Northern District (Israel)
The Northern District is one of Israel's six administrative districts. The Northern District has a land area of 4,478 km², which increases to 4,638 km² when both land and water are included; the district capital and largest city in the North District is Nazareth. The Golan Heights has been run as a sub-district of the North District of Israel since the 1981 Golan Heights Law was passed. Excluding the Golan Heights, which covers a land area of 1,154 km², the Northern District covers 3,324 km². According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics data for 2016: Total population: 1,390,900 Ethnic: Arabs: 746,600 Jews: 599,700 Others: 44,600 Religious: Jews: 599,700 Muslims: 540,600 Druze: 111,400 Arab Christians: 93,100 Not classified: 40,000 Density: 311/km²As such, the North District is the only district in Israel where the majority of inhabitants are Arabs; the Northern District is divided into the following subdistricts: Safed Subdistrict Kineret sub-district Jezreel sub-district Acre Subdistrict Golan sub-district Galilee Arab localities in Israel List of cities in Israel
The Lower Galilee, is a region within the Northern District of Israel. The Lower Galilee is bordered by the Jezreel Valley to the south; the Lower Galilee is the southern part of the Galilee. In Josephus' time, it was known to stretch in breadth from Xaloth to Bersabe, a region that contains around 470 square miles, it is called "Lower" than the Upper Galilee. The peaks of the Lower Galilee rise to 500 meters above sea level; the tallest peaks are Mount Kamon at the northern part of the Lower Galilee and Mount Tabor in the southern part. The Lower Galilee consists of three different regions which differ in their geological structure: The western Lower Galilee The central Lower Galilee The high regions of the eastern Lower GalileeThe central Lower Galilee consists of low mountain ranges which extend from east to west with several valleys in between. In the western part of the Lower Galilee there are several low hills covered with Oak tree forests, the central Lower Galilee region is more mountainous and the eastern Lower Galilee region turn into flat basalt mountainside reaching heights of 300 meters above sea level which extend from northeast to the southwest.
Although the landscape of the Lower Galilee is less dramatic than that of the Upper Galilee, it is greener, more peaceful and quiet. The Lower Galilee is more accessible to the majority of Israelis. Much of the produce farms of Israel originates in the Lower Galilee in the Jezreel Valley and the Beit She'an Valley; the soil of the Lower Galile consists of the following: Limestone - the lands in the central Lower Galilee region consists of limestone, created due to accumulation of shells and skeletons of marine life on the seabed. Brown Terra Rossa - the Lower Galilee region have many areas which consists of this type of soil which has high amounts of minerals; the Terra Rossa is the basis for the development of forests in the Galilee because it has a large amount of mineral needed for the trees to grow. Basalt - the lands in the eastern Lower Galilee region consists of basalt, a type of rock, created as a result of hot magma from erupted volcanoes which cooled in temperature and became rock hard and impenetrable.
The basalt areas comprise fertile soil. Until 1932 the settlements in the eastern Lower Galilee were based on spring water which existed in proximity to the villages which were only enough for home use and therefore it was not possible to have irrigated agriculture in the Lower Galilee at the time. In 1932 the first Well drilling was done in the Yavne'el Valley which supplied irrigation water to Yavne'el. In 1942 a water pipeline was constructed from the Sea of Galilee to the village which as a result extended its amount of agricultural lands, which were based on the new water sources, despite the high cost of water at that time. During the first decade of the State of Israel the villages of the Lower Galilee were involved in a constant struggle with the government demanding that the government would solve their water problems. After several local Well drilling attempts made during those years failed water pipelines were laid from the Sea of Galilee to all villages in the Lower Galilee. Galilee Northern District Lower Galilee Regional Council Upper Galilee
Meir Har-Zion was an Israeli military commando. As a key member of Unit 101, he was praised by Chief of Staff Moshe Dayan who described him as "the finest of our commando soldiers, the best soldier to emerge in the IDF". Ariel Sharon described him as "the elite of the elite." His three-year military career was ended by injuries sustained in battle. Har-Zion was born in Herzliya in 1934, was a third generation sabra, his mother, Sarah Goldenberg, had been born in Rishon LeZion to a mother, born in Jerusalem to a Sephardi-Jewish family from İzmir and a father, born in Romania and moved to Palestine with his parents as a child. Har-Zion's father, Eliyahu Horowitz, had moved to Palestine from Russia; when Har-Zion was three years old, the family moved to Rishpon, where his two sisters Shoshana and Rachel were born. When he was 14, his parents divorced, Har-Zion moved to kibbutz Ein Harod with his father while his mother and sisters moved to kibbutz Beit Alfa; as a child, Har-Zion spent much of his free time watching nature and taking walks, sometimes crossing the borders of Palestine.
