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American Idol (season 4)

The fourth season of American Idol premiered on January 18, 2005 and continued until May 25, 2005. It was hosted by Ryan Seacrest. Randy Jackson, Paula Abdul and Simon Cowell returned to judge. Carrie Underwood won the season with 500 million votes cast in the season and 37 million for the finale. Underwood has since gone on to become a seven-time Grammy-winning country megastar, it was the first season of the series to be aired in high definition. While in the past seasons celebrity guest judges have been invited to participate during the competition, this was the first season where guest judges were invited to participate in the auditions; the music celebrities featured were: January 18, Mark McGrath of Sugar Ray January 25, Gene Simmons of KISS January 26, Kenny Loggins February 1, LL Cool J February 2, BrandyWhere there were four judges present, three yeses were required for the auditioner to proceed on to Hollywood. It is the first season in which the age limit was raised to 28, in order to increase variety.

Among those who benefited from this new rule were Constantine Maroulis, Bo Bice, Scott Savol and Nadia Turner. Auditions for Season 4 started on August 2004 in Cleveland, Ohio. An audition was planned for Anchorage, but, cancelled about a month before due to possible schedule conflict as a result of hurricanes affecting the Orlando auditions. Auditions were held from August to October 2004, over 100,000 people attended the auditions for the first time. ^a The audition venue was advertised to be Las Vegas Convention Center, but changed to Orleans Arena at the last minute. ^b The contestants from the Orlando audition were moved to Las Vegas for the final round of the audition due to the impending Hurricane Ivan. It was scheduled for September 6–7, 2004, but rescheduled to September 14, 2004 to coincide with the Las Vegas audition; the audition episodes featured the Molfetta twins multiple times. They first auditioned in New Orleans but both failed, Rich Molfetta tried again in Las Vegas and got through to the Hollywood, but J.

P. Molfetta failed in his audition in San Francisco. There were 193 contestants in the Hollywood rounds, they were split into two groups to perform on separate day at the Orpheum Theatre in Los Angeles. The contestants first chose from a list of 12 songs selected by the producers, they were separated into groups of boys and girls but they performed solo with piano accompaniment and back-up singers. Those who failed were eliminated after all in the group performed. 95 contestants were eliminated after this round but one, Marlea Stroman, left on her own free will and became the first contestant to choose to leave the American Idol competition. The remaining 97 contestants competed in the second round; the songs for the groups were Four Tops's "I Can't Help Myself", The Temptations' Get Ready, Barry Manilow's "Jump Shout Boogie", The Marvelettes's "Please Mr. Postman" and The Supremes' "Where Did Our Love Go". 75 remained after this round. In the last round they performed a capella. After their performance, the contestants were divided into 4 groups in separate rooms.

Two groups eliminated and the number of contestant cut to 44. After further deliberation by the judges, 24 semi-finalists, 12 women and 12 men, were selected. At Pasadena Civic Center, each contestant took the elevator from their holding room to the floor above, in a walk that would be dubbed the "green mile", to see the judges who would reveal their fate to them; because of the unbalanced finals in Season 3 where female contestants formed the clear majority of the Final 12, rules for the semifinals were changed so as to give an equal number of male and female finalists. From this season to season seven, again for season nine, 12 men and 12 women competed separately on consecutive nights, with 2 of each gender being voted off each week in the result shows until 12 finalists were left, 6 men and 6 women. ^Note 1 Smith was eliminated during the results show. However, Vazquez withdrew from the competition and Smith was called back to replace him for the final 12. Carrie Underwood is a farm girl from Checotah and she auditioned in St. Louis, Missouri with Bonnie Raitt's "I Can't Make You Love Me".

She performed Candi Staton's "Young Hearts Run Free" in Hollywood week but forgot part of the lyrics. Bo Bice is from Helena and auditioned in Orlando, Florida with The Allman Brothers Band's "Whipping Post", he performed The Box Tops's "The Letter", The Temptations' "Get Ready" for the group round in the Hollywood week. He wanted to introduce rock to American Idol. Prior to Idol he released an album with his band Purge. Vonzell Solomon is from Fort Myers and auditioned in Orlando, Florida with Aretha Franklin's "Chain of Fools", she is proficient in the martial arts. She performed, she performed as a guest singer for Postmodern Jukebox. Anthony Fedorov is from Trevose and auditioned in Cleveland, Ohio with Jon Secada's "Angel", he had difficulty breathing when he was little and had a tracheotomy about which his doctor expressed concern that he might not be able to speak again. He performed Diana Ross' "When You Tell Me That You Love Me" and reprised Jon Secada's "

