Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
The Belchen System refers to five mountains with the name Belchen around the tripoint of Germany and Switzerland that may have been used by the Celts as a solar calendar. The term is an extension of the Belchen Triangle; the heart of the Belchen System is the southernmost mountain of the Alsatian Belchen. Seventy three kilometres due east is the Black Forest Belchen, only 167 metres higher and over which the sun rises at the equinoxes, i.e. at the beginning of spring and autumn. Conversely, the sun sets over the Alsatian Belchen on these days when seen from the Black Forest Belchen. From the Alsatian Belchen, at the time of the summer solstice, the sun rises over Little Belchen, 27 kilometres away to the northeast. At the winter solstice it rises over 88 kilometres to the southeast, thus from the Alsatian Belchen the start of all four astronomical seasons is defined. In addition, the sun rises over the highest mountain of the Vosges, the Great Belchen 21 kilometres to the northeast, on 1 May; the region of the Belchen System is known today as the Upper Rhine, the Regio Basiliensis, the Dreiland or RegioTriRhena.
Mountains of the Belchen System Walter Eichin, Andreas Bohnert: Belchensystem, in Das Markgräfler Land, 1985, Issue 2, pp. 176ff. Astronomisch-kalendarisches Ortungssystem, in Jurablätter, 5 May 1988 Rolf d’Aujourd’hui: Das Belchensystem, Basler Zeitung, 18 June 1992 Rolf d’Aujourd’hui: Belchen, Historic Lexicon of Switzerland, retrieved 20 May 2013 Karl Rammstein: The Belchen Legend, 13. Juni 2004, retrieved 20 May 2013 Hannes Hanggi: Ich will das System verankern, Basler Zeitung, 8 December 2007, retrieved 20 May 2013 Gianni Mazzucchelli: Der Sonnenkalender von Rothenfluh - Das Belchen-System, retrieved 20 May 2013 Belchen, guajara.com, retrieved 20 May 2013 regbas.ch: Belchen Triangle explained, with illustration Reference at archaeobasel.ch: Projekt Archäo-Geometrie – Belchendreieck.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice, moving under its own weight. Glaciers deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses and other distinguishing features, they abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic island countries such as New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. Between 35°N and 35°S, glaciers occur only in the Himalayas, Rocky Mountains, a few high mountains in East Africa, New Guinea and on Zard Kuh in Iran. Glaciers cover about 10 percent of Earth's land surface. Continental glaciers cover nearly 13 million km2 or about 98 percent of Antarctica's 13.2 million km2, with an average thickness of 2,100 m.
Greenland and Patagonia have huge expanses of continental glaciers. Glacial ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth. Many glaciers from temperate and seasonal polar climates store water as ice during the colder seasons and release it in the form of meltwater as warmer summer temperatures cause the glacier to melt, creating a water source, important for plants and human uses when other sources may be scant. Within high-altitude and Antarctic environments, the seasonal temperature difference is not sufficient to release meltwater. Since glacial mass is affected by long-term climatic changes, e.g. precipitation, mean temperature, cloud cover, glacial mass changes are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change and are a major source of variations in sea level. A large piece of compressed ice, or a glacier, appears blue, as large quantities of water appear blue; this is. The other reason for the blue color of glaciers is the lack of air bubbles. Air bubbles, which give a white color to ice, are squeezed out by pressure increasing the density of the created ice.
The word glacier is a loanword from French and goes back, via Franco-Provençal, to the Vulgar Latin glaciārium, derived from the Late Latin glacia, Latin glaciēs, meaning "ice". The processes and features caused by or related to glaciers are referred to as glacial; the process of glacier establishment and flow is called glaciation. The corresponding area of study is called glaciology. Glaciers are important components of the global cryosphere. Glaciers are categorized by their morphology, thermal characteristics, behavior. Cirque glaciers form on the slopes of mountains. A glacier that fills a valley is called a valley glacier, or alternatively an alpine glacier or mountain glacier. A large body of glacial ice astride a mountain, mountain range, or volcano is termed an ice cap or ice field. Ice caps have an area less than 50,000 km2 by definition. Glacial bodies larger than 50,000 km2 are called continental glaciers. Several kilometers deep, they obscure the underlying topography. Only nunataks protrude from their surfaces.
