El Ferik Ibrahim Abboud was a Sudanese president and political figure. A career soldier, Abboud served in World War II in Egypt and Iraq. In 1949, Abboud became the deputy Commander in Chief of the Sudanese military. Upon independence, Abboud became the Commander in Chief of the Military of Sudan, he served as the head of state of Sudan between 1958 and 1964 and as president of Sudan in 1964. Ibrahim Abboud was born 26 October 1900 at Mohammed-Gol, near the old port city of Suakin on the Red Sea, he trained at the Military College in Khartoum. He received a commission in the Egyptian Army in 1918 and transferred to the Sudan Defence Force in 1925, after its creation separate from the Egyptian army. During World War II he served in Eritrea, in Ethiopia, with the Sudan Defence Force, with the British army in North Africa. After the war, Abboud rose to commander of the Sudan Defence Force in 1949 and assistant commander in chief in 1954. With the declaration of independence for the Sudan in 1956, he was made commander in chief of the Sudanese military forces.
After the Sudanese army staged a coup d'état in November 1958, overthrowing the civilian government of Abdullah Khalil, Gen. Abboud led the new military government. Between 1956 and 1958, Sudanese nationalist leaders from both major parties sought to find solutions to the intractable problems of building a nation, developing the economy and creating a permanent constitution. Neither Ismail al-Azhari, leader of the Nationalist Unionist party and the first prime minister of the Sudan, nor his rival, Abdullah Khalil, the Umma party leader and successor to al-Azhari as prime minister, was able to overcome the weaknesses of the political system or to grapple with the country's problems. Parliamentary government was so discredited that Gen. Abboud, who had remained studiously aloof from politics, led a coup d'état on 17 November 1958, to end, in his words, "the state of degeneration and instability of the country." The Council of State and cabinet were dismissed and all political parties were declared dissolved, the constitution was suspended.
At first Abboud and his ruling Supreme Council of Twelve had the tacit support of the Sudanese politicians and people. The country was tired of the intrigues of the politicians and was prepared to permit the military to inaugurate an efficient and incorruptible administration. There was opposition only within the military in the first few months of the military government; this was the result of disagreements among the senior military leaders. But within a year many younger officers, cadets, rose to challenge Abboud's position. All of them were suppressed. Abboud moved swiftly to deal with the Sudan's problems; the provisional constitution was suspended and all political parties dissolved. The price of Sudanese cotton was lowered, the surplus from the crop of 1958 and the bumper crop of 1959 was sold, easing the financial crisis. An agreement was reached with Egypt concerning the division of the Nile waters, although the Sudan did not receive as great an allotment as many Sudanese thought equitable, Egypt recognized the independence of the Sudan, frontier conflicts ceased.
In 1961, an ambitious 10-year development plan was launched, designed to end the Sudan's dependence on cotton exports and many foreign manufactured imports. Although Abboud dealt with the important economic problems and improved foreign relations, he made little attempt to capitalize on his successes to forge a political following outside the army, his political independence enabled him to act decisively, but his actions alienated large segments of the population, which his government needed to remain in power without resort to force. He sought to meet demands of the population for increased participation in government by instituting a system of local representative government and the "erection of a central council... in a pyramid with the local councils as a base." The creation of such councils shifted increased power to the rural areas, whose conservatism would counter complaints from the more liberal urban critics who were becoming frustrated by arbitrary administration. In spite of its weaknesses, Abboud's government might have lasted longer if not for the "southern problem."
Abboud was popular or, at least, respected. He was invited to the White House in 1961, where President John F. Kennedy praised the Sudan for having set a good example for living in peace with its neighbours. In the non-Arabic, non-Muslim southern Sudan, the arbitrary rule of the military government produced a more negative reaction than in the north. Thus, the government's vigorous program of Arabization and Islamization in the south provoked strikes in the schools and open revolt in the countryside. Opposition to the government was met by force, many southerners fled as refugees into the neighbouring countries. By 1963 the conflict had escalated to a civil war in which the northern troops held the towns while the southern guerrillas roamed the countryside. Abboud's forces were responsible for large numbers of deaths in Kodok and Maridi, overall his government was responsible for the deaths of more Sudanese people than any other head of state until Omar al Bashir. In August 1964, in a desperate attempt to find a solution to the enervating campaign in the south, Abboud established a 25-man commission to study the problem and make recommendations for its solution.
When the commission, in turn, asked for public debate on the "southern question," the stude
National Umma Party
The National Umma Party is an Islamic centrist political party in Sudan. In August 1944 Sayyid Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, leader of the Ansar, met with senior Congress members and tribal leaders to discuss formation of a pro-independence political party, not associated with Mahdism; the first step taken was the launch of al-Umma. In February 1945 the al-Umma party had been organized and the party's first secretary, Abdullah Khalil, applied for a government license; the constitution made no mention of the Ansar. The only visible link to Abd al-Rahman was the party's reliance on him for funding. However, there were rumors that al-Umma had been created by the government and aimed to place Abd al-Rahman on the throne; these rumors persisted until June 1945, when the government publicly said it would not support a Mahdist monarchy. Sadiq al-Mahdi has been the prominent leader of the faction through much of the last century to the present day. In 2002, 37 elected members split from the National Umma Party and formed the Umma Party led by Mubarak al Fadil al Mahdi, the first cousin of Sadiq al-Mahdi, this party joined the ranks of the National Congress Party Government and stayed in governance until Mubarak al-Fadil was dismissed from office.
