Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
Beinn a' Chaolais
Beinn a' Chaolais is the lowest peak of the Paps of Jura on the island of Jura, Scotland. It stands at 733 metres above sea level, with over 300 metres of relative height is therefore a Graham
Barnhill is a farmhouse situated at grid reference NR705970 in the north of the island of Jura in the Scottish Hebrides. It stands on the site of a larger 15th-century settlement called Cnoc an t-Sabhail; the house was the home of the English essayist and novelist George Orwell, who lived there intermittently from 1946 until his death in 1950, who completed his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four while living there. Barnhill is a site of interest for many who are familiar with the life and writing of George Orwell
Jura is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, adjacent to and to the north-east of Islay. With an area of 36,692 hectares, or 142 square miles, only 196 inhabitants recorded in the 2011 census, Jura is much more sparsely populated than neighbouring Islay, is one of the least densely populated islands of Scotland: in a list of the islands of Scotland ranked by size, Jura comes eighth, whereas ranked by population it comes 31st. Jura forms part of the council area of Bute; the island is mountainous and infertile, covered by vast areas of blanket bog, hence its small population. The main settlement is the village of Craighouse on the east coast, its capital. Craighouse is home to the Jura distillery, producing Isle of Jura single malt whisky; the village is home to the island's only hotel and church. Between the northern tip of Jura and the island of Scarba lies the Gulf of Corryvreckan, where a whirlpool makes passage dangerous at certain states of the tide; the southern part of the island, from Loch Tarbert southwards, is designated as a national scenic area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland, which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development by restricting certain forms of development.
The Jura NSA covers 30,317 hectares in total, consisting of 21,072 ha of land, with a further 9245 ha being marine. The modern name Jura dates from the Norse-Gael era. Two different Old Norse words have been suggested: Dyrøy meaning "deer island" is the accepted derivation. Jurøy, meaning "udder island", in reference to the Paps of Jura; the name was recorded in 678 as Doraid Eilinn meaning "Doraid's Island". The isle of Jura is composed of Dalradian quartzite, a hard metamorphic rock which provides the jagged surface of the Paps. Throughout the western half of the island the quartzite has been penetrated by a number of linear basalt dikes which were formed during a period of intense volcanic activity in the Lower Tertiary period, some 56 million years ago; these dikes are most apparent on the west coast, where erosion of the less-resistant rock into which they are intruded has left them exposed as natural walls. The west coast has a number of raised beaches, which are regarded as a geological feature of international importance.
The island is dominated by three steep-sided conical quartzite mountains on its western side – the Paps of Jura – which rise to 785 metres. There are three major peaks: Beinn an Òir is the highest peak, standing at 785 metres, is thereby a Corbett. Beinn Shiantaidh stands at 757 metres high. Beinn a' Chaolais is the lowest of the Paps; the Paps dominate the landscape in the region and are visible from the Mull of Kintyre and, on a clear day, from the Skye and Northern Ireland. The route of the annual Isle of Jura Fell Race includes all four other hills; these hills were the subject of William McTaggart's 1902 painting The Paps of Jura, now displayed in the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum. Evidence of settlements on Jura dating from the Mesolithic period was first uncovered by the English archaeologist John Mercer in the 1960s. There is a Neolithic chambered cairn at Poll a' Cheo in the southwest of the island. Jura is closer to Ulster than Glasgow, so it should not be unexpected that the Irish crossed the straits of Moyle and established the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata.
It was divided into a handful of regions, controlled by particular kin groups, of which the Cenél nÓengusa controlled Jura and Islay. The kingdom thrived for a few centuries, formed a springboard for Christianisation of the mainland, it is believed that Jura may have been Hinba, the island to which the 6th-century missionary, retreated from the monastic community he founded on Iona, when he wished for a more contemplative life. Dál Riata was destroyed when Vikings invaded, established their own domain, spreading more extensively over the islands north and west of the mainland, including Jura; this became the Kingdom of the Isles, but following the unification of Norway, the islands were under tenuous Norwegian authority, somewhat resisted by local rulers, like Godred Crovan. Following Godred's death, the local population resisted Norway's choice of replacement, causing Magnus, the Norwegian king, to launch a military campaign to assert his authority. In 1098, under pressure from Magnus, the king of Scotland quitclaimed to him all sovereign authority over the isles.
To Norway, the islands became meaning southern isles. The former territory of Dal Riata acquired the geographic description Argyle: the Gaelic coast. Half a century however, the husband of Godred Crovan's granddaughter, led a successful revolt against Norway, transforming Suðreyjar into an independent kingdom. Somerled built the sea fortress of Claig Castle on an island at the southern tip of Jura, establishing control of the Sound of Islay. After his death, nominal Norwegian authority was re-established, but de-facto authority was split between Somerled's sons and the Crovan dynasty. Somerled's son Dougall received the part of Jura north of Loch Tarbert, while Dougal's nephew Donald received the rest of Jura, as well as Islay, lands to the east, it is unclear why Jura was split like this, but it may have been connected to a dispute with Donald's other uncle
Ardmenish is a cleared village on the Isle of Jura, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List