In 1949, he was detained by Syrian authorities together with his 13-year-old sister, after being caught in Syrian territory east of Beit She'an. In 1951, two years they were both captured by a shepherd while on the Syrian side of the border; this time they were held prisoner in Damascus, the two children were only released by the Syrian government after a month of negotiation by the UN and the governments of both countries, making international headlines. Being the children of divorced parents and his younger sister Shoshana had developed a deep emotional bond with each other, had become close illegally crossing into neighbouring Arab countries together. During the 1950s around a dozen Israeli teenagers were killed attempting to illegally reach the ancient city of Petra, located 40 km inside Jordan; such cross-border treks were considered a rite of passage for elite youth. The song "HaSela HaAdom", which praised a group killed attempting the trek, was banned. At the age of 18, Meir and his girlfriend managed to reach Petra at night, after three days of hiking, crossing the Wadi Musa and climbing Mount Hor and bypassing an unpassable waterfall: they slipped into the ancient city unnoticed, under the cover of darkness, before exploring the Nabatean palaces.
This feat made them legendary figures amongst the Israeli youth of the time, for whom Petra had represented an impenetrable citadel. "We had only a compass and a map on a small scale, but, enough to find our way to Petra," Har-Zion recalled. In 1953 he was one of the founding members of Unit 101, he took part in the unit's first operation at the end of August 1953. Sixteen men with two jeeps, two command cars and a reconnaissance aircraft attacked the'Azazme bedouin camps around the wells at al Auja, their tents were burnt and anything attempting to reach the water was shot at. On the night of 14–15 October 1953 around 65 men from Unit 101 joined a larger IDF force in an attack on the village of Qibya, in what became known as the Qibya massacre. Har-Zion commanded one of three squads sent to ambush any reinforcements coming from Ni'lin and Shuqba. In another night time attack, 18–19 December 1953, two Unit 101 squads led by Har-Zion ambushed a car on the Bethlehem to Hebron road. A Lebanese-born doctor serving in the Arab Legion, Mansour Awad, was killed.
The Israeli Prime Minister Moshe Sharett was annoyed that he had not been informed about the attack beforehand. Three nights Har-Zion led a four man squad on a 21-kilometre march to the outskirts of Hebron. Other missions that Har-Zion took part in included Operation Elkayam; the following year, 26 May 1954, Har-Zion was amongst a ten-man squad from the newly formed 890th Paratroop Battalion, led by its commander Ariel Sharon, which carried out a raid near Khirbet Jinba, south west of Hebron. Two National Guardsmen were killed in an ambush as well as two farmers and two camels. Sharett once again complained about not being informed and suspected that Minister of Defence Pinhas Lavon had not been consulted either. On 27–28 June 1954 Har-Zion was in a seven man squad led by Major Aharon Davidi that launched a surprise attack on an Arab Legion camp at Azzun, 13 km east of Qalqilya. Three Legionnaires were killed as well as a farmer, Rafi'a Abdel Aziz Omar, stabbed to death by Har-Zion to prevent him raising the alarm.
On their return to Israeli lines one of the team, wounded, Sergeant Yitzhak Jibli, was left behind. On discovering that Sergeant Jibli had been taken prisoner Chief of Staff Moshe Dayan approved a series of hostage taking raids. On 31 July – 1 August 1954 Har-Zion led a group of ten raiders who attacked two policemen near Jenin, taking one of them prisoner. On their way back they killed a farmer watching his fields. On the 30–31 August 1954 Har-Zion took part in Operation Binyamin 2; this operation was commanded by Ariel Sharon. The attackers were divided into four groups; the first attacked a school building in the village of Beit Liqya. The other three set ambushes for the expected arrival of reinforcements. Only Har-Zion's group were successful, they had strung a wire across the road with cans of petrol at each end. A car full of soldiers from the Arab Legion drove into the trap. Two were killed, three taken prisoner. Sergeant Yitzhak Jibli was released on 29 October 1954, four months after being wounded and captured.
