The Bel Group is a multinational cheese marketer centered in France. The Bel Group is headquartered at 2 allée de Longchamp in Suresnes, it manufactures and distributes processed and semi processed cheeses packaged in individual portions. The company “Établissements Jules Bel” was founded in 1865 in Orgelet in the Department of the Jura; the Laughing Cow, Kiri and Boursin are Bel’s five core brands that are distributed on five continents. As of 2015, the Bel Group is established in thirty three countries, its products are sold in 130 countries; the company was founded in 1865 by Jules Bel. By 1921, his son Léon Bel registered The laughing Cow brand. Eight years in 1929, he created its first subsidiary in the United Kingdom. By 1933, another subsidiary was established in Belgium. In 1947, the Bonbel brand was launched. Three years in 1950, the company acquired Port Salut, founded in 1816. By 1952, it launched Babybel. A new subsidiary was established in Germany in 1959. Six years in 1965, another subsidiary was established in Spain.
The Kiri brand was launched in 1966. Meanwhile, a year in 1967, another subsidiary was established in the Netherlands; the following year, in 1968, Les Fromageries Picon merged with the company. By 1970, a new subsidiary was established in the United States. Two years in 1972, it acquired Samos and launched Sylphide; the following year, in 1973, it acquired Crowson in the United Kingdom to become known as Bel UK. That same year, it established a subsidiary in Switzerland to become known as Bel Suisse. A year in 1974, it established a subsidiary in Morocco known as SIALIM. In 1976, it acquired its subsidiaries. By 1977, it acquired an Italian company to become known as Bel Cademartori, it launched Mini Babybel. A year in 1978, it acquired another company in Sweden to become known as Bel Sverige. By 1989, it acquired the Adler company in Germany to become known as Bel Adler, it launched the Mini Bonbel in 1990. A year in 1991, it acquired the Maredsous company in Belgium. Three years in 1994, it acquired the Cademartori company in Italy to become known as Bel Cademartori in 2001.
It acquired the Queserías Ibéricas company in Spain. By 1996, it acquired the Lacto Ibérica company in Portugal and the Kaukauna company in the United States known as Bel Kaukauna. In 1998, it established a subsidiary in Egypt and acquired the Middle East Food Industry known as the Bel Egypt Food Company, it acquired Kraft Chorzele in Poland to become known as Bel Polska. Additionally, it launched Mini Babybel in Maasdam. By 2000, it acquired the Zeletavska Syrarna company in the Czech Republic and the Zempmilk company in Slovakia; the following year, in 2001, it established a subsidiary in Algeria, known as Bel Algeria. A year in 2002, it acquired the assets of Merkts and Owl’s Nest through its United States based subsidiary, Bel Kaukauna, it acquired Syrokrem in Slovakia and established subsidiaries in Greece and in Tunisia. Additionally, it terminated the production of soft cheese by the SAFR, it acquired the Dutch Leerdammer Group and its European subsidiaries based in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic.
It acquired Fromagerie Boursin from Unilever. In 2003, it terminated the activities of Manchego through its Queserías Ibéricas subsidiary. Two years in 2005, it terminated the activities carried out under the Cademartori brand. Meanwhile, it established subsidiary in Syria, known as Bel Syria. By 2009, it changed its logo. In 2015, it acquired 70 % of a cheese company in Morocco. Bel’s Corporate Foundation was created in May 2008 by the Bel group and its reference shareholder, Unibel; the Bel Foundation was created to promote a balanced diet and preserving the environment, as far as it is required for a healthy diet. Rather than support big initiatives, the Foundation supports a number of projects around the world. Lab’Bel is Bel’s Art Laboratory, inaugurated in the spring of 2010, sponsored by the Group and its main shareholder, Unibel. Heading up Lab’Bel are artist Laurent Fiévet, a member of the Bel family, Silvia Guerra, an art critic and exhibit curator. Since its founding, Bel has supported artists such as illustrators Benjamin Rabier, who designed the Laughing Cow, Francisque Poulbot, known for his iconic drawings of Parisian children, celebrated animator Paul Grimault.