The Piranhas

The Piranhas were a British ska-influenced punk band from Brighton. They are best known for their cover version of the song "Tom Hark"; the Piranhas formed in 1977, were part of the Brighton punk scene, first coming to prominence when DJ John Peel started playing their single "I Don't Want My Body" on his BBC Radio 1 programme, but achieved their biggest success with their cover version of the South African kwela song "Tom Hark". This had been an instrumental hit in 1958 for Elias & His Zig Zag Jive Flutes, had been covered in a ska style by Millie Small and by Georgie Fame on his 1964 EP "Rhythm & Blue-Beat". With new lyrics written by the band's frontman "Boring" Bob Grover, with Pete Waterman on executive production duties, it was a Top 10 hit in the UK Singles Chart in 1980, it was the first song to feature on BBC Television's pop music programme, Top of the Pops, when it returned in 1980 after being blacked out for nine weeks by industrial action. During the mimed performance the drummer played using a pair of plastic fish as drumsticks.

Much it became a popular chant amongst British football fans. It is popular at limited-overs cricket games being played when a boundary is hit, the tune was used in the novelty World Cup song "We're England", performed by the presenters of the radio station talkSPORT with adapted lyrics for the 2006 FIFA World Cup Finals. Two years the band's version of Lou Busch's "Zambesi" - produced by Pete Collins - was a Top 20 hit in the UK Singles Chart. After The Piranhas dissolved "Boring" Bob Grover continued to live in Brighton. Guitarist Johnny Helmer went on to become a songwriter, he is best known for writing lyrics for Marillion's second incarnation with Steve Hogarth, after the departure of original singer Fish. He published a novel entitled Mother Tongue in 1999; as a day job, he works in marketing for a Brighton company. Bassist, Reginald Frederick Hornsbury, has two children; the band gave their blessing to a song that entered the UK chart in 2005, a remake of their biggest hit entitled "Tom Hark", recorded under the name of Seagulls Ska, featuring Brighton resident Attila the Stockbroker and members of the ska band, Too Many Crooks.

This was to help raise money for a new stadium for Brighton & Hove Albion F. C. at Falmer. Grover received a co-writing credit for the Seagulls Ska version of the song. In 2005 Grover was coaxed out of a'self-imposed retirement' to join musical friends from The Greys pub in a rehearsal room; the new songs that came from these sessions inspired the formation of a band, ambiguously named'Dates'. Dates music echoed elements of the Piranhas in that quirky lyrics were at the forefront of their sound, plus the band was fronted by two singer guitarists, but although still melodic it was a lot brasher and heavier utilising distorted guitars and feedback. Dates debut album, First Party and Theft was released on Hah! Records in March 2007, gaining airplay on BBC 6Music from Phill Jupitus; the band dissolved in 2009. In 2011 Grover and Helmer reunited to co-write new material and perform together again as Piranhas 3D; the new line-up featured Grover and vocals. In 2015, Grover started gigging with Piranhas Four, with the line-up: Harry Jellywell, guitar / vocals.

In 2015 Grover and Helmer featured in the BBC's Top of the Pops: The story of 1980 documentary. Alongside their 1980 performance and interviews with both, the film features rare tour footage and John Peel soundbites. 2018 sees a new update to the Band. Bob Grover is still the mainstay, with the following backing up: Bon Bessom: Sax and vocal Ken Brotherston: Drums, Vocals Stu Wagstaff: Bass, Vocals Gary Browne: Guitar, Vocals 1978 Vaultage 78 - Various Artists "Tension" "Virginity" "I Don't Want My Body"1979 "Jilly / Coloured Music" "Space Invaders / Cheap'N' Nasty" 1980 "Yap Yap Yap / Happy Families" "Tom Hark / Getting Beaten Up / Boyfriend" No. 6 UK "I Don't Want My Body" / " Well Away" The Piranhas - album No. 69 UK1981 "Vi Gela Gela / Nobody Sings" 1982 "Zambezi" No. 17 UK1983 "Easy Come, Easy Go" Bob Grover - guitarist, lead vocals, trumpeter Dick Slexia - drummer Johnny Helmer - guitarist, vocals Reginald Frederick Hornsbury - bassist Zoot Alors - saxophonist Al Hambra stand in saxophonist, who played whilst Collis recuperated from the effects of a car accident Band biography

Going Rogue

Going Rogue: An American Life is a personal and political memoir by politician Sarah Palin, former governor of Alaska and 2008 Republican candidate for U. S. Vice President on the ticket with Senator John McCain, she wrote it with Lynn Vincent. The book became a New York Times #1 bestseller in its first week of release, remained there for six weeks, it is one of four political memoirs published since the 1990s to sell more than two million copies. The book deal was announced in May 2009, she said that she wanted the public to hear her true story, "unrestrained and unfiltered". She received an advance of $1.25 million from publisher Harper Collins, with two projected additional payouts of between $2.5 million and $5 million each. Palin announced that although she would have a ghostwriter to help, she would be doing a lot of the writing herself, employing her journalism skills and the personal diaries and notes that she had kept throughout her life. Critics questioned. Responding to concerns that writing and promoting the book would interfere with her duties as governor, Palin said she would only work on the book after hours and would promote the book "schedule permitting".

