Taosi is an archaeological site in Xiangfen County, China. Taosi is considered to be part of the late phase of the Longshan culture in southern Shanxi known as the Taosi phase. Taosi was surrounded by a gigantic rammed-clay enclosure; this was discovered from 1999 to 2001 by the archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Rectangular in form with an inner area of 280 ha. An internal rammed-earth wall separated the residential and ceremonial areas of the elite from the areas inhabited by commoners, signifying the development of a stratified society. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric dating from 2300 BCE excavated at the astronomical site of Taosi is the oldest gnomon known in China; the gnomon was used in ancient China from the second century BC onward in order determine the changes in seasons and geographical latitude. The ancient Chinese used shadow measurements for creating calendars that are mentioned in several ancient texts. According to the collection of Zhou Chinese poetic anthologies Classic of Poetry, one of the distant ancestors of King Wen of the Zhou dynasty used to measure gnomon shadow lengths to determine the orientation around the 14th-century BC.
The Huaxia settlement outgrew the perimeter of the wall. The settlement is the largest Longshan site discovered in the Linfen basin, Yellow River basin area a regional center; the settlement represents the most political system on the Central Plains at the time. The polites in the Taosi site are considered an advanced chiefdom, but may not have not developed into a higher political organization, it was not the Taosi polites but, the less complex Central Plains Longshan sites, the scattered, multi-system competing systems that gave rise to early states in this region. Taosi contained an astronomical observatory, the oldest in East Asia; this was discovered in 2003-2004. Archaeologists unearthed a Middle Taosi period semi-round foundation just beside southern wall of the Middle Taosi enclosure, which could be used for astronomical observations; the structure consists of an outer semi-ring-shaped path, a semi-round rammed-earth platform with a diameter of about 60 m. The platform is 42m over 1000 sq m in area.
It can be reconstructed as a three-level altar. Standing in the center of the altar and watching through the slots, one can find that most of slots orientate to a given point of the Chongfen Mountain to the east; the cemetery of Taosi covered an area of 30,000 square meters at its height. The cemetery contained over 1,500 burials; the burials at Taosi were stratified, with burial wealth concentrated in the graves of a few males. The largest graves were placed in separated rooms with murals, had a large cache of grave goods. A single bronze bell was found at a Taosi grave; some Chinese archaeologists believe that Taosi was the site of a state Youtang conquered by Emperor Yao and made to be his capital. According to some Chinese classic documents such as Yao Dian in Shang Shu, Wudibenji in Shiji, the King Yao assigned astronomic officers to observe celestial phenomena such as the sunrise and the evening stars in culmination in order to make a solar and lunar calendar with 366 days for a year providing for the leap month.
The observatory found at Taosi just coincides with these records. On the other hand, Western scholars tend to believe, it is believed. Chang, Kwang-chih; the Archaeology of Ancient China, ISBN 0-300-03784-8 He, Nu and Wu, Jiabi. Astronomical date of the "observatory" at Taosi site Higham, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, ISBN 0-521-56505-7 Liu, Li; the Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States, ISBN 0-521-81184-8
The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China. It is dated from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC; the culture is named after Yangshao, the first excavated site of this culture, discovered in 1921 in Mianchi County, Henan Province by the Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson. The culture flourished in the provinces of Henan and Shanxi; the main food of the Yangshao people was millet, with some sites using foxtail millet and others broom-corn millet, though some evidence of rice has been found. The exact nature of Yangshao agriculture, small-scale slash-and-burn cultivation versus intensive agriculture in permanent fields, is a matter of debate. Once the soil was exhausted, residents picked up their belongings, moved to new lands, constructed new villages. However, Middle Yangshao settlements such as Jiangzhi contain raised-floor buildings that may have been used for the storage of surplus grains. Grinding stones for making flour were found; the Yangshao people kept dogs.
Sheep and cattle are found much more rarely. Much of their meat came from fishing, their stone tools were polished and specialized. They may have practiced an early form of silkworm cultivation; the Yangshao culture crafted pottery. Yangshao artisans created fine white and black painted pottery with human facial and geometric designs. Unlike the Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels in pottery-making. Excavations found; the Yangshao culture produced silk to a small wove hemp. Men tied their hair in a top knot. Women tied their hair in a bun. Houses were built by digging a rounded rectangular pit a few feet deep, they were rammed, a lattice of wattle was woven over it. It was plastered with mud; the floor was rammed down. Next, a few short wattle poles would be placed around the top of the pit, more wattle would be woven to it, it was plastered with mud, a framework of poles would be placed to make a cone shape for the roof. Poles would be added to support the roof, it was thatched with millet stalks.