The only extant ice sheets are the two that cover most of Greenland. They contain vast quantities of fresh water, enough that if both melted, global sea levels would rise by over 70 m. Portions of an ice sheet or cap that extend into water are called ice shelves. Narrow, fast-moving sections of an ice sheet are called ice streams. In Antarctica, many ice streams drain into large ice shelves; some drain directly into the sea with an ice tongue, like Mertz Glacier. Tidewater glaciers are glaciers that terminate in the sea, including most glaciers flowing from Greenland, Antarctica and Ellesmere Islands in Canada, Southeast Alaska, the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields; as the ice reaches the sea, pieces break off, or calve. Most tidewater glaciers calve above sea level, which results in a tremendous impact as the iceberg strikes the water. Tidewater glaciers undergo centuries-long cycles of advance and retreat that are much less affected by the climate change than those of other glaciers.
Thermally, a temperate glacier is at melting point throughout the year, from its surface to its base. The ice of a polar glacier is always below the freezing point from the surface to its base, although the surface snowpack may experience seasonal melting. A sub-polar glacier includes both temperate and polar ice, depending on depth beneath the surface and position along the length of the glacier. In a similar way, the thermal regime of a glacier is described by its basal temperature. A cold-based glacier is below freezing at the ice-ground interface, is thus frozen to the underlying substrate. A warm-based glacier is above or at freezing at the interface, is able to slide at this contact; this contrast is thought to a large extent to govern the ability of a glacier to erode its bed, as sliding ice promotes plucking at rock from the surface below. Glaciers which are cold-based and warm-based are known as polythermal. Glaciers form where the accumulation of ice exceeds ablation. A glacier originates from a landform called'cirque' – a armchair-shaped geological feature (such as a depressio
Blauen or Hochblauen is a 1,165-metre-high mountain in the southern Black Forest. The peak lies within the municipalities of Schliengen and Malsburg-Marzell in Landkreis Lörrach and the community of Badenweiler in LandkreisBreisgau-Hochschwarzwald, it is an ideal viewpoint with views of the Black Forest, Jura Mountains, the Alps. In the 14th century, the mountain was recorded as the Blawen. Matthäus Merian's Topographia Sueviae in the mid-17th century calls it the Hoche Blawen; the parish boundary plan of the first Baden state survey of 1769/1770 distinguishes between the Hoch Blauen and the Hinter Blauen, a 1,087-metre-high sub-peak, 700 metres north-northeast of the main summit. As the Blauen M the mountain is shown on the Black Forest map owned by St. Blaise Abbey dating to the year 1788, and in 1845 in the Topographischen Atlas ueber das Grossherzogtum Baden it is called the Blauen, as in other geographical publications of the 19th century. In addition in 19th century travel literature the name Hochblauen occurs sometimes with the explanation that this is to distinguish it from the Zeller Blauen, 12 kilometres away.
In fact, the name Hochblauen was normal for the latter on as shown on topographic maps of the time, while the mountain near Badenweiler can still be found on maps today as the Blauen. The name Blauen is borne by various mountains and settlements in Germany and Switzerland. In 1880 in his book on Upper German place names, Oberdeutschen Flurnamenbuch, the cultural historian, Michel Buck, made a connexion between the name Blauen and historical mining activity, by proposing that name was derived from the word Bla = smeltery. However, it could be derived from the blue colour of coniferous forests or the bluish hue of a mountain when seen from a distance; the High Blauen Road was opened to private vehicles in 1928. About half the route is in the county of Freiburg-Hochschwarzwald. In its northwestern section it thus bears the designation K 4948, in the southeastern section it runs under the number K 6314, where the Wollbach highway agency is responsible. Winter clearance of the whole route is undertaken by the Müllheim highway agency by arrangement between the counties.