Bel sponsors a museum dedicated to its legendary cow – La Maison de La vache qui rit, in Lons-le-Saunier – which houses special events hosted by Lab’Bel. List of cheesemakers Le Groupe Bel Fondation Bel
Annabel Linquist known as Bel, is an American artist, entrepreneur and producer. Annabel specializes creating custom paintings or "Charms" that "neurologically rewire" the brains of her collectors. According to Linquist, her work is "coded to repel ghosts" and is based on research in epigenetics and the occult. Annabel's commissioned "psychic paintings" and custom-made love songs are praised and known to be well loved in celebrity circles. Linquist is the creator of Book Report, a startup that became popular in 2011 by circulating a reincarnated series of Summer Guides that started as an underground Vanity Fair project, she is known for her work with Sony Ericsson's global promotional campaign for the Xperia Arc, which won a Webby Award in the Integrated Mobile Experience category in London and New York. Linquist created a song using only her mobile phone as a field recording device in Paris for the project. Annabel has just released her first single in collaboration with Imogen Heap's Mi. Mu gloves project with an EP to follow this year.
Bel's band is Holy Magic. Linquist's most recent startup, Supercrush Social, is an knowledge commerce company that shows influencers how to build online courses and live the digital nomad lifestyle. Bel is the host of a "crush-worthy" podcast called, Supercrusher Podcast, focusing on "influencer hacks, mindset shifts, business tricks." Http://www.xxbel.co http://www.supercrush.party
The Zagros Mountains are a long mountain range in Iran and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km; the Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf, it spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres; the Zagros fold and thrust belt was formed by the collision of two tectonic plates, the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate. This collision happened during the Miocene and folded the entire rocks, deposited from the Carboniferous to the Miocene in the geosyncline in front of the Iranian Plate; the process of collision continues to the present and as the Arabian Plate is being pushed against the Eurasian Plate, the Zagros Mountains and the Iranian Plateau are getting higher and higher.
Recent GPS measurements in Iran have shown that this collision is still active and the resulting deformation is distributed non-uniformly in the country taken up in the major mountain belts like Alborz and Zagros. A dense GPS network which covered the Iranian Zagros proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros; the GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in the southeast Zagros is ~10 mm/a, dropping to ~5 mm/a in the northwest Zagros. The north-south Kazerun strike-slip fault divides the Zagros into two distinct zones of deformation; the GPS results show different shortening directions along the belt, normal shortening in the southeast and oblique shortening in the northwest Zagros. The Zagros mountains were created around the time of the second ice age, which caused the tectonic collision, leading to its uniqueness; the sedimentary cover in the SE Zagros is deforming above a layer of rock salt, whereas in the NW Zagros the salt layer is missing or is thin. This different basal friction is responsible for the different topographies on either side of the Kazerun fault.
Higher topography and narrower zone of deformation in the NW Zagros is observed whereas in the SE, deformation was spread more and a wider zone of deformation with lower topography was formed. Stresses induced in the Earth's crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks. Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks, such as mudstone and siltstone while leaving harder rocks, such as limestone and dolomite; this differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains. The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum, the Zagros region is an important area for oil production. Salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains. Salt domes are an important target for petroleum exploration, as the impermeable salt traps petroleum beneath other rock layers. There is much water-soluble gypsum in the region; the mountains have a sedimentary origin and are made of limestone.
In the Elevated Zagros or the Higher Zagros, the Paleozoic rocks could be found in the upper and higher sections of the peaks of the Zagros Mountains along the Zagros main fault. On both sides of this fault, there are Mesozoic rocks, a combination of Triassic and Jurassic rocks that are surrounded by Cretaceous rocks on both sides; the Folded Zagros is formed of Tertiary rocks, with the Paleogene rocks south of the Cretaceous rocks and the Neogene rocks south of the Paleogene rocks. The mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges, orogenically have the same age as the Alps. Iran's main oilfields lie in the western central foothills of the Zagros mountain range; the southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits. They contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils. Signs of early agriculture date back as far as 9000 BC to the foothills of the mountains. There were settlements that grew into cities named Anshan and Susa. Jarmo is one archaeological site in this area.