There was little furniture. Food and items were hung against the walls. A pen would be built outside for animals. Yangshao villages covered ten to fourteen acres and were composed of houses around a central square. Although early reports suggested a matriarchal culture, others argue that it was a society in transition from matriarchy to patriarchy, while still others believe it to have been patriarchal; the debate hinges on differing interpretations of burial practices. The discovery of a dragon statue dating back to the fifth millennium BC in the Yangshao culture makes it the world's oldest known dragon depiction, the Han Chinese continue to worship dragons to this day; the Yangshao, Mianchi County, Sanmenxia City, the place which gave the culture its name, there is today a museum next to the site. The archaeological site of Banpo village, near Xi'an, is one of the best-known ditch-enclosed settlements of the Yangshao culture. Another major settlement called Jiangzhai was excavated out to its limits, archaeologists found that it was surrounded by a ring-ditch.
Both Banpo and Jiangzhai yielded incised marks on pottery which a few have interpreted as numerals or precursors to the Chinese script, but such interpretations are not accepted. The Yangshao culture is conventionally divided into three phases: The early period is represented by the Banpo, Jiangzhai and Dadiwan sites in the Wei River valley in Shaanxi; the middle period saw an expansion of the culture in all directions, the development of hierarchies of settlements in some areas, such as western Henan. The late period saw a greater spread of settlement hierarchies; the first wall of rammed earth in China was built around the settlement of Xishan in central Henan. The Majiayao culture to the west is now considered a separate culture that developed from the middle Yangshao culture through an intermediate Shilingxia phase. Ceramics List of Neolithic cultures of China Dawenkou culture Hemudu culture Majiayao culture Majiabang culture Hongshan culture Prehistoric Beifudi site Xishuipo
Chengziya spelled Chengziyai, is a Chinese archaeological site and the location of the first discovery of the neolithic Longshan culture in 1928. The discovery of the Longshan culture at Chengziya was a significant step towards understanding the origins of Chinese civilization. Chengziya remains the largest prehistorical settlement found to date; the site is located in Shandong province, about 25 kilometres to the east of the provincial capital Jinan. It is made accessible by the Chengziya Ruins Museum. Chengziya is located about 1 kilometre west of Longshan Town under the administration of Zhangqiu City and about 25 kilometres east of the provincial capital of Jinan; the site is located to the north of provincial road S102 and less than 1 kilometre to the south of the Dragon Lake. Other landmarks in the area are the ruins of the old city wall; the ancient settlement of Chengziya was constructed around 2600 BC and was located on a tableland near the old Guanlu and Wuyuan rivers. The name Chengziya "city cliff" refers to this location and the wall that encloses the settlement.
The Wuyan River flows in the north-south direction to the west of the settlement. The Chengziya settlement had rectangular layout with edges oriented along the north-south and east-west directions. While the western and eastern walls are straight, the northern wall juts outward following the terrain; the settlement hence covered an area of about 200,000 square meters and was enclosed by a hangtu wall that stood about 7 metres tall, was 10 metres wide at the base and tapered off to a width 5 metres at the top. The technique for erecting the walls from pounded earth was a new innovation at the time. Successive layers ranging between 12 and 14 centimetres in thickness were each compacted before the next layer was added. On the outside of the walls was a deep moat, fed by water from a nearby river; as there are no major walls inside the settlement, the layout conforms to the style of a "platform city". Chenziya is at the center of a cluster of more than 40 sites belonging to the Longshan Culture; these sites come in three size classes: sites covering from a few thousand up to 10,000 square meters are thought to belong to the ju referred to in ancient documents.
Larger sites up to 50,000 square meters are believed to be yi and Chengziya itself has been identified as a du. Based on thick deposits found at the site, the population of the Chengziya has been estimated to be in the tens of thousands. After the decline of the Longshan culture, the Chengziya site was occupied by two more walled settlements. One belonging to the Yueshi culture 1900–1500 BC) and the other dated to the time of the Zhou dynasty; the site was discovered in 1928 by the archaeologist Wu Jinding It was the first discovery of relics from the Longshan Culture, named for the nearby Longshan and the village of the same name. The first excavations on the site were carried out in the years 1930 and 1931; this was the first time that such field research was carried out by Chinese archaeologists using modern methods. Additional excavations were carried out in 1990 by the Archaeological Institute of Shandong Province on the southern side of the provincial road. Excavations at the site have unearthed the foundations of houses, pottery kilns and wells as well as pottery items, stone tools, oracle bones, weapons.
Characteristic items found at the site include fine black polished pottery, in particular wheel-turned vessels with an angular outline, abundant gray pottery, as well as rectangular polished stone axes. Some of the pottery found; the objects found inside the Chengziya settlement were in general of higher quality than those of the surrounding areas, taken as an indication that Chengziya as a regional capital received tribute from the surrounding smaller settlements. Chengzija is one of the few neolithic sites. However, the recovered material does not allow it to be determined whether horses had been domesticated at the time; the Chengziya Ruins Museum is located 100 m to the east of the neolithic settlement. It covers an area of 20,000 square meters of which 4,000 square meters are occupied by the main building; the museum building was designed by an expert on historical buildings. The building is shaped like a mythical bird with the wings containing the exhibition halls and the body conference facilities.