The road runs to the top. Since 2011 during the summer months there has been a bus route that links the summit on Sundays and holidays via Marzell and Kandern with Basle. In addition, variant A of the West Way, a long-distance path maintained by the Black Forest Club that runs for 280 kilometres from Pforzheim to Basle, goes over Blauen. Between 1957 and 1980 there was a reallocation of land in the mountain forest which, after comprehensive and expensive survey work, resulted in 42 small parcels of land being consolidated into twelve larger ones. To commemorate this, a monument was erected in 2007 with a brass plate that records the names of all the participants. Tourist facilities on Blauen first appeared in 1872. In June 1875 the first house was opened, it was expanded again in 1965 -- 1966, in order to handle the increase number of tourists. The water main installed in 1898 runs 150 metres down to a spring. Since 1925, when a cable was laid to Blauen from Marzell there has been electricity at the summit.
Three years the first motorised vehicles made their way up the mountain road. At the summit is the Berghaus Hochblauen, an inn with overnight accommodation. Since spring 2013 the inn has been closed. In 2015 it was being modified and should be open in 2016. A steel lattice observation tower was built in 1895 here by the Black Forest Club, replacing a rather low wooden tower dating to 1875, it was inaugurated on 30 August 1895 and restored in 1984 with the funding from the Bundespost. The 14-metre-high tower has a total height today, including antenna, of 21 metres, it is open at all times. In 1985 not more than one hundred metres south-southeast of the observation tower, a transmission tower, the Sender Blauen, was built, it restricts the view of the Alps from the observation tower. Northeast of the Hochblauen, at a height of 1,074 metres, lies what is the highest castle site in Baden-Württembergs, Stockberg Castle. Since summer 2011 there have been discussions about erecting a wind farm on Blauen with three generators to produce electricity.
At the peak stands a 93-metre-high Deutsche Telekom VHF and microwave radio relay tower. The tower is a reinforced concrete Typenturm, built in 1985; the following radio stations are broadcast from this tower: SWR1 Baden-Württemberg, SWR2, SWR3, Radio Regenbogen und baden.fm. The tower is used by the amateur radio repeater DB0YE; the tower serves the southern Upper Rhine valley as well as a large portion of the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald and Lörrach rural districts. The stations transmitted from Blauen are easily received in northwestern Switzerland; until the end of the 1980s the former SWF broadcast could be heard well beyond the Vosges mountains to the west. Since the power of the transmissions toward France have been limited by international agreements. Http://www.paraglidingearth.com/en-html/index.php?site=7308
At a height of 1,448.2 m above sea level the Seebuck is the second highest mountain the Black Forest after the Feldberg It is located in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The mountain rises in the Southern Black Forest southeast of the Feldberg, of which it is sometimes considered a part because both mountains are part of the same ridge, only separated by a shallow depression called the Grüble or Feldberg Saddle; the Seebuck drops steeply eastwards into the Feldsee lake, through which the Seebach flows, a stream, called the Gutach and the Wutach. The Felsenweg which runs from the summit area down the steep mountainside to the Feldsee is only suitable for hikers with robust footwear and sure-footedness, but is attractive thanks to its varied route and views of the Feldsee below; the Feldberg Tower is located on the Seebuck. This is a former transmission tower that now acts as an observation tower and, since 2013, has housed a ham museum; the mountain is a popular destination for day trippers.
The car park at the foot of the Seebuck is the base for numerous walks to the nearby ridge, as well as walks to the nearby valleys. In the summit area of the Seebuck on the edge of the Feldsee bowl is a Bismarck monument made of rubble stone, on, a portrait medallion, built between 1895 and 1896 by Fridolin Dietsche; the relief was cast by Wilhelm Pelargus in Stuttgart, the first sketch was made by Karlsruhe professor, Karl Gagel. For its unveiling on 4 October 1896 the committee for the erection of the monument sent Otto von Bismarck a telegramme, his answer was printed in the Freiburger Zeitung: I am grateful for the high honour, bestowed on me with the erection of the monument on the Feldberg and from previous visits to the Black Forest have vivid memories to the beautiful Baden countryside. The occasion itself celebrated with a banquet on the evening before and an official lunch on the day of the opening ceremony. To handle the numbers of festival guests, a special train ran from Freiburg nach Titisee on the Höllental Railway.