Shanidar, where the ancient skeletal remains of Neanderthals have been found, is another. Some of the earliest evidence of wine production has been discovered in the mountains. During early ancient times, the Zagros was the home of peoples such as the Kassites, Guti and Mitanni, who periodically invaded the Sumerian and/or Akkadian cities of Mesopotamia; the mountains create a geographic barrier between the Mesopotamian Plain, in Iraq, the Iranian Plateau. A small archive of clay tablets detailing the complex interactions of these groups in the early second millennium BC has been found at Tell Shemshara along the Little Zab. Tell Bazmusian, near Shemshara, was occupied between 800 CE, although not continuously; the mountains contain several ecosystems. Prominent among them are the forest steppe areas with a semi-arid climate; as defined by the World Wildlife Fund and used in their Wildfinder, the particular terrestrial ecoreg
Bel, signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad and Babylonia. The feminine form is Belit'Lady, Mistress'. Bel is represented in Latin as Belus. Linguistically Bel is an East Semitic form cognate with Northwest Semitic Baal with the same meaning. Early translators of Akkadian believed that the ideogram for the god called in Sumerian Enlil was to be read as Bel in Akkadian. Current scholarship holds this as incorrect, but one finds Bel used in referring to Enlil in older translations and discussions. Bel became used for the Babylonian god Marduk and when found in Assyrian and neo-Babylonian personal names or mentioned in inscriptions in a Mesopotamian context it can be taken as referring to Marduk and no other god. Belit without some disambiguation refers to Bel Marduk's spouse Sarpanit. However, Marduk's mother, the Sumerian goddess called Ninhursag, Damkina and other names in Sumerian, was known as Belit-ili'Lady of the Gods' in Akkadian.
Other gods called "Lord" could be and sometimes were identified or in part with Bel Marduk. The god Malak-bel of Palmyra is an example, though in the period from which most of our information comes he seems to have become much a sun god. Zeus Belus mentioned by Sanchuniathon as born to Cronus/El in Peraea is most unlikely to be Marduk. A god named Bel was the chief-god of Palmyra in pre-Hellenistic times, being worshipped alongside the gods Aglibol and Yarhibol, he was known as Bol, after the Northwestern Semitic word Ba'al, until the cult of Bel-Marduk spread to Palmyra and by 213 BC, Bol was renamed to Bel. The temple of Bel was dedicated to this god. Ba‘al Bel and the Dragon Belial Belus Belus Belus Belus EN Marduk List of Mesopotamian deities Bartleby: American Heritage Dictionary: Semitic Roots: bcl
The decibel is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a power or field quantity to another on a logarithmic scale, the logarithmic quantity being called the power level or field level, respectively. It can be used to express a change in an absolute value. In the latter case, it expresses the ratio of a value to a fixed reference value. For example, if the reference value is 1 volt the suffix is "V", if the reference value is one milliwatt the suffix is "m". Two different scales are used when expressing a ratio in decibels, depending on the nature of the quantities: power and field; when expressing a power ratio, the number of decibels is ten times its logarithm to base 10. That is, a change in power by a factor of 10 corresponds to a 10 dB change in level; when expressing field quantities, a change in amplitude by a factor of 10 corresponds to a 20 dB change in level. The decibel scales differ by a factor of two so that the related power and field levels change by the same number of decibels in, for example, resistive loads.
