Minsk is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislač and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region and Minsk District; the population in January 2018 was 1,982,444. Minsk is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States and seat of its Executive Secretary; the earliest historical references to Minsk date to the 11th century, when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers. In 1242, Minsk became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it received town privileges in 1499. From 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodeship, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, it was part of a region annexed by the Russian Empire in 1793, as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. From 1919 to 1991, after the Russian Revolution, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Soviet Union.
Minsk will host the 2019 European Games. The Old East Slavic name of the town was Мѣньскъ; the direct continuation of this name in Belarusian is Miensk. The resulting form of the name, was taken over both in Russian and Polish, under the influence of Russian it became official in Belarusian. However, some Belarusian-speakers continue to use Miensk as their preferred name for the city; when Belarus was under Polish rule, the names Mińsk Litewski'Minsk of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania' and Mińsk Białoruski'Minsk in Belarus' were used to differentiate this place name from Mińsk Mazowiecki'Minsk in Masovia'. In modern Polish, Mińsk without an attribute refers to the city in Belarus, about 50 times bigger than Mińsk Mazowiecki; the area of today's Minsk was settled by the Early East Slavs by the 9th century AD. The Svislach River valley was the settlement boundary between two Early East Slav tribes – the Krivichs and Dregovichs. By 980, the area was incorporated into the early medieval Principality of Polotsk, one of the earliest East Slav principalities of Old Rus' state.
Minsk was first mentioned in the name form Měneskъ in the Primary Chronicle for the year 1067 in association with the Battle on the River Nemiga. 1067 is now accepted as the founding year of Minsk. City authorities consider the date of 3 March 1067, to be the exact founding date of the city, though the town had existed for some time by then; the origin of the name is unknown but there are several theories. In the early 12th century, the Principality of Polotsk disintegrated into smaller fiefs; the Principality of Minsk was established by one of the Polotsk dynasty princes. In 1129, the Principality of Minsk was annexed by the dominant principality of Kievan Rus. By 1150, Minsk rivaled Polotsk as the major city in the former Principality of Polotsk; the princes of Minsk and Polotsk were engaged in years of struggle trying to unite all lands under the rule of Polotsk. Minsk escaped the Mongol invasion of Rus in 1237–1239. In 1242, Minsk became a part of the expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it joined peacefully and local elites enjoyed high rank in the society of the Grand Duchy.
In 1413, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland entered into a union. Minsk became the centre of Minsk Voivodship. In 1441, the Polish-Lithuanian prince and future king Casimir IV included Minsk in a list of cities enjoying certain privileges, in 1499, during the reign of his son, Alexander I Jagiellon, Minsk received town privileges under Magdeburg law. In 1569, after the Union of Lublin, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland merged into a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Afterwards, a Polish community including government clerks and craftsmen settled in Minsk. By the middle of the 16th century, Minsk was an important economic and cultural centre in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, it was an important centre for the Eastern Orthodox Church. Following the Union of Brest, both the Uniate church and the Roman Catholic Church increased in influence. In 1655, Minsk was conquered by troops of Tsar Alexei of Russia. Russians governed the city until 1660 when it was regained by King of Poland.
By the end of the Polish-Russian War, Minsk had just 300 houses. The second wave of devastation occurred during the Great Northern War, when Minsk was occupied in 1708 and 1709 by the army of Charles XII of Sweden and by the army of Peter the Great; the last decades of the Polish rule involved decline or slow development, since Minsk had become a small provincial town of little economic or military significance. Minsk was annexed by Russia in 1793 as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. In 1796, it became the centre of the Minsk Governorate. All of the initial street names were replaced by Russian names, though the spelling of the city's name remained unchanged, it was occupied by the Grande Armée during French invasion of Russia in 1812. Throughout the 19th century, the city continued to grow and improve. In the 1830s, major streets and squares of Minsk were paved. A first public library was opened in 1836, a fire brigade was put into operation in 1837. In 1838, the first
Belarus the Republic of Belarus known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested, its major economic sectors are manufacturing. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian People's Republic, conquered by Soviet Russia; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921.
Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939, when some lands of the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into it after the Soviet invasion of Poland, were finalized after World War II. During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources; the republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR; the parliament of the republic proclaimed the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the country's first president since 1994. Belarus has been labeled "Europe's last dictatorship" by some Western journalists, on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of government. Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy.
Elections under Lukashenko's rule have been criticized as unfair. Belarus is the last country in Europe using the death penalty. Belarus's Democracy Index rating is the lowest in Europe, the country is labelled as "not free" by Freedom House, as "repressed" in the Index of Economic Freedom, is rated as by far the worst country for press freedom in Europe in the 2013–14 Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Belarus 157th out of 180 nations. In 2000, Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation. Over 70% of Belarus's population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Russian; the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The second-most widespread religion, Roman Catholicism, has a much smaller following.
Belarus is a member of the United Nations since its founding, the Commonwealth of Independent States, CSTO, EEU, the Non-Aligned Movement. Belarus has shown no aspirations for joining the European Union but maintains a bilateral relationship with the organisation, participates in two EU projects: the Eastern Partnership and the Baku Initiative; the name Belarus is related with the term Belaya Rus', i.e. White Rus'. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus'. An ethno-religious theory suggests that the name used to describe the part of old Ruthenian lands within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, populated by Slavs, Christianized early, as opposed to Black Ruthenia, predominantly inhabited by pagan Balts. An alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population. A third theory suggests that the old Rus' lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as "White Rus'"; the name Rus is conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, thus Belarus is referred to as White Russia or White Ruthenia.
The name first appeared in Latin medieval literature. In some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is called "White Russia" to this day; the Latin term "Alba Russia" was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming "Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo." The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the late-16th century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey, known for his close contacts with the Russian Royal Court. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used "White Rus" to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the term Belorussia first rose in the days of the Russian Empire, the Russian Tsar was styled "the Tsar of All the Russias"
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Scouting and Guiding in Belarus
The Scout movement in Belarus consists of an unknown number of independent organizations. There are at least five nationwide associations as well as some regional associations. In addition, there were at one time Scouts-in-Exile in metropolitan areas of the United States, there are presently international Scout units in Belarus; the initial development of Scouting in Belarus took place within the Russian Scout movement, headed by general Oleg Pantyukhov. Belarus was a part of the Russian Empire at that time; the first Scout organisations were not independent. Instead they were a part of the Russian Scout movement, they first gathered in Gomel. In 1912 several Boy- and Girl-Scout organisations existed in Gomel, they were Russian and Jewish. In 1915 there were 170 little wolves. Russian Scout organisations that were a part of Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders existed in other towns of Belarus. In 1922 after the end of Russian Civil War Scouting had been banned by the Soviet Union, Scout activities ended.
In April 1926 many leaders and members were arrested and imprisoned by Joint State Political Directorate. Most of them were sent to Solovki prison camp; some of the Scouts and Scout-leaders fled abroad. They continued their activity in National Organization of Russian Scouts. Russian exiles in France in a more Catholic manner; some of them where officers from Belarusian families, who immigrated to France after World War I. West Belarus became a part of the Second Polish Republic according to the Peace of Riga after Polish–Soviet War. Along with the new Polish authorities Polish Scouting and Guiding Association spread in Belarus. A Scout organization was founded in Kletsk, Scouts appeared in Nyasvizh and other nearby villages. In 1929, American Methodists helped, it lasted until 1929. In the period following World War II, ethnic Belarusians gathered in Scout troops in exile and in Scout troops in displaced persons camps throughout Europe, as did Russian Scouts and Balts. Belarusian Scouts formed the organization Belarusian Scout Association Abroad, which existed from 1945 to 1951 in Germany.
Unlike the other organizations, the BSAA did not survive to witness the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Whereas Russia and Ukraine in particular had ready-made Scouting available once allowed in 1990-1991, Belarus had to start from scratch. Emergence of democratic principles in the mid-1980s made possible the creation of alternatives to the communist pioneer organizations. Close connections were formed with Guide and Scout organizations of many European countries, when children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident were invited to summer camps abroad during the Chernobyl Children's Project in 1990. Close links were developed with Cyprus, between Minsk and the Guides of Lincolnshire. In 1992, Cyprus was appointed Link country to support the development of Guiding in Belarus, in June 1993 the first conference of the Association of Belarusian Guides was held in Minsk. Belarusian Republican Scout Association, member of WOSM The Association of Belarusian Guides, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts since 1996 Belarusian Scout Association, founded in 1991, liquidated in 2005 by the Supreme Court of Belarus YMCA Scouting in BelarusNote: There may have been a link between one of the non-NSAB Belarusian Scout organizations and the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, a Christian-based Scout alternative, but it is uncertain to whom they were linked.
Several countries have multiple organizations, divided on the basis of religion, ethnic identification, or language. Belarus instead has regional Scouting organizations. Regional Scouting divisions of Belarus include the GomelScouts in Gomel; because usage of the Belarusian language and the Russian language are contentious issues in the country, the emblem itself is captioned in English. In addition, there are American Boy Scouts in Minsk, serving in Boy Scout Troop 1101, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. Belarusian Republican Youth Union Scouting in displaced persons camps Translate be-x-old:Гісторыя скаўтынгу на Беларусі to English World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau, Trefoil Round the World. Eleventh Edition 1997. ISBN 0-900827-75-0
Gomel is the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants the second-most populous city of Belarus. There are at least six narratives of the origin of the city’s Belarusian name. One of the more plausible is that the name is derived from the name of the stream Homeyuk, which flowed into the river Sozh near the foot of the hill where the first settlement was founded. Names of other Belarusian cities are formed along these lines: for example, the name Minsk is derived from the river Menka, Polatsk from the river Palata, Vitsebsk from the river Vitsba. In historical sources from 1142 to the 16th century, the city is mentioned as Hom', Homiy, Homey, or Homyi; these forms are tentatively explained as derivatives of an unattested *gomŭ of uncertain meaning. The modern name for the city has been in use only since the 16th–17th centuries. During the Soviet period, another story about the city's name was popular: raftsmen on the river Sozh warned each other about the danger of running into sandy shallows by shouting «Ho!
Ho! Mel!». A more recent narrative, propagated by some modern researchers, is that the name is derived from an ancient Belarusian greeting: «Dats u homel», which means «to pat on the shoulder». Gomel was founded at the end of the 1st millennium AD on the lands of the Eastern Slavic tribal union of Radimichs, it lays on the banks of the Homeyuk stream. Sozh's high right bank, cut through by canyons, provided a natural fortification. For some time, Gomel was the capital of the Gomel Principality, before it became part of the Principality of Chernigov. Gomel is first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex under the year of 1142 as being territory of the princes of Chernigov. For some time, Gomel was ruled by the prince of Smolensk Rostislav Mstislavich before it was re-captured by Iziaslav III Davidovich, after whose death it belonged to Sviatoslav Olgovich and to Sviatoslav's son Oleg. Under Oleg, Gomel went to the Principality of Novhorod-Siverskyi; the next ruler was Igor Svyatoslavich – the hero of "The Tale of Igor's Campaign".
During this period, the town was the centre of a volost. In the 12th–13th centuries the city's area was not less than 40 ha, it had developed various crafts and was connected by trading routes with the cities of Northern and Southern Rus'. Archeological data have shown that the city was badly damaged during the Mongol-Tatar assault in the first half of the 13th century. In 1335, the Gomel region was joined to the Great Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas. From 1335 to 1406 it was under the ownership of prince Patricia Narymuntovich and his sons, from 1406 to 1419 the city was ruled by the Great Duke's deputies, from 1419 to 1435 it belonged to prince Svitrigaila, from 1446 to 1452 to prince Vasiliy Yaroslavich, from 1452 to 1483 to Mozhaysk prince Ivan Andreyevich, from 1483 to 1505 to his son Semyon, who transferred it to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. During the Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War of 1500–1503 Lithuania tried to regain Gomel and other lands transferred to Moscow, but suffered defeat and lost one-third of its territory.
In 1535, Lithuanian and Polish forces under Jerzy Radziwiłł, Jan Tarnowski and Andrzej Niemirowicz re-captured the city after the surrender of Moscow's deputy, D. Shchepin-Obolensky. In the same year, the Great Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Kęstutaitis founded the Gomel Starostwo. According to the peace agreement of 1537, Gomel together with its volost remained a Lithuanian possession. In 1535–1565 Gomel is the centre of starostwo, from 1565 onwards Gomel is in the Rechytsa Powiat of the Minsk Voivodeship. In 1560, the city's first coat of arms was introduced. In 1569, Gomel became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. From this moment on, the city became the arena of numerous attacks and battles between Cossaks and the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth. In 1572, Gomel Starostwo was given to B. Sapega. At the beginning of the 1570s, Gomel was captured by the forces of Ivan the Terrible, but in 1576 it was re-captured by J. Radziwiłł. In 1581, Gomel was again attacked by Russian troops, in 1595–1596 it was in the hands of Severyn Nalyvaiko's Cossaks.
After the beginning of the struggle against Orthodox Christianity in Lithuania, Orthodox Nikolayevskiy Cathedral was closed on the order of Greek Catholic Eparch Josaphat Kuntsevych in 1621. In 1633 the city was besieged by the Cossaks of Bulgakov and Yermolin, in 1648 captured by the Golovatskiy's Cossack detachment, in 1649 by Martyn Nebaba's detachment. After that, Gomel got through several sieges in 1651 but in 1654 was captured by Ivan Zolotarenko's detachment, he and his sons held the city until 1667 and began to serve under Alexis of Russia, after the Truce of Andrusovo Gomel at last returned to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where it first belonged to M. K. Radziwiłł and – till the annexation by the Russian Empire – to the Czartoryski family. During the Great Northern War Russian forces under Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov stood in Gomel. In 1670, Gomel got the Magdeburg rights. Towards the middle of the 17th century, the city fell into crisis due to the struggles mentioned above.
It suffered significant damage, the population decreased and many crafts disappeared. The period when Gomel was part of the Russian Empire was marked by rapid growth of the population, urban infrastructure, industrial capacity. Gomel became part of the Russian Empire after the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772 and was confiscated by the imperial treasury. In 1775, Empress Catherine II gave Gomel and Gomel eldership in the eternal hereditary poss
Scouts et Guides de France
Scouts et Guides de France is the largest Scouting and Guiding association in France. It was formed on 1 September 2004 from the merger of two Roman Catholic Scouting organizations: the Guides de France and the Scouts de France. Through Scoutisme Français, SGdF is a member of both WOSM and WAGGGS. SGdF claims 14,000 volunteers in 924 local groups, it is active in the rebirth of Scouting in Ukraine and Belarus and strengthening Scouting in French Polynesia. The National Centre of the association is at Chateau de Jambville, 50 km northwest of Paris. General Louis de Maud'huy General Arthur Guyot de Salins 1922-11 August 1936) General Joseph Lafont 1936-1944 SdF Chief Scout/Scoutisme Français Chief Scout 1948 Wilson Maréchal Hubert Lyautey 1925 - 1934 Père Jacques Sevin S. J. 1920 - 1924 undocumented between 1924 and 1932 René Lhopital 1932-1936 Henri Gasnier 1936 - 1939 Henry Dhavernas 1939 Eugène Dary 1940-1944 Pierre Delsuc General Commissioner of zone Nord 1941- 1944 Pierre Delsuc 1944 - 1946 Georges Gaultier 1946-1953 Michel Rigal 1953-1970 Emile-Xavier Visseaux 1970-1975 Dominique Bénard 1975 - 1983 Robert Wettstein 1983 - 1989 Bertrand Chanzy 1989-1995 Philippe Da Costa 1995-2002 Claude Moraël 2002-2004 Albertine Duhamel 1924 - 1933 Marie Thérèse de Kerraoul 1933 - 1954 Andrée Dalberto 1948 - 1953 Antoinette Reille 1953 Marie-Thérèse Cheroutre 1953-1979 Monique Mitrani 1979-?