The Umma Party further split into four factions and was dissolved to re-join the National Umma Party. All members of the Umma Party were integrated back into the Umma National Party except for Mubarak al-Fadil due to allegations of conspiracy with the State of South Sudan and for spreading slander and false information about colleagues in the National Umma Party and colleagues in the opposition; the most prominent of Umma factions was the Umma Party headed by Mubarak al Fadil al Mahdi, former Interior Minister when the Umma Party was last in power under Sadiq as Prime Minister from 1986 to 1989. Another faction of the Umma Party is led by Information Minister Alzahawi Ibrahim Maalik. Another faction of the Umma Party is led by Dr. al Sadiq al Hadi al Mahdi, the nephew of Mubarak al Fadil and first cousin of Sadiq al Mahdi. Dr al Sadiq is the son of Imam al Hadi al Mahdi who led a faction of the Umma Party that rivaled a faction, led by Sadiq al Mahdi in the 1960s. Dr al Sadiq is an advisor to the President of Sudan.
The Umma Party is part of the current government and has agreed to continue cooperation with Sudan's ruling National Congress Party in the mid-interim period after 2008. The last faction of the Umma Party is the Federal Umma Party, led by Ahmad Babiker Nahar, ex Secretary General of Umma Party who formed his party as a result of being wrongfully fired from post by Mubarak al Fadil, he now serves as the current minister of Environment and Physical Development. Umma Party Sudan Electionnaire
Sudan or the Sudan the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Libya to the northwest, it has a population of 39 million people and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and English; the capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma, the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the rise of the kingdom of Kush, which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century. After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. From the 16th–19th centuries and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north; this period saw Arabization. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman; this state was destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would govern Sudan together with Egypt. The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983; this exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the animists and Christians in the south.
Differences in language and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces influenced by the National Islamic Front and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. In April 2019, following contentious protests that faced fierce resistance from the Omar al-Bashir regime, the Sudanese military, under the command of Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf, took control of the nation and established a Transitional Military Council; this move dissolved the constitution. The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa; the name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or "the lands of the Blacks". The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black African slaves.
The idea of "Sudanese" nationalism goes back to the 1930s and 1940s, when it was popularized by young intellectuals. By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture; the population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, culturally nearly identical, thus evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC; the Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, the Atbarah River and the Nile River.
It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II; the Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city. The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.
Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland. Egypt became an Assyrian colony.
1986 Sudanese parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Sudan between 1 and 12 April 1986. They were the first multi-party elections in the country since 1968, saw a victory for the Umma Party, which emerged as the single largest party with 101 of the 260 seats in the National Assembly. No party emerged with a majority; the election took place amidst the Second Sudanese Civil War, voting was postponed indefinitely in 41 seats in Southern Sudan due to security concerns. Voter turnout was 67.5%
Eritrea the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, Djibouti in the southeast; the northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of 117,600 km2, includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands, its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea, first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890. Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around 5 million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Islam; the Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD.
It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien; the creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army in 1942, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision, in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament but for foreign affairs and defense it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for a period of 10 years. However, in 1962 the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea, but the Eritreans that argued for complete Eritrean independence since the ouster of the Italians in 1941, anticipated what was coming and in 1960 organized the Eritrean Liberation Front in opposition.
In 1991, after 30 years of continuous armed struggle for independence, the Eritrean liberation fighters entered the capital city, Asmara, in victory. Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have never been held since independence. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world; the Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. The compulsory military service requires long, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country to avoid; because all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was ranked as having the second-least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index, behind only North Korea. The sovereign state of Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, is an observer in the Arab League alongside Brazil, Venezuela and Turkey; the name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea.
It was first formally adopted with the formation of Italian Eritrea. The name persisted over the course of subsequent British and Ethiopian occupation, was reaffirmed by the 1993 independence referendum and 1997 constitution. At Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a possible link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind and provides a link between hominids and the earliest anatomically modern humans, it is believed that the section of the Danakil Depression in Eritrea was a major player in terms of human evolution, may contain other traces of evolution from Homo erectus hominids to anatomically modern humans. During the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans, it is believed that the area was on the route out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World.
In 1999, the Eritrean Research Project Team composed of Eritrean, American and French scientists discovered a Paleolithic site with stone and obsidian tools dated to over 125,000 years old near the Bay of Zula south of Massawa, along the Red Sea littoral. The tools are believed to have been used by early humans to harvest marine resources such as clams and oysters. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley. Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Together with Djibouti, northern Somalia, the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Eritrea is considered the most location of the land which the ancient Egyptians called Punt, first mentioned in the 25th century BC; the ancient Puntites had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the rule of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. This is confirmed by genetic studies of mummified baboons.