The definition of the decibel is based on the measurement of power in telephony of the early 20th century in the Bell System in the United States. One decibel is one tenth of one bel, named in honor of Alexander Graham Bell. Today, the decibel is used for a wide variety of measurements in science and engineering, most prominently in acoustics and control theory. In electronics, the gains of amplifiers, attenuation of signals, signal-to-noise ratios are expressed in decibels. In the International System of Quantities, the decibel is defined as a unit of measurement for quantities of type level or level difference, which are defined as the logarithm of the ratio of power- or field-type quantities; the decibel originates from methods used to quantify signal loss in telegraph and telephone circuits. The unit for loss was Miles of Standard Cable. 1 MSC corresponded to the loss of power over a 1 mile length of standard telephone cable at a frequency of 5000 radians per second, matched the smallest attenuation detectable to the average listener.
The standard telephone cable implied was "a cable having uniformly distributed resistance of 88 Ohms per loop-mile and uniformly distributed shunt capacitance of 0.054 microfarads per mile". In 1924, Bell Telephone Laboratories received favorable response to a new unit definition among members of the International Advisory Committee on Long Distance Telephony in Europe and replaced the MSC with the Transmission Unit. 1 TU was defined such that the number of TUs was ten times the base-10 logarithm of the ratio of measured power to a reference power. The definition was conveniently chosen such that 1 TU approximated 1 MSC. In 1928, the Bell system renamed the TU into the decibel, being one tenth of a newly defined unit for the base-10 logarithm of the power ratio, it was named the bel, in honor of the telecommunications pioneer Alexander Graham Bell. The bel is used, as the decibel was the proposed working unit; the naming and early definition of the decibel is described in the NBS Standard's Yearbook of 1931: Since the earliest days of the telephone, the need for a unit in which to measure the transmission efficiency of telephone facilities has been recognized.
The introduction of cable in 1896 afforded a stable basis for a convenient unit and the "mile of standard" cable came into general use shortly thereafter. This unit was employed up to 1923 when a new unit was adopted as being more suitable for modern telephone work; the new transmission unit is used among the foreign telephone organizations and it was termed the "decibel" at the suggestion of the International Advisory Committee on Long Distance Telephony. The decibel may be defined by the statement that two amounts of power differ by 1 decibel when they are in the ratio of 100.1 and any two amounts of power differ by N decibels when they are in the ratio of 10N. The number of transmission units expressing the ratio of any two powers is therefore ten times the common logarithm of that ratio; this method of designating the gain or loss of power in telephone circuits permits direct addition or subtraction of the units expressing the efficiency of different parts of the circuit... In 1954, J. W. Horton argued that the use of the decibel as a unit for quantities other than transmission loss led to confusion, suggested the name'logit' for "standard magnitudes which combine by addition".
In April 2003, the International Committee for Weights and Measures considered a recommendation for the inclusion of the decibel in the International System of Units, but decided against the proposal. However, the decibel is recognized by other international bodies such as the International Electrotechnical Commission and International Organization for Standardization; the IEC permits the use of the decibel with field quantities as well as power and this recommendation is followed by many national standards bodies, such as NIST, which justifies the use of the decibel for voltage ratios. The term field quantity is deprecated by ISO 80000-1. In spite of their widespread use, suffixes are not recognized by the IEC or ISO. ISO 80000-3 describes definitions for units of space and time; the decibel for use in acoustics is defined in ISO 80000-8. The major difference from the article below is that for acoustics the decibel has no
Temple of Bel
The Temple of Bel, sometimes referred to as the "Temple of Baal", was an ancient temple located in Palmyra, Syria. The temple, consecrated to the Mesopotamian god Bel, worshipped at Palmyra in triad with the lunar god Aglibol and the sun god Yarhibol, formed the center of religious life in Palmyra and was dedicated in 32 AD; the temple would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire in a campaign against the temples of the East made by Maternus Cynegius, Praetorian Prefect of Oriens, between 25 May 385 to 19 March 388. Its ruins were considered among the best preserved at Palmyra, until they were further destroyed by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria in August 2015; the arched main entrance into the temple is still intact, as well as its exterior walls and fortified gate. The temple was built on a tell with stratification indicating human occupation that goes back to the third millennium BC; the area was occupied in pre-Roman periods with a former temple, referred to as "the first temple of Bel" and "the Hellenistic temple".