Caline Forest Claude Mangin?-1997 Hélène de la Messelière 1997-2003 Françoise Parmentier 2003-2004 Claude Moraël 2004–present Programme Sections: Farfadets: ages 6 to 8 Louveteaux/Jeannettes: ages 8 to 12 Scouts/Guides: ages 11 to 15 Pionniers/Caravelles: ages 14 to 17 Compagnons: ages 17 to 21 Mousses: ages 14 to 17 Vent du Large: handicapped divisionThe Scout motto is Toujours Prêt, Always Prepared in French. Scout Oath: Sur mon honneur, et avec la grâce de Dieu, je m'engage a servir de mon mieux, Dieu, l'Église et la patrie, à aider mon prochain en toutes circonstances et à observer la loi scoute. On my honor and with the grace of God, I promise to do my best to serve God, the Church and my country, to help my neighbour in any circumstance and to observe the Scout Law. Scout Law: 1964 Version: Le scout met son honneur à mériter confiance; the Scout must strive to be trustworthy. Le scout est loyal à son pays, ses parents, ses chefs et ses subordonnés; the Scout is loyal to his parents, his leaders and his subordinates.
Le scout est fait pour servir et sauver son prochain. The Scout must save his neighbour. Le scout est l'ami de tous et l'ami de tout autre Scout; the Scout is a friend of all other Scouts. Le scout est courtois et chevaleresque; the Scout is chivalrous. Le scout voit dans la nature l'oeuvre de Dieu, il aime les plantes et les animaux; the Scout sees God's work in nature. He loves animals. Le scout obéit sans réplique et ne fait rien à moitié; the Scout does nothing by halves. Le scout est maître de soi, il sourit et chante dans les difficultés; the Scout is his own master and singing during hardships. Le scout est économe et prend soin du bien d'autrui; the Scout takes care of what is others. Le scout est pur dans ses paroles et ses actes; the Scout must be pure in his thoughts and actions. Current version: Le scout tient parole. En patrouille, je m’affirme et je fais des choix; the Scout keeps his word. In my patrol, I stand my ground and I make decisions. Le scout développe ses talents. En patrouille; the Scout develops his talents.
In my patrol, I invent and I explore. Le scout a l’esprit d’équipe. En patrouille, j’accueille et je rends service; the Scout has team spirit. In my patrol, I accept everybody and I serve. Le scout prend soin de son corps. En patrouille, je me dépasse; the Scout takes care for his body. In my patrol, I surpass myself. Dieu propose un chemin. En patrouille, je découvre en Jésus un ami. God proposes a way to the Scout. In my patrol, I discover a friend in Jesus. Le scout respecte l’autre. Fille ou j' exprime mes sentiments; the Scout respects other people. Girl or boy, I express my feelings; the red Jerusalem Cross with the fleur-de-lis was the symbol of the Scouts de France. It was designed by co-founder of the Fédération des Scouts de France; the Guides de France used the same Jerusalem Cross with a superimposed trefoil. The emblem of the merged organization combines elements of both predecessors; the round orange background recalls the rope circle. Le scoutisme, from father Jacques Sévin Pour penser scoutement, from father Jacques Sévin Philippe Laneyrie, Les scouts de France, Editions du Cerf, ISBN 2-204-02318-3 Scouting in France Official website English content of sgdf.fr
Belarusian Republican Youth Union
The Belarusian Republican Youth Union is a youth organization in Belarus. Its goals are to promote patriotism and to instill moral values into the youth of Belarus, using activities such as camping, sporting events and visiting memorials; the organization was created after a merger of other youth groups in 2002 and is the successor of the Leninist Communist Youth League of the Byelorussian SSR. The BRSM is supported by the Belarusian government; some people have accused the group of using methods of coercion and empty promises in order to recruit new members and of being used as propaganda for the government of Alexander Lukashenko. The BRSM was created on 6 September 2002, after the merger of two Belarusian youth organizations, the Belarusian Youth Union and the Belarusian Patriotic Youth Union; the Belarusian Youth Union had been considered the legal successor of Leninist Communist Youth Union of Belarus, the Belarusian Patriotic Youth Union had been created in 1997 by the president of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko.
Lukashenko not only issued a decree calling for the creation of the BRSM, he issued decrees that gave the BRSM governmental support from the ministry of education and the presidential administration. President Lukashenko stated in his 2003 address to the nation the need for the BRSM to play a key role in Belarusian life: The youth — our major pillar — is at the heart of our plans and targets. We have hardly used its powerful potential yet. We "brush aside" youth's initiatives. Many managers avoid direct contact with the youth, they are afraid of acute questions, they are incapable of involving young people into useful public activities. We should work in this direction, it will help avoid a number of negative phenomena in the youth environment. This situation calls for a greater role of the Belarusian Republican Youth Union, it should demonstrate its abilities as a leader of the national youth movement. The BRSM national headquarters is located in the national capital of Belarus; each voblast of Belarus—Minsk, Vitsebsk, Homiel and Mogilev—has its own branches of the BRSM.
The BRSM has estimated. The national leadership of the BRSM is controlled by the central committee, headed by the first secretary of the central committee. Leonid Kovalev was elected as first secretary in 2006. Below the first secretary are the second secretary of the central committee, the chairman of the central investigation commission, three secretaries of the central committee. Collectively, these leaders are referred to as the secretariat of the BRSM. While the exact yearly and total funding of the BRSM are not known, the majority of funds given to the BRSM are given by the national government; the BRSM has two official symbols: a flag. The emblem, based on the Komsomol badge and modeled on the Belarusian national flag, has a red bar bearing the initials of the BRSM, written in gold in Cyrillic, over a green bar bearing a golden olive branch; the flag of the BRSM has the same elements as the emblem, but the reverse of the flag bears the organization's full name in gold in the red section, with the green section unemblazoned.
In order to join the BRSM, the applicant must be between the ages of 14 and 31 and must send a photo of himself or herself. If the applicant is between the ages of 14 and 16 written permission from a parent or legal guardian must be granted. A count in 2003 by the Institute for War and Peace Reporting showed that the BRSM had 120,000 members. A person must pay a one-time fee of 3 Belarusian rubles and a mid-year fee to continue membership in the BRSM; the total amount of the fee is adjusted based on the person's working and living status, fee waivers are granted for children who are orphaned or disabled. Most of the BRSM's activities are similar to those; the main activities of the BRSM involve the promotion of Belarusian patriotism. This is accomplished by participating in wreath-laying ceremonies at various memorials around the country. BRSM members pass out flowers to veterans of the Great Patriotic War to honor their service during the national holiday Den Pobedy. Both the memorial visits and the flowers for the veterans give BRSM members an idea of what sacrifices their ancestors made.
During other national holidays, the BRSM passes out a ribbon that resembles the national flag of Belarus, to be worn on a shirt or jacket. This program, along with other events, is part of its "For Belarus!" campaign. The BRSM participates in outdoor activities and sports, including football, running and hockey; some of these athletic events involve different groups from inside Belarus or from neighboring countries, such as Russia, Ukraine or Latvia. BRSM members participate in competitions amongst themselves or with other foreign groups that are similar to the BRSM. Social events, such as concerts for the youth of Belarus, are hosted by the BRSM. However, there have been some occasions during BRSM-sponsored concerts when neo-Nazis were not only in attendance but were performing in the show; the BRSM has been criticized for this by local veterans. The BRSM was one of the main organizers of the 2004 "Miss Belarus" pageant, a beauty competition along the same lines as Miss America and Miss Universe.
While the BRSM does not get involved in politics, its first secretary, Mikhail Orda, signed a letter alo