The museum was opened in September 1994, the total construction cost was 6 million Chinese Yuan. The museum complex houses the Jinan Longshan Culture Research Institute. Since its opening, the museum has received more than 500,000 visitors; the remains of the Longshan Culture at Chengziya are cultivated by the government as a source of national pride in the long history of Chinese civilization. The Chengziya site was among the first historical and cultural sites to be placed under government protection in 1961. Furthermore, it has since been declared a first-tier "patriotism education" site by the municipal and provincial government, its political importa
The Peiligang culture was a Neolithic culture in the Yi-Luo river basin that existed from 7000 to 5000 BC. Over 100 sites have been identified with the Peiligang culture, nearly all of them in a compact area of about 100 square kilometers in the area just south of the river and along its banks; the culture is named after the site discovered in 1977 at a village in Xinzheng County. Archaeologists believe that the Peiligang culture was egalitarian, with little political organization; the culture practiced agriculture in the form of cultivating millet and animal husbandry in the form of raising pigs and poultry. The people hunted deer and wild boar, fished for carp in the nearby river, using nets made from hemp fibers; the culture is one of the oldest in ancient China to make pottery. This culture had separate residential and burial areas, or cemeteries, like most Neolithic cultures. Common artifacts include stone arrowheads and axe heads; the site at Jiahu is the earliest site associated with Peiligang culture.
There are many similarities between the main group of Peiligang settlements and the Jiahu culture, isolated several days' travel to the south of the main group. Archaeologists are divided about the relationship between the main group. Most agree. A few archaeologists are pointing to the differences, as well as the distance, believing that Jiahu was a neighbor that shared many cultural characteristics with Peiligang, but was a separate culture; the cultivation of rice, for example, was unique to Jiahu and was not practiced among the villages of the main Peiligang group in the north. Jiahu existed for several hundred years before any of the settlements of the main group. Jiahu symbols Prehistoric Beifudi site Liu, Li; the Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 74–78. ISBN 978-0-521-81184-2. Liu, Li; the Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 141–150. ISBN 978-0-521-64310-8
Hemp, or industrial hemp found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species, grown for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago, it can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, biofuel and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol, they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects; the legality of industrial hemp varies between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp, bred with an low THC content; the etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word.
It appears to have been borrowed into Latin, separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that hemp was not spread among different societies until after it was being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. Barber however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, the name for a source of oil and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, Swedish hampa. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothing, food, bioplastics and biofuel.
The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter; when oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids; the leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, pressed to make juice.
In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. In the UK, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used in food products and, as of 2000, was sold in health food stores or through mail order. A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories, they contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber, B vitamins, the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium and iron. About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk and soy. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed. Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was commonly used to make sail canvas; the word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen; because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, accessories, dog collars, ho
Niuheliang is a Neolithic archaeological site in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, along the middle and upper reaches of the Laoha River and the Yingjin River. Discovered in 1983, Niuheliang site belongs to the Hongshan culture, it includes evidence such as a temple, an altar and a cairn. Niuheliang is a large burial site scattered over hill tops over a 50 square kilometer area; the altitude of Niuheliang ranges between 550 680 meters above sea level. Niuheliang dates to 3,500-3,000 BCE, it was a sacrificial center in the late Hongshan period. No residential settlements have been discovered here so far; the site features a unique temple on a loam platform, with an altar and cairn complex, covering an area of around 5 km². The altar at Niuheliang was supported by painted, clay cylinders. A north-south axis connects this temple complex with a central peak of the Zhushan mountains, otherwise known as "Pig Mountain"; the subterranean ritual complex was built on a ridge and decorated with painted walls, referred to by Chinese archaeologists as the Goddess Temple, due to the discovery of a clay female head with jade inlaid eyes.
Pig dragons and large, clay figurines were found at Niuheliang. Some of the figurines are up to three times the size of real-life humans. Six groups of cairns were discovered nearby and west of the temple site; the primary burial goods accompanying the graves were jade artifacts, although most of the excavated graves had been looted. According to the excavator of this site, Guo Dashun, there are in fact two varieties of animals represented in the jades. One is a boar with flat snout, he found similar boar and bear symbolism in the vessels found at Xiaoheyan site. The bear has been worshipped in Northeast Asia, such as by the Ainu in northern Japan, in Siberia. Thus, Guo Dashun sees this site in the wider Northeast Asian context; some similarities with Xinglongwa culture of northeastern China have been pointed out. One year after the temple-cairns complex was discovered nearby a pyramidal structure "disguised" as a hill known as Zhuanshanzi, included during the Han dynasty in a section of the Great Wall.
