Two Han Chinese leaders, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima, the Khitan Xiao Zhala defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol army. Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan. Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the Mongols. There were 4 Han Tumens and 3 Khitan Tumens, with each Tumen consisting of 10,000 troops.
The three Khitan Generals Shimobeidier and Xiaozhacizhizizhongxi commanded the three Khitan Tumens and the four Han Generals Zhang Rou, Yan Shi, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima commanded the four Han tumens under Ogödei Khan. Möngke Khan commenced a military campaign against the Chinese Song dynasty in southern China; the Mongol force that invaded southern China was far greater than the force they sent to invade the Middle East in 1256. He died in 1259 without a successor. Kublai returned from fighting the Song in 1260 when he learned that his brother, Ariq Böke, was challenging his claim to the throne. Kublai convened a kurultai in Kaiping. A rival kurultai in Mongolia proclaimed Ariq Böke Great Khan. Kublai depended on the cooperation of his Chinese subjects to ensure that his army received ample resources, he bolstered his popularity among his subjects by modeling his government on the bureaucracy of traditional Chinese dynasties and adopting the Chinese era name of Zhongtong. Ariq Böke was hampered by inadequate supplies and surrendered in 1264.
Taichung International Airport
Taichung International Airport known as Ching Chuan Kang Airport or Qingquangang Airport, is an international airport located in Taichung, Taiwan, used for both commercial and military purposes. It is the third international airport in Taiwan, with scheduled services to China, South Korea and Vietnam. Taichung International Airport was constructed during the era of Japanese rule and was named Kōkan Airport; the United States Air Force had been garrisoning the base with two fighter squadrons until the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty came into force on March 3, 1955. The airport expanded in 1954 according to the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, renamed Ching Chuan Kang Air Base in memory of General Ching Chuan Kang. In 1966 the American Air Force established a joint forces air-base at CCK, it was the largest air force base in the Far East at the time, allowing Boeing B-52 Stratofortress bombers to land. During the Vietnam War, CCK became a depot for the USAF; the US Military used CCK and Shuinan Airport to run many of its long-distance Vietnam and Laotian bombing and cargo transport runs during the Vietnam War era.
This base was shut down and most American facilities were removed after U. S. established diplomatic relations with the China in 1979. Construction of passenger facilities was completed in September 2003 and civilian services began on March 5, 2004, replacing the old Shuinan Airport located in downtown Taichung. Ching Chuan Kang Airport has since become the only airport serving Taichung; the airport has been promoted to an international airport on Jan 03, 2017 and named as Taichung International Airport. In 2003, with the demand to develop cross-strait and other international air routes from Taichung City, Taiwanese officials made the decision to transfer airports from Shuinan Airport to RMQ; the first terminal was completed in 2004, all flights moved from TXG to RMQ soon afterwards. In 2008, officials decided to build another terminal. Terminal 2 now handles all international/cross-strait flights, while the older Terminal 1 serves domestic flights. Civil Aeronautics Administration Transportation in Taiwan List of airports in Taiwan Taichung International Airport Official Website Airport information for RCMQ at World Aero Data.
Data current as of October 2006