In 2010, a study was conducted on baboon mummies that were brought from Punt to Egypt as gifts by the ancient Egyptians. The scientists from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies, preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so t
1965 Sudanese parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Sudan on 21 April and 8 May 1965. Due to the civil war the seats in the south of the country were left vacant until by-elections on 8 March and 18 April 1967; the result was a second successive victory for the Umma Party. Voter turnout was 58.1%. Note these results include the 1967 by-elections
Asmara or Asmera is the capital and most populous city of Eritrea, in the country's Central Region. It sits at an elevation of 2,325 metres, making it the sixth highest capital in the world by altitude; the city is located at the tip of an escarpment, both the northwestern edge of the Eritrean highlands and the Great Rift Valley in neighbouring Ethiopia. In 2017, the city was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its well-preserved modernist architecture. Asmara was first settled in 800 BC with a population ranging from 100 to 1000; the city was founded in the 12th century CE after four separate villages unified to live together peacefully after long periods of conflict. According to Eritrean Tigrinya oral traditional history, there were four clans living in the Asmara area on the Kebessa Plateau: the Gheza Gurtom, the Gheza Shelele, the Gheza Serenser and Gheza Asmae; these towns were attacked by clans from the low land and from the rulers of "seger mereb melash", until the women of each clan decided that to defeat their common enemy and preserve peace the four clans must unite.
The men accepted, hence the name "Arbate Asmera". Arbate Asmara means, in the Tigrinya language, "the four made them unite". Arbate was dropped and it has been called Asmara which means "they made them unite". There is still a district called Arbaete Asmara in the Administrations of Asmara, it is now called the Italianized version of the word Asmara. The westernized version of the name is used by a majority of non-Eritreans, while the multilingual inhabitants of Eritrea and neighboring peoples remain loyal to the original pronunciation, Asmera; the missionary Remedius Prutky passed through Asmara in 1751, described in his memoirs that a church built there by Jesuit priests 130 years before was still intact. Asmara, a small village in the nineteenth century, started to grow when it was occupied by Italy in 1889. Governor Ferdinando Martini made it the capital city of Italian Eritrea in 1897, in preference to the Red Sea port of Massawa, since the city experienced a continuous growth. In the early 20th century, the Eritrean Railway was built to the coast, passing through the town of Ghinda, under the direction of Carlo Cavanna.
In both 1913 and 1915 the city suffered only slight damage in large earthquakes. A large Italian community developed. According to the 1939 census, Asmara had a population of 98,000. Only 75,000 Italians lived in all of Eritrea; the capital acquired an Italian architectural look. Europeans used Asmara "to experiment with radical new designs". By the late 1930s, Asmara was called Piccola Roma. Nowadays more than 400 buildings are of Italian origin, many shops still have Italian names; the Kingdom of Italy invested in the industrial development of Asmara, but the beginning of World War II stopped this. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation made Asmara a World Heritage Site in July 2017, saying “It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context”. In 1952, the United Nations resolved to federate the former colony under Ethiopian rule. During the Federation, Asmara was no longer the capital city; the capital was now Addis Ababa, over 1,000 kilometres to the south.
The national language of the city was therefore replaced from Tigrinya language to the Ethiopian Amharic language. In 1961, Emperor Haile Selassie I ended the "federal" arrangement and declared the territory to be the 14th province of the Ethiopian Empire. Ethiopia's biggest ally was the United States; the city was home to the US Army's Kagnew Station installation from 1943 until 1977. The Eritrean War of Independence began in 1961 and ended in 1991, resulting in the independence of Eritrea. Asmara was left undamaged throughout the war, as were the majority of highland regions. After independence, Asmara again became the capital of Eritrea. Four big landmarks of the city are the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the Kidane Mehret Cathedral of the Catholic faith, the Enda Mariam Cathedral of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Al Khulafa Al Rashiudin Mosque of the Islamic faith. Christians and Muslims have lived peacefully together in Asmara for centuries; the religious majority in Asmara are Orthodox Christians.
The population in the Central Region is 5 percent Muslim. The city lies at an elevation of 2,325 metres above sea level, it lies on north-south trending highlands known as the Eritrean Highlands, an extension of the Ethiopian Highlands. The temperate central portion, where Asmara lies, is situated on a rocky highland plateau, which separates the western lowlands from the eastern coastal plains; the lands that surround Asmara are fertile those to the south towards the Debub Region of Eritrea. The highlands that Asmara is located in fall away to reveal the eastern lowlands, characterized by the searing heat and humidity of the Eritrean salt pans, lapped by the Red Sea. To the west of the plateau stretches a vast semi-arid hilly terrain continuing all the way towards the border with Sudan through the Gash-Barka Region. Asmara features a somewhat rare version of a steppe climate, with warm, but not hot summ