Shreveport is a city in the U. S. state of Louisiana. It is the most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area. Shreveport ranks third in population in Louisiana after New Orleans and Baton Rouge and 126th in the U. S; the bulk of Shreveport is in Caddo Parish. Shreveport extends along the west bank of the Red River into neighboring Bossier Parish; the population of Shreveport was 199,311 as of the 2010 U. S. Census; the United States Census Bureau's 2017 estimate for the city's population decreased to 192,036. Shreveport was founded in 1836 by the Shreve Town Company, a corporation established to develop a town at the juncture of the newly navigable Red River and the Texas Trail, an overland route into the newly independent Republic of Texas. Prior to Texas becoming independent, this trail entered Mexico; the city grew throughout the 20th century and, after the discovery of oil in Louisiana, became a national center for the oil industry. Standard Oil of Louisiana and United Gas Corporation were headquartered in the city until the 1960s and 1980s.
After the loss of jobs in the oil industry, the close of Shreveport Operations, other economic problems the city struggled with a declining population, poverty and violent crime. Since Cedric Glover's tenure as mayor of Shreveport, the city has revitalized its neighborhoods and roads to end its population decline, revive the economy through diversification, lower crime. Shreveport is the educational and cultural center of the Ark-La-Tex region, where Arkansas and Texas meet, it is the location of Centenary College of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Louisiana Tech University Shreveport, Southern University at Shreveport, Louisiana Baptist University. Its neighboring city Bossier is the location of Bossier Parish Community College; the city forms part of the I-20 Cyber Corridor linking Shreveport, Bossier and Monroe to Dallas and Tyler and Atlanta, Georgia. Companies with significant operations or headquarters in Shreveport are AT&T, Chase Bank, Capital One, Regions Financial Corporation, SWEPCO, UPS, General Electric, UOP LLC, Calumet Specialty Products Partners, APS Payroll.
Shreveport was established to launch a town at the meeting point of the Brown Bricks and the Texas Trail. The Red River was made navigable by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, who led the United States Army Corps of Engineers effort to clear the Red River. A 180-mile-long natural log jam, the Great Raft, had obstructed passage to shipping. Shreve used the Heliopolis, to remove the log jam; the company and the village of Shreve Town were named in Shreve's honor. Shreve Town was contained within the boundaries of a section of land sold to the company in 1835 by the indigenous Caddo Indians. In 1838 Caddo Parish was created from the large Natchitoches Parish, Shreve Town became its parish seat. On March 20, 1839, the town was incorporated as Shreveport; the town consisted of 64 city blocks, created by eight streets running west from the Red River and eight streets running south from Cross Bayou, one of its tributaries. Shreveport soon became a center of steamboat commerce, carrying cotton and agricultural crops from the plantations of Caddo Parish.
Shreveport had a slave market, though slave trading was not as widespread as in other parts of the state. Steamboats plied the Red River, stevedores loaded and unloaded cargo. By 1860, Shreveport had a population of 1,300 slaves within the city limits. During the American Civil War, Shreveport was the capital of Louisiana from 1863 to 1865, having succeeded Baton Rouge and Opelousas after each fell under Union control; the city was a Confederate stronghold throughout the war and was the site of the headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. Fort Albert Sidney Johnston was built on a ridge northwest of the city; because of limited development in that area, the site is undisturbed in the 21st century. Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several weeks after Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, the Trans-Mississippi was the last Confederate command to surrender, on May 26, 1865. "The period May 13-21, 1865, was filled with great uncertainly after soldiers learned of the surrenders of Lee and Johnston, the Good Friday assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the rapid departure of their own generals."
In the confusion there was a breakdown of military rioting by soldiers. They destroyed buildings containing service records, a loss that made it difficult for many to gain Confederate pensions from state governments. Throughout the war, women in Shreveport did much to assist the soldiers fighting far to the east. Historian John D. Winters writes of them in The Civil War in Louisiana: "The women of Shreveport and vicinity labored long hours over their sewing machines to provide their men with adequate underclothing and uniforms. After the excitement of Fort Sumter, there was a great rush to get the volunteer companies ready and off to New Orleans... Forming a Military Aid Society, the ladies of Shreveport requested donations of wool and cotton yarn for knitting socks. Joined by others, the Society collected blankets for the wounded and gave concerts and tableaux to raise funds. Tickets were sold for a diamond ring given by the mercantile house of Hyams and Brothers..."A Confederate minstrel show gave two performances to raise mon
A hoe is a simple tool, used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil it has a long rod of wood or iron a strong board and bemt plate of iron fixed to one of its end and works like a blade it is pulled by animals agricultural and horticultural hand tool used to shape soil, remove weeds, clear soil, harvest root crops. Shaping the soil includes piling soil around the base of plants, digging narrow furrows and shallow trenches for planting seeds or bulbs. Weeding with a hoe includes agitating the surface of the soil or cutting foliage from roots, clearing soil of old roots and crop residues. Hoes for digging and moving soil are used to harvest root crops such as potatoes. There are many kinds of hoes of varied purposes; some have multiple functions while others have specific functionality. Here are two general types of hoe: draw hoes for shaping soil and scuffle hoes for weeding and aerating soil. A draw hoe has a blade set at a right angle to the shaft; the user chops into the ground and pulls the blade towards them.
Altering the angle of the handle can cause the hoe to dig deeper or more shallowly as the hoe is pulled. A draw hoe can be used to cultivate soil to a depth of several inches. A typical design of draw hoe, the "eye hoe", has a ring in the head through which the handle is fitted; this design has been used since Roman times. A scuffle hoe is used to scrape the surface of the soil, loosen the top inch or so, to cut the roots of, disrupt the growth of weeds efficiently; these are of two different designs: the Dutch hoe and the hoop hoe. The term "hand hoe" most refers to any type of light-weight, short-handled hoe, although it may be used to contrast hand-held tools against animal or machine pulled tools; the typical farming and gardening hoe with a heavy, broad blade and a straight edge is known as the Italian hoe, grub hoe, grab hoe, pattern hoe, Azada, or dago hoe. The ridging hoe known as the Warren hoe and the drill hoe, is a triangular or heart-shaped draw hoe, useful for digging narrow furrows and shallow trