Castelo Branco, Portugal
The city of Castelo Branco is a municipality an former bishopric in Castelo Branco District, in Centro Region, Portugal. The city of Castelo Branco is made up of one parish with a population of 30,649 in 2001. The municipality has a total of 19 parishes, the population in 2011 was 56,109, in an area of 1,438.19 square kilometres, making it one of the largest municipalities in Portugal. It is bounded in the north by the municipality of Fundão, in the east by Idanha-a-Nova, in the south by Spain, in the southwest by Vila Velha de Ródão, and in the west by Proença-a-Nova and Oleiros. Castelo Branco gets its name from the existence of a Luso-Roman castrum or fortified settlement called Castra Leuca. The population grew on the slopes of this hill, little is known of the history before 1182. There is, nevertheless, a document, from this date, mentioning the donation to the Templars of a piece of land called Vila Franca da Cardosa, in 1213 it received its autonomy or foral and the name Castel-Branco appears for the first time.
Pope Innocent III confirmed this in 1215 giving it the name of Castelo Branco and it was around this time that the Templar Knights built the walls and the castle. In 1510 a new foral was conceded by Manuel I and in 1642 the town acquired the status of Vila de Castelo Branco, in 1771 Castelo Branco became a city and a bishopric until 1881. In 1858 a telegraph line was opened between Abrantes and Castelo Branco and in 1860 the city received its first public lighting, in 1959 it became capital of the district of the same name. Pope Clement XIV created the diocese of Castelo Branco on 1771.06.07 and it has had the following residential Bishops, José de Jesus Maria Caetano, Dominican Order Vicente Ferreira da Rocha, O. P. Maria sopra Minerva, previously Bishop of Leiria, Patriarch of Lisboa. vacancy, the most important monument in Castelo Branco is the Jardim do Paço Episcopal. It is one of the most beautiful gardens in Portugal and contains statues of allegories and zodiacal signs, arranged around ponds.
Administratively, the municipality is divided into 19 civil parishes, Castelo Branco has a mediterranean climate. Its summers are among the hottest of Portugal, influenced by its inland position, winters are mild with cool nights, but frosts are rare and never severe. Inland areas further south in the country have hotter temperature extremes, there is somewhat of a seasonal lag in summer since September is significantly warmer than May in spite of less daylight. Winter temperatures are consistent with the daylight cycle, since temperatures drop sharply in autumn months. The city is home to Centauro, a company produces industrial coolers and freezers
Leiria is a city and a municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal. It is the capital of Leiria District, the population in 2011 was 126,879, in an area of 565.09 square kilometres. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Leiria-Fátima, the region around Leiria has been inhabited for a long time, although its early history is obscure. The first evident inhabitants were the Turduli Oppidani, a Celtiberian tribe and this settlement was occupied by the Romans, who expanded it under the original Celtiberian name Collippo. The stones of the ancient Roman town were used in the Middle Ages to build much of Leiria, the name Leiria in Portuguese derives from leira meaning an area with small farming plots. It was occupied for a time by the Suebi in 414 until they were forced by the Romans to retreat to Galicia. Later the Moors occupied the area until it was captured by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques in 1135, south of Leiria in that period was the so-called no-mans land, until regions further south were permanently taken and re-populated by the Christians.
In 1142 Afonso Henriques gave Leiria its first foral to stimulate the colonisation of the region, both Afonso I of Portugal and Sancho I rebuilt the walls and the Leiria Castle to avoid new enemy incursions. Most of the population lived inside the city walls. The oldest church of Leiria, the Church of Saint Peter, built in style in the last quarter of the 12th century. During the Middle Ages the importance of the increased. The first of the held in Leiria took place in 1245. In the early 14th century, King Dinis I restored the tower of the citadel of the castle. He built a residence in Leiria, and lived for long periods in the town. The King ordered the plantation of the famous Pine Forest of Leiria near the coast, the wood from this forest would be used to build the ships used in the Portuguese Navigations of the 15th and 16th centuries. In the late 14th century, King John I built a palace within the walls of the castle of Leiria. This palace, with elegant gothic galleries that offered views of the town.
John I sponsored the rebuilding in late gothic style of the old Church of Our Lady of the Rock, towards the end of the 15th century the town continued to grow, occupying the area from the castle hill down to the river Lis
The Gardunha mountain range, so called by the Moors, is located in central Portugal, in Centro Region, beyond the Serra da Estrela range, giving way to an extensive plain called Cova da Beira. It was covered with vineyards in the time of King Dinis, but the sovereign decided to pull them up and replace them with chestnut trees all over the Alcambar valley. The valley became known as the Kings groves, unfortunately though, due to mans negligence, violent fires destroyed a significant number of trees, although some areas were reforested. Pirâmide, is the highest point in Gardunha mountain range
Beira was one of the six traditional provinces or comarcas of Portugal. The territorial extension is different from that of the area called The Beiras, there is a wine region, called Beira VR. The most important cities within the borders of the province are, Aveiro, Viseu, Castelo Branco, Figueira da Foz, Covilhã. The main river is the Mondego, other include the Vouga, Dão, Côa, Zêzere. The largest mountain range is Serra da Estrela – Portugals highest – other ranges being the Caramulo, Gardunha, after the 15th Century, the new Kingdom of Portugal was divided into six great administrative units, referred to as comarcas. Since the Middle Ages there existed the Beira Province, some Portuguese geographers referred to the part of Trás-os-Montes that lies south of the Douro River as Beira Transmontana, but that name was never used officially. In 1976 the provinces were abolished leaving only the 18 districts. g, moimenta da Beira, Celorico da Beira, Aguiar da Beira, Mondim da Beira etc. Centro, Portugal Beira, Mozambique Prince of Beira, a royal title Beiras VR
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Coimbra is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of 319.40 square kilometres, the fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal, it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities, among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal still remain, during the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by tourists for its monuments. The city, located on a hill by the Mondego River, was called Aeminium in Roman times and it fell under the influence, administratively, of the larger Roman villa of Conímbriga, until the latter was sacked by the Sueves and Visigoths between 569 and 589 and abandoned.
It became the seat of a diocesis, replacing Conímbriga, the limestone table on which the settlement grew has a dominant position overlooking the Mondego, circled by fertile lands irrigated by its waters. Vestiges of this history include the cryptoporticus of the former Roman forum. The move of the settlement and bishopric of Conimbriga to Aeminium resulted in the change to Conimbriga. The first Muslim campaigns that occupied the Iberian peninsula occurred between 711 and 715, with Coimbra capitulating to Musa bin Nusair in 714, remnants of this period include the beginnings of the Almedina and the fortified palace used by the citys governor. The Christian Reconquista forced Muslim forces to abandon the region temporarily, successively the Moors retook the castle in 987–1064 and again in 1116, capturing two castles constructed to protect the territory, in Miranda da Beira and in Santa Eulália. Henry expanded the frontiers of the County, confronting the Moorish forces, in order to confirm and reinforce the power of the concelho he conceded a formal foral in 1179.
The city was encircled by a wall, of which some remnants are still visible like the Almedina Gate. Meanwhile, on the periphery, the municipality began to grow in various agglomerations, notably around the monasteries and convents that developed in Celas, Santa Clara, Santo António dos Olivais. It stood too close to the river, and frequent floods forced the nuns to abandon it in the 17th century, the Queens magnificent Gothic tomb was transferred to the new convent. The ruins of the old convent were excavated in the 2000s, in the 15th and 16th centuries, during the Age of Discovery, Coimbra was again one of the main artistic centres of Portugal thanks to both local and royal patronage. The University of Coimbra, was founded as a Studium Generale in Lisbon in 1290 by King Dinis I, the University was relocated to Coimbra in 1308, but in 1338 the King D. Afonso IV make the University return to Lisbon
Pinhel is a municipality, former bishopric and present Catholic titular see in the central subregion of Beira Interior Norte, in Portugal. The municipality population in 2011 was 9,627, in an area of 484.52 km², the urban centre of Pinhel had about 3500 residents in 2001. Part of the district of Guarda, the region obtained its name for many pine forests that covered the regions hills. There are references to a pre-Roman or Roman presence. The Castle of Pinhel dates from the reign of King Denis, pinhels strategic position, along the frontier with Spain, made the monarchs of Portugal retain many of these fortifications, as well as allowing the development of their territorial claims. The historical centre, with its roadways, were adapted from the morphology of the terrain, with many patrimonial references to the medieval. The homes of the city of Pinhel, some dating from the 16th century, includes some lost references to the presence of a Jewish population at one time, such as along the Rua de Santa Maria.
Pinhel was, for a time, the seat of its own diocese. The 17th and 18th century were periods of growth for the region, dominated the construction of estates, scattered in many of the corners of the municipality, some monumental. The urbanized area of Pinhel, the city of Pinhel, was elevated to status in 1770. In 1770.08.25 a bishopric was established as Diocese of Pinhel / Pinhelen, on territory split off from the Diocese of Lamego, apparently as suffragan of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Braga. The Church of the Saviour served as cathedral, until its demolition and substitution as such in 1797 by the convent church of St. Louis as ordered by bishop Don Bernardo Bernardino Beltrão Freire. It was suppressed on 1881.09.30, its territory being merged into the Diocese of Guarda, in 1969 the diocese was nominally restored as Latin Titular bishopric of Pinhel / Pinhelen. Antonio in Campo Marzio Guillermo Martín Abanto Guzmán as Auxiliary Bishop of Lima, next Military Ordinary ofPeru Jorge Estrada Solórzano, Auxiliary Bishop of México, no previous prelature.
The municipality of Pinhel is geographuically delimited, in its entirety para two waterways, the Ribeira do Massueime and east by the Côa River. It is located in the part of the district of Guarda and confined by the municipalities of Almeida, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, Vila Nova de Foz Côa, Trancoso. The area includes an area of 485 square kilometres, divided into 18 civil parishes, as well as one urban parish. This area, along with Foz Coa has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage site for these primitive engravings, Pinhel is surrounded by Guarda, Almeida, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, Mêda and Vila Nova de Foz Côa, all centres that comprise the district of Guarda
Centro Region, Portugal
The Centro Region is a region in central Portugal, and its capital is Coimbra. Other local cities with major administrative status inside this region are Aveiro, Leiria, Castelo Branco, Covilhã, Figueira da Foz and it is one of seven Regions of Portugal. This is one of the regions of Europe, considered by the European Union for statistical and geographical purposes and its population in 2011 totalled 2,327,026 inhabitants, and its area is 28,462 km². Inhabited by the Lusitanians, an Indo-European people living in the western Iberian Peninsula, the Roman town of Conímbriga, near Coimbra, is among the most noted and well-preserved remains of that period. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Visigoths were the rulers and colonizers from the 5th to the 8th century. In the 8th century the Muslim conquest of Iberia turned the region a Muslim-dominated territory, in the earliest years of the Christian Reconquista, just before the arise of a Portuguese national identity, the region was a battleplace for Muslim Moors and Christian crusaders.
Once the Moors were expelled, the Christian kings and landlords made the region a county and it was integrated into the newly created Condado Portucalensis, the early precursor of the modern nation of Portugal. The modern region matches roughly the boundaries of the older historical Beira Province plus the Oeste in former Estremadura, Beira was an historical province of Portugal and its name was used by the heirs to the Portuguese throne during the monarchy regime, before 1910. The princes were known as the Princes of Beira, along this region’s mountainous border with Spain are a series of fortresses and castles that once protected the country from its many invaders. Over the centuries and Christians, Spaniards and Portuguese have all tried to take these villages, each village has a fascinating tale of its own to tell. All of their valiant efforts paid off, today Portugal boasts the longest-standing border in all of Europe. In these rural villages, ancient rituals and religious festivals remain popular, visitors can sample them and partake in traditional foods such as cheese and mountain honey.
In the fortress town of Almeida, a walk through the cobbled streets can lead a visitor to the ruins of a once mighty 12-pointed fortress here. One of Portugal’s many Pousadas—an historic property turned into an inn—is located in Almeida, in the town of Castelo Rodrigo, a memorial stone marks the place of a fierce battle in 1664, and visitors can view the remains of the castle, its tower and a palace here. The town has a small, Gothic church, just near Castelo Mendo stands a beautiful bridge built by the Romans. Most of the castles in this region of Centro are classified as national monuments. These stone fortresses date back to the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, castles or parts of castles still stand at Alfaiates, Vilar Maior, Castelo Mendo, Castelo Bom, Castelo Rodrigo, Monsanto and Almeida. A 20-castle route has been delineated by the Portugal government, Castelo Mendo, Castelo Rodrigo and the fortified town of Almeida are considered gems among them all