The Alaska law department issued a legal opinion which okayed the project, stating: "A book publication project is compatible with your position as governor so long as it does not interfere with your official duties". Conservative journalist and author Lynn Vincent worked on the book with Palin for several weeks shortly after she resigned the governorship in the summer of 2009. Palin met with HarperCollins editors for intensive editing sessions in New York City. HarperCollins publisher Jonathan Burnham said that Palin had been "unbelievably conscientious and hands-on at every stage", adding that the book was "her words, her life... in full and fascinating detail". HarperCollins had planned publication for spring 2010, but moved the date to November 17, 2009, as the book was completed earlier than expected; the publisher attributed completion of the memoir early to Palin's devoting full-time to the writing process after she left office. A paperback version of the book, with new material, released on August 24, 2010.

The first part of the book is devoted to Palin's life before the 2008 campaign. The book is written in a personal tone similar to Palin's manner of speaking. Palin discusses the disagreements she had with campaign advisers of her running mate John McCain, criticizes the national media, talks about the importance of religion and family life; the "Going Rogue" part of the title refers to criticism leveled at Palin by McCain campaign advisers that she was straying from their crafted message and publicly disagreeing with McCain on several issues. The subtitle, "An American Life", mirrors the title of President Ronald Reagan's 1990 autobiography. Palin ends the book by quoting her own father saying, "Sarah's not retreating, she's reloading.", suggesting she would return to public life. The book was available for pre-order between $9 and $10 during a price war among online retailers Amazon,, Dan Calabrese, writing in the North Star National, called the sales "an unprecedented performance for a non-fiction book so far in advance of its release date".

Less than two weeks after its release, sales of the book exceeded the one million mark, putting it in a class with memoirs by Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama. The print run was extended to 2.8 million copies from 1.5 million. Going Rogue attained sales of over 2.7 million by December 1, 2009, was number one on The New York Times Best Seller list for six consecutive weeks. As of January 21, 2010, it was #4 on the New York Times best seller list after 9 weeks in the Top 10. According to campaign records, late in 2009, Palin used $63,000 of donations from SarahPAC, her political action committee, to purchase copies of her book, "Going Rogue"; the expenditures were listed as, "books for fundraising donor fulfillment". Meghan Stapleton, Palin's spokeswoman, stated the purchased books were autographed and awarded to donors contributing more than $100 to Palin's PAC. A team of eleven reporters for the Associated Press challenged some of Palin's statements as factually incorrect, such as her assertions that she traveled frugally, avoided large campaign donors, was against the Wall Street bailouts of 2008, entered politics for purely altruistic reasons.

Their analysis concluded by speculating that the book was "a pre-campaign manifesto". According to Fox News, an AP spokesman "confirmed 11 people worked on the story... but refused to say if similar number of journalists were assigned to review other political books, or if Palin has been treated differently". Fox reported "The organization did not review for accuracy recent books by the late Sen. Ted Kennedy, then-Sen. Joe Biden, either book by Barack Obama released before he was president or autobiographies by Bill or Hillary Clinton." Conservative talk show host John Ziegler objected to the AP piece, saying that the AP is biased and "badly missing the most important points of Sarah Palin's book". The Huffington Post had an article titled "The First Ten Lies from Going Rogue", including the failure to credit ghostwriter Vincent on the cover, Palin's statement about legal bills she incurred relating to ethics complaints, without disclosing that most of the bills resulted from complaints she filed as a tactic in connection with Troopergate.

Palin replied: "as is expected, the AP and a number of subsequent media outlets are erroneously reporting the contents of the book". Former McCain c

T53 (classification)

T53 is disability sport classification for disability athletics. The class includes people with a number of different types of disabilities including spinal cord injuries. People in this class have no or limited trunk function. Similar classifications are T51, T52, T54. People in this class have a functional upper limbs, but limited trunk usage and limited lower limb functionality. During classification, they both undergo a bench test of muscle strength and demonstrate their skills in athletics. People in this class include Tanni Grey-Thompson, Samantha Kinghorn, Angie Ballard and Richard Colman; this classification is for disability athletics. This classification is one of several classifications for athletes with spinal cord injuries. Similar classifications are T51, T52, T53 and T54. Jane Buckley, writing for the Sporting Wheelies, describes the athletes in this classification as: " Wheelchair athlete with normal arms and hands. No or limited trunk function. No leg function." The Australian Paralympic Committee defines this classification as being for "Athletes with normal upper limb function, with no abdominal or lower spinal strength.