Built with earth and imported stone, its structure is more elaborate than the cairns. This site contains some of the essential elements, temples and platforms, present in ancestor worship of the Chinese such as the Ming tombs 5000 years later. Allan, The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, ISBN 0-300-09382-9 Nelson, Sarah Milledge, The Archaeology of Northeast China: Beyond the Great Wall, ISBN 0-415-11755-0 Platt, Kevin Holden. "Miners Arrested for Damaging Chinese Archaeology Site". News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2008-07-11
The Dawenkou culture is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived in Shandong, but appeared in Anhui and Jiangsu, China. The culture existed from 4100 to 2600 BC. Turquoise and ivory artefacts are found at Dawenkou sites; the earliest examples of alligator drums appear at Dawenkou sites. Neolithic signs related to subsequent scripts, such as those of the Shang Dynasty, have been found on Dawenkou pottery. Archaeologists divide the culture into three phases: the early phase, the middle phase and the late phase. Based on the evidence from grave goods, the early phase was egalitarian; the phase is typified by the presence of individually designed, long-stemmed cups. Graves built with earthen ledges became common during the latter parts of the early phase. During the middle phase, grave goods began to emphasize quantity over diversity. During the late phase, wooden coffins began to appear in Dawenkou burials; the culture became stratified, as some graves contained no grave goods while others contained a large quantity of grave goods.
The type site at Dawenkou, located in Tai'an, was excavated in 1959, 1974 and 1978. Only the middle layer at Dawenkou is associated with the Dawenkou culture, as the earliest layer corresponds to the Beixin culture and the latest layer corresponds to the early Shandong variant of the Longshan culture; the Dawenkou interacted extensively with the Yangshao culture. "For two and a half millennia of its existence the Dawenkou was, however, in a dynamic interchange with the Yangshao Culture, in which process of interaction it sometimes had the lead role, notably in generating Longshan. Scholars have noted similarities between the Dawenkou and the Liangzhu culture as well as the related cultures of the Yantze River basin. According to some scholars, the Dawenkou culture may have a link with a pre-Austronesian language. Other researchers note a similarity between Dawenkou inhabitants and modern Austronesian people in cultural practices such as tooth avulsion and architecture; the physical similarity of the Jiahu people to the Dawenkou indicates that the Dawenkou might have descended from the Jiahu, following a slow migration along the middle and lower reaches of the Huai river and the Hanshui valley.
Other scholars have speculated that the Dawenkou originate in nearby regions to the south. The Dawenkou culture descends from the Beixin culture, but is influenced by the northward expanding Longqiuzhuang culture located between the Yangtze and Huai rivers; the people of Dawenkou exhibited a Sinodont dental pattern. The Dawenkou were physically dissimilar to the neolithic inhabitants of Hemudu, Southern China and Taiwan; the term "chiefdom" seems to be appropriate in describe the political organization of the Dawenkou. A dominant kin group held sway over Dawenkou village sites, though power was most manifested through religious authority rather than coercion. Unlike the Beixin culture from which they descend, the people of the Dawenkou culture were noted for being engaged in violent conflict. Scholars suspect that they may have engaged in raids for land, crops and prestige goods; the warm and wet climate of the Dawenkou area was suitable for a variety of crops, though they farmed millet at most sites.
Their production of millet was quite successful and storage containers have been found that could have contained up to 2000 kg of millet, once decomposition is accounted for, have been found. For some of the southern Dawenkou sites, rice was a more important crop however during the late Dawenkou period. Analysis done on human remains at Dawenkou sites in southern Shandong revealed that the diet of upper-class Dawenkou individuals consisted of rice, while ordinary individuals ate millet; the Dawenkou domesticated chicken, dogs and cattle, but no evidence of horse domestication was found. Pig remains are by far most abundant, accounting for about 85% of the total, are thought to be the most important domesticated animal. Pig remains were found in Dawenkou burials highlighting their importance. Seafood was an important staple of the Dawenkou diet. Fish and various shellfish mounds have been found in the early periods indicating that they were important food sources. Although these piles became less frequent in the stages, seafood remained an important part of the diet.
Dawenkou's inhabitants were the earliest practitioners of trepanation in prehistoric China. A skull of a Dawenkou man dating to 3000 BC was found with severe head injuries which appeared to have been remedied by this primitive surgery. List of Neolithic cultures of China Longshan culture Richard J. Pearson – this Canadian archaeologist has published extensively on Dawenkou burials and social status. Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors Yangshao culture Allan, The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, ISBN 0-300-09382-9 Liu, Li; the Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States, ISBN 0-521-81184-8 Underhill, Anne P. Craft Production and Social Change in Northern China, ISBN 0-306-46771-2