On September 2009 the monument was renovated, the first time for eleven years. On the edge of the large car park at the foot of the Seebuck a nature conservation centre for the Southern Black Forest was built, the "House of Nature". A little below it, above the federal road is the highest church in Germany: the Catholic parish church of the Transfiguration of Christ. Feldberg Tower and Ham Museum
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, can be calculated for submarine summits; the following sortable table lists the Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germany's highest mountain, the 2,962-metre-high Zugspitze, that has a 2962-metre-contour is the Zwölferkogel in Austria's Stubai Alps; the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km. Because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, because there is no agreed definition – as half the earth's circumference. After Mount Everest, the highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains.
There is no higher land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps; the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. Kukurtlu, which rises near Mount Elbrus, is the reference peak for Mont Blanc. Musala is the highest peak in Rila mountain, in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m it is the 4th most topographically isolated peak in Continental Europe.. Rila is the 6th highest mountain in Europe. With a topographic prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe. Table of the most isolated major summits of North America Table of the most isolated major summits of the United States Most isolated mountain peaks of Canada Most isolated mountain peaks of Mexico geodesy physical geography summit topographic elevation topographic prominence topography bivouac.com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger.com peaklist.org peakware.com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost.org^ ^ "Europe Ultra-Prominences".
Peaklist. Retrieved 26 February 2015
An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Earth is in the Quaternary glaciation, known in popular terminology as the Ice Age. Individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods", intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials", with both climatic pulses part of the Quaternary or other periods in Earth's history. In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene; the amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next ice age, which otherwise would begin in around 50,000 years, more glacial cycles. In 1742, Pierre Martel, an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, visited the valley of Chamonix in the Alps of Savoy. Two years he published an account of his journey.
He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, saying that they had once extended much farther. Similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers extending further. An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier in 1834. Comparable explanations are known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland and in Goethe's scientific work; such explanations could be found in other parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850, the natives attributed fossil moraines to the former action of glaciers. Meanwhile, European scholars had begun to wonder. From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport.
The Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions. In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton, explained erratic boulders in the Alps by the action of glaciers. Two decades in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula, he regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon. Only a few years the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages. In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations, he attempted to show. During the following years, Esmark's ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish and German scientists. At the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson seemed to be open to Esmark's ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen. Jameson's remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most prompted by Esmark.
In Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi, a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker, since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen, adopted Esmark's theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the temperate zones of the globe. In 1829, independently of these debates, the Swiss civil engineer Ignaz Venetz explained the dispersal of erratic boulders in the Alps, the nearby Jura Mountains, the North German Plain as being due to huge glaciers; when he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical. Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetz's idea into a theory with a glaciation limited to the Alps, his thoughts resembled Wahlenberg's theory. In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentier's case rather plutonistic assumptions, about the Earth's history. In 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.
In the meantime, the German botanist Karl Friedrich Schimper was studying mosses which were growing on erratic boulders in the alpine upland of Bavaria. He began to wonder. During the summer of 1835 he made some excursions to the Bavarian Alps. Schimper came to the conclusion that ice must have been the means of transport for the boulders in the alpine upland. In the winter of 1835 to 1836 he held. Schimper assumed that there must have been global times of obliteration with a cold climate and frozen water. Schimper spent the summer months of 1836 at Devens, near Bex, in the Swiss Alps with his former university friend Louis Agassiz and Jean de Charpentier. Schimper, de Charpentier and Venetz convinced Agassiz that there had been a time of glaciation. During the winter of 1836/37, Agassiz and Schimper developed the theory of a sequence of glaciations, they drew upon the preceding works of Venetz, de Charpentier and on their own fieldwork. Agassiz appears to have been familiar with Bernhardi's paper at that time.
At the beginning of 1837, Schimper coined the term "ice age" for the period of the glaciers. In July 1837 Ag