The walls of the temenos and propylaea were constructed in the late first and the first half of the second century AD. The names of three Greeks who worked on the construction of the temple of Bel are known through inscriptions, including a Greek architect named Alexandras. However, many Palmyrenes adopted Greco-Roman names and native citizens with the name Alexander are attested in the city; the Temple of Bel was converted into a Christian church during the Byzantine Era. Parts of the structure were modified by Arabs in 1132 which preserved the structure and converted the Temple into a mosque; the enormous temple courtyard held mud-brick houses among the ruins, served as a fortified citadel for the village of Palmyra. The mosque in the temple proper and the dwellings remained in use until the 1920s when Franco-Syrian archaeological missions cleared the temple grounds of its postclassical elements. Most of the Corinthian columns of the inner colonnades still showed pedestals where the statues of the benefactors stood.
The temple was aligned along the eastern end of the Great Colonnade at Palmyra. The temple showed a remarkable synthesis of Greco-Roman architecture; the temple remains lay inside a large precinct lined by porticos. It was oriented north-south, it was based on a paved court surrounded by a massive 205-metre long wall with a propylaeum. On a podium in the middle of the court was the actual temple building; the cella was surrounded by a prostyle of Corinthian columns, only interrupted on the long side by an entrance gate with large steps leading from the court. The cella was unique in the fact that it had two inner sanctuaries, the north and south adytons, dedicated as the shrines of Bel and other local deities; the northern chamber was known for a bas-relief carving of the seven planets known to the ancients surrounded by the twelve signs of the Zodiac and the carvings of a procession of camels and veiled women. The cella was lit by two pairs of windows cut high in the two long walls. In three corners of the building stairwells could be found.
In the court there were the remains of a basin, an altar, a dining hall, a building with niches. And in the northwest corner lay a ramp along which sacrificial animals were led into the temple area. There were three monumental gateways; these were modified by the Arabs in 1132 when they erected a bastion, the temple was converted into a mosque, which preserved it from further dilapidation. Syria's Director of Antiquities Maamoun Abdul Karim stated that ISIL was looking for treasures and "stores of gold" in the city. On 30 August 2015, the Associated Press reported that ISIL had demolished the temple by explosives, citing eyewitness accounts; the bricks and columns were reported as lying on the ground and only one wall was reported as remaining, according to a Palmyra resident. The damage was attested by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Syria's antiquities chief Maamoun Abdulkarim stated that although there was an explosion within the temple's perimeter, "the basic structure is still standing".
However, these reports were proved to be incorrect. On August 31, 2015 the United Nations confirmed the temple's destruction after reviewing satellite imagery, "We can confirm destruction of the main building of the Temple of Bel as well as a row of columns in its immediate vicinity" reported by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research; the BBC issued a video report showing the satellite images and the destruction described by Einar Bjorgo, manager of UN Satellite Imaging. The main entrance arch survived the destruction of the temple; the Institute for Digital Archaeology proposed that replicas of this arch be installed in Trafalgar Square and Times Square, New York City. It was decided that instead of the temple's main entrance, the replica would be of part of the Monumental Arch. Following the recapture of Palmyra by the Syrian Army in March 2016, director of antiquities Maamoun Abdelkarim stated that the Temple of Bel, along with the Temple of Baalshamin and the Monumental Arch, will be rebuilt using the surviving remains.
ISIL recaptured the city on 11 December, but the Syrian Army retook it on 2 March 2017. In July 2017, the French company "Art Graphique et Patrimoine" travelled to Palmyra and scanned the Temple's rubble in order to create a plan for its restoration. Becker, Jeffrey A. Temple of Bel. Smarthistory Gates, Ancient cities: the archaeology of urban life in the Ancient Near Eas