In the middle of February 1955 Har-Zion's sister, along with her boyfriend Oded Wegmeister from Degania Bet, both 18, were capt
2006 Lebanon War
The 2006 Lebanon War called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War, was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights. The principal parties were the Israel Defense Forces; the conflict started on 12 July 2006, continued until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect in the morning on 14 August 2006, though it formally ended on 8 September 2006 when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon. Due to unprecedented Iranian military support to Hezbollah before and during the war, some consider it the first round of the Iran–Israel proxy conflict, rather than a continuation of the Arab–Israeli conflict; the conflict was precipitated by the 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid. On 12 July 2006, Hezbollah fighters fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence; the ambush left three soldiers dead.
Two Israeli soldiers were taken by Hezbollah to Lebanon. Five more were killed in a failed rescue attempt. Hezbollah demanded the release of Lebanese prisoners held by Israel in exchange for the release of the abducted soldiers. Israel responded with airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon. Israel attacked both Hezbollah military targets and Lebanese civilian infrastructure, including Beirut's Rafic Hariri International Airport; the IDF launched a ground invasion of Southern Lebanon. Israel imposed an air and naval blockade. Hezbollah launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the IDF in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions; the conflict is believed to have killed between 1,191 and 1,300 Lebanese people, 165 Israelis. It damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, displaced one million Lebanese and 300,000–500,000 Israelis. On 11 August 2006, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 in an effort to end the hostilities.
The resolution, approved by both the Lebanese and Israeli governments the following days, called for disarmament of Hezbollah, for withdrawal of the IDF from Lebanon, for the deployment of the Lebanese Armed Forces and an enlarged United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon in the south. UNIFIL was given an expanded mandate, including the ability to use force to ensure that their area of operations was not used for hostile activities, to resist attempts by force to prevent them from discharging their duties; the Lebanese Army began deploying in Southern Lebanon on 17 August 2006. The blockade was lifted on 8 September 2006. On 1 October 2006, most Israeli troops withdrew from Lebanon, although the last of the troops continued to occupy the border-straddling village of Ghajar. In the time since the enactment of UNSCR 1701 both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah; the remains of the two captured soldiers, whose fates were unknown, were returned to Israel on 16 July 2008 as part of a prisoner exchange.
Cross-border attacks from southern Lebanon into Israel by the Palestine Liberation Organization dated as far back as 1968, followed the Six-Day War. Starting about this time, increasing demographic tensions related to the Lebanese National Pact, which had divided governmental powers among religious groups throughout the country 30 years began running high and led in part to the Lebanese Civil War. Concurrently, Syria began a 29-year military occupation in 1976. Israel's 1978 invasion of Lebanon failed to stem the Palestinian attacks in the long run, but Israel invaded Lebanon again in 1982 and forcibly expelled the PLO. Israel withdrew to a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon, held with the aid of proxy militants in the South Lebanon Army; the invasion led to the conception of a new Shi'a militant group, which in 1985, established itself politically under the name Hezbollah, declared an armed struggle to end the Israeli occupation of Lebanese territory. When the Lebanese Civil War ended and other warring factions agreed to disarm, both Hezbollah and the SLA refused.