Some interference in their ability to perform long and forceful strokes. E.g. high level paraplegia." The International Paralympic Committee defined this class in 2011 as "These athletes will have normal arm muscle power with no abdominal or lower spinal muscle activity. Use different techniques to compensate for lack of abdominal musculature including lying horizontal; when the paces quickens in a race, their acceleration is slower than the T54 class. In general when acceleration occurs, the trunk rises off the legs due to a lack of abdominal muscles to hold the trunk down. Have to interrupt the pushing cycle to adjust the compensator. Equivalent activity limitation to person with complete cord injury at cord level T1-7." The International Paralympic Committee defined this classification on their website in July 2016 as, " Athletes have full function of the arms but no abdominal or lower spinal muscle activity". For the related field classification, F53, International Paralympic Committee defined this classification on their website in July 2016,"Athletes have full muscle power at their shoulder and wrist in the throwing arm.

Muscle power in the finger flexor and extensor muscles is functional, but there is always some weakness and resulting wasting of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. The grip on the implement is close to able-bodied and force can be imparted to the implement when throwing; the non-throwing hand grips the pole on the throwing frame.. An athlete with partial to full trunk control but with a throwing arm that fits the F52 profile is appropriately placed in this class." People who are Les Autres compete in this class. This includes LAF2 classified athletes. In general, Les Autres classes cover sportspeople with locomotor disabilities regardless of their diagnosis. LAF1 sportspeople are one of the classes that can compete in F51, F52 and F53. F51, F52 and F53 are wheelchair athletics classes, they have functionality issues in throwing events as a result of mobility issues or spasticity in their throwing arm. At the 1984 Summer Paralympics, LAF1, LAF2 and LAF3 track athletes had the 60 meters and 400 meter distances on the program.

There was a large range of sportspeople with different disabilities in this class at the 1984 Summer Paralympics. Sportspeople in this class use wheelchairs on a regular basis as a result of reduced muscle function. ACSM's Primary Care Sports Medicine defines LAF1 as a medical class as "evere involvement of the four limbs -- for example, MS, muscular dystrophy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with contractures" As a functional class, ACSM's Primary Care Sports Medicine defines LAF1 as "use of wheelchair with reduced function of muscle strength and/or spasticity in throwing arm, poor sitting balance." Medically, this class includes people with severe multiple scleroris, muscular dystrophy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with contractures. This means. In terms of functional classification, this means the sportsperson uses a wheelchair, has poor sitting balance and has reduced strength or spasticity in their throwing arm. Sportspeople with muscular dystrophy in this class have a number of factors that can make sports participation difficult.

This includes poor pulmonary function, having restrictive lung disease values. LAF2 sportspeople can class compete in F53. Athletes in this class have normal functioning in their throwing arm. While throwing, they can maintain good balance. At the 1984 Summer Paralympics, LAF1, LAF2 and LAF3 track athletes had the 60 meters and 400 meter distances on the program. There was a large range of sportspeople with different disabilities in this class at the 1984 Summer Paralympics. Sportspeople in this class use wheelchairs on a regular basis as a result of reduced muscle function, they have low to moderate levels of balance issues while sitting, but maintain overall good balance from that position. They have normal arm function. Medically, this class includes people with severe hemiplegia, paralysis of one limb while having deformations in two other limbs. Functionally, this means they have severe impairment of three limbs, or all four limbs but to a lesser degree than LAF1. In terms of functional classification, this means the sportsperson uses a wheelchair, has moderate sitting balance, reduced limb function in their throwing limb but has good sitting balance while throwing.

For the 1984 Summer Paralympics, LAF2 was defined by the Games organizers as, "Wheelchair bound with normal function in throwing arm and poor to no sitting balance." Pe

1714 in architecture

The year 1714 in architecture involved some significant events. St Alfege Church, London, designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, is completed. Church of St Mary's, London, designed by John James, is consecrated. Church of Santissime Stimmate di San Francesco in Rome, designed by Giovanni Battista Contini, is completed. Church of Tolentini, Venice, is completed to designs of 1590 by Vincenzo Scamozzi with a portico by Andrea Tirali. Altar of the 22-domed wooden summer Church of the Transfiguration at Kizhi Pogost in Karelia is laid. Geffrye Almshouses in London built. Summer Palace of Peter the Great in Saint Petersburg, designed by Domenico Trezzini, is completed. Bellevue Palace, built as an observatory. Sint-Lodewijkscollege in Belgium built as a private house. Wotton House in Buckinghamshire, England, is completed. Llanelly House in south Wales is built. April 1 – Jean-François de Neufforge, Flemish architect and engraver Robert Taylor, English architect May – Andreas Schlüter, German baroque sculptor and architect Pietro Perti, Swiss-Italian baroque sculptor and architect working in Lithuania