Ten years Israel withdrew from South Lebanon to the UN-designated and internationally recognized Blue Line border in 2000. The withdrawal led to the immediate collapse of the SLA, Hezbollah took control of the area. Citing continued Israeli control of the Shebaa farms region and the internment of Lebanese prisoners in Israel, Hezbollah intensified its cross-border attacks, used the tactic of seizing soldiers from Israel as leverage for a prisoner exchange in 2004. All told, from summer 2000, after the Israeli withdrawal, until summer 2006, Hezbollah conducted 200 attacks on Israel – most of them artillery fire, some raids and some via proxies inside Israel. In these attacks, including the attack that precipitated the Israeli response that developed into the war, 31 Israelis were killed and 104 were wounded. In August 2006, in an article in The New Yorker, Seymour Hersh claimed that the White House gave the green light for the Israeli government to execute an attack on Hezbollah in Lebanon. Communication between the Israeli government and the US government about this came as early as two months in advance of the capture of two Israeli soldiers and the killing of eight others by Hezbollah prior to the conflict in July 2006.
The US government denied these claims. According to
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing of animal milk – from cows or goats, but from buffaloes, horses, or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm, concerned with the harvesting of milk. Terminology differs between countries. For example, in the United States, an entire dairy farm is called a "dairy"; the building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is called a "milking parlor" or "parlor". Except in the case of smaller dairies, where cows are put on pasture, milked in "stanchion barns"; the farm area where milk is stored in bulk tanks is known as the farm's "milk house". Milk is hauled to a "dairy plant" = referred to as a "dairy" - where raw milk is further processed and prepared for commercial sale of dairy products. In New Zealand, farm areas for milk harvesting are called "milking parlours", are known as "milking sheds"; as in the United States, sometimes milking sheds are referred to by their type, such as "herring bone shed" or "pit parlour".
Parlour design has evolved from simple barns or sheds to large rotary structures in which the workflow is efficiently handled. In some countries those with small numbers of animals being milked, the farm may perform the functions of a dairy plant, processing their own milk into salable dairy products, such as butter, cheese, or yogurt; this on-site processing is a traditional method of producing specialist milk products, common in Europe. In the United States a dairy can be a place that processes and sells dairy products, or a room, building or establishment where milk is stored and processed into milk products, such as butter or cheese. In New Zealand English the singular use of the word dairy exclusively refers to a corner shop, or superette; this usage is historical. As an attributive, the word dairy refers to milk-based products and processes, the animals and workers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat. A dairy farm produces a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products.
These establishments constitute a component of the food industry. Milk producing animals have been domesticated for thousands of years, they were part of the subsistence farming that nomads engaged in. As the community moved about the country, their animals accompanied them. Protecting and feeding the animals were a big part of the symbiotic relationship between the animals and the herders. In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local consumption, a typical example of a cottage industry; the animals might serve multiple purposes. In this case the animals were milked by hand and the herd size was quite small, so that all of the animals could be milked in less than an hour—about 10 per milker; these tasks were performed by a dairyman. The word dairy harkens back to Middle English dayerie, from deye and further back to Old English dæge. With industrialisation and urbanisation, the supply of milk became a commercial industry, with specialised breeds of cattle being developed for dairy, as distinct from beef or draught animals.
More people were employed as milkers, but it soon turned to mechanisation with machines designed to do the milking. The milking and the processing took place close together in space and time: on a dairy farm. People milked the animals by hand. Hand-milking is accomplished by grasping the teats in the hand and expressing milk either by squeezing the fingers progressively, from the udder end to the tip, or by squeezing the teat between thumb and index finger moving the hand downward from udder towards the end of the teat; the action of the hand or fingers is designed to close off the milk duct at the udder end and, by the movement of the fingers, close the duct progressively to the tip to express the trapped milk. Each half or quarter of the udder is emptied one milk-duct capacity at a time; the stripping action is repeated. Both methods result in the milk, trapped in the milk duct being squirted out the end into a bucket, supported between the knees of the milker, who sits on a low stool. Traditionally the cow, or cows, would stand in the paddock while being milked.
Young stock, would have to be trained to remain still to be milked. In many countries, the cows milked. While most countries produce their own milk products, the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world. In major milk-producing countries most milk is distributed through whole sale markets. In Ireland and Australia, for example, farmers' co-operatives own many of the large-scale processors, while in the United States many farmers and processors do business through individual contracts. In the United States, the country's 196 farmers' cooperatives sold 86% of milk in the U. S. in 2002, with five cooperatives accounting for half that. This was down from 2,300 cooperatives in the 1940s. In developing countries, the past practice of farmers marketing milk in their own neighborhoods is changing rapidly. Notable
Faqqu'a is a village on the northern West Bank, known for its cactus fruits, located along the Green Line on the Gilboa ridge. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 3,490 inhabitants in mid-year 2006, an Muslim population; the village belongs to the Jenin Governorate. The village's history is rather unknown, although there are numerous findings that reveal a Roman or Byzantine presence. Roman coins have been found in the area and there are several sites that are believed to be burial grounds as well as remains of ancient olive oil production. It’s possible to find fragments of ancient pottery when wandering around the surrounding olive orchards. There is a common belief in local folklore that a Roman settlement once thrived nearby the current village. In 1838, Fuku'a was noted as one of a range of villages round a height, the other villages being named as Deir Abu Da'if, Beit Kad, Deir Ghuzal and Araneh, it was located in the Jenin district. In 1870 Victor Guérin visited the village and noted that the village gave name to the mountain range.
He further noted. There were several old cisterns cut into the rock, some gardens bordered by cactus. In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Fukua as "A large village on top of a spur, it gives its name to the Gilboa range, called Jebel Fukua. It is surrounded by olive-gardens, supplied by cisterns east and west of the village." In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Faqu'a had a population of 553. In the 1945 statistics, Faqqu'a had a population of 880 Muslims, the jurisdiction of the village was 30,179 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 1,131 dunams were used for plantations and irrigable land, 8,440 dunams for cereals, while 22 dunams were built-up land. In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Faqqua came under Jordanian rule; the Jordanian census of 1961 found 1,099 inhabitants in Faqqu'a. After the Six-Day War in 1967, Faqqua has been under Israeli occupation.
The village is located in the most northeastern part of the West Bank, 11 km east of the city of Jenin, adjacent to the Green Line. Faqqu'a lies just below the ridge of the Gilboa hills, which locals eponymously call Jebel Faqqu'a, overlooking the fertile Jezreel Valley, the city of Jenin and other Palestinian villages; the higher part of the range, located on the Israeli side, is now an area where people come to hike or to enjoy the blooming of wild flowers during springtime. The scenic view from the top is spectacular. Villagers owned 36,000 dunams of land before the 1948 Arab-Israeli War in; the village itself lies on a hill about 450 meters above sea level. The area around Faqqu'a is rocky, but there are terraces, which make it suitable for a number of trees, such as almond and olive trees which dominate the habitat. There are patches of small plains scattered around the area that have been utilized to grow different produce such as wheat, lentils in the winter, vegetables during the summer period.
The village's 3,490 inhabitants are Muslim, in contrast to some neighboring villages which have a mixed population of both Muslim and Christian families. The social structure in the village is somewhat different from a typical western community. A traditional Palestinian village is built up by a so-called family-clan structure of a hamula, where social and gender relations are organized around a system of production and re-production. If the importance of the hamula has declined immensely, the clan-structure still exists; every hamula can be sub-divided in Arabic ayle. Within each ayle there are several nuclear families; the most important group today is, the ayle. There at least 15 extended families in Faqqu'a today; the ten largest families are. Agriculture had earlier been the prime source of income, but modernisation has seen most families survive by earning their livelihood from other sectors while farming land on afternoons and weekends; some people are involved in construction, while other have businesses in Jenin, less than 11 kilometres from Faqqu'a.
Academics, are more to find work in neighbouring cities such as Nablus or Ramallah where political and economical life is centred. Commuting between the regions has become an endeavour due to the numerous Israel Defense Forces checkpoints; the water conditions in Faqqu'a are similar to problems seen in other parts in the West Bank. The situation has become worse since the start of the Al-Aqsa Intifada, since high water price and the economic hardship have aggravated the water shortage further. Faqqua's only water source is the Abu'Ahed well in the village of Deir Ghazaleh located about 5 kilometres away. Water is transported via tankers due to the lack of a water network; the Israeli West Bank barrier in the area of Faqqu'a is a fence system that runs along the Green line, which the village straddles. The construction of the barrier, which the village was informed of in 2003 and, completed two years resulted in the expropriation of 245 dunum upon which grew 350 olive trees as well as
A kibbutz is a collective community in Israel, traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degania. Today, farming has been supplanted by other economic branches, including industrial plants and high-tech enterprises. Kibbutzim began as a combination of socialism and Zionism. In recent decades, some kibbutzim have been privatized and changes have been made in the communal lifestyle. A member of a kibbutz is called a kibbutznik. In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel, their factories and farms account for 9% of Israel's industrial output, worth US$8 billion, 40% of its agricultural output, worth over $1.7 billion. Some kibbutzim had developed substantial high-tech and military industries. For example, in 2010, Kibbutz Sasa, containing some 200 members, generated $850 million in annual revenue from its military-plastics industry; the kibbutzim are organised in the secular Kibbutz Movement with some 230 kibbutzim, the Religious Kibbutz Movement with 16 kibbutzim and the much smaller religious Poalei Agudat Yisrael with two kibbutzim, all part of the wider communal settlement movement.
The kibbutzim were founded by members of the Bilu movement. Like the members of the First Aliyah who came before them and established agricultural villages, most members of the Second Aliyah planned to become farmers; the first kibbutz was Degania Alef, founded in 1909. Joseph Baratz, one of the pioneers of the kibbutz movement, wrote a book about his experiences. We were happy enough working on the land, but we knew more and more that the ways of the old settlements were not for us; this was not the way we hoped to settle the country—this old way with Jews on top and Arabs working for them. There must be a better way. Though Baratz and others wanted to farm the land themselves, becoming independent farmers was not a realistic option in 1909; as Arthur Ruppin, a proponent of Jewish agricultural colonization of the Trans-Jordan would say, "The question was not whether group settlement was preferable to individual settlement. The Galilee was swampy, the Judaean Mountains rocky, the south of the country, the Negev, was a desert.
To make things more challenging, most of the settlers had no prior farming experience. The sanitary conditions were poor. Malaria and cholera were rampant. Bedouins settled areas. Sabotage of irrigation canals and burning of crops were common. Living collectively was the most logical way to be secure in an unwelcoming land. On top of safety considerations, establishing a farm was a capital-intensive project; the land had been purchased by the greater Jewish community. From around the world, Jews dropped coins into Jewish National Fund "Blue Boxes" for land purchases in Palestine. In 1909, nine other men, two women established themselves at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee near the Arab village of Umm Juni/Juniya; these teenagers had hitherto worked as day laborers converting wetlands for human development, as masons, or as hands at the older Jewish settlements. Their dream was now to work for themselves, they called their community "Kvutzat Degania", now Degania Alef. The founders of Degania endured backbreaking labor: "The body is crushed, the legs fail, the head hurts, the sun burns and weakens," wrote one of the pioneers.
At times, half of the kibbutz members could not report for many left. Despite the difficulties, by 1914, Degania had fifty members. Other kibbutzim were founded around the Sea of the nearby Jezreel Valley; the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, followed by the arrival of the British, brought with it benefits for the Jewish community of Palestine and its kibbutzim. The Ottoman authorities had made immigration to Palestine restricted land purchases. Rising antisemitism forced many Jews to flee Eastern Europe. To escape the pogroms, tens of thousands of Russian Jews immigrated to Palestine in the early 1920s, in a wave of immigration, called the Third Aliyah. Zionist Jewish youth movements flourished in the 1920s, from right-wing movements like Betar to left-wing socialist groups such as Dror, Brit Haolim, HabBonim, Hashomer Hatzair. In contrast to those who came as part of the Second Aliyah, these youth group members had some agricultural training before embarking. Members of the Second Aliyah and Third Aliyah were less to be Russian, since emigration from Russia was closed off after the Russian Revolution.
European Jews who settled on kibbutzim between the World Wars were from other countries in Eastern Europe, including Germany. In the early days, communal meetings were limited to practical matters, but in the 1920s and 1930s, they became more informal. Instead of meeting in the dining room, the group would sit around a campfire. Rather than reading minutes, the session would begin with a group dance. Remembering her youth on a kibbutz on the shores of the Kinneret, one woman said: "Oh, how beautiful it was when we all took part in the discussions, nights of searching for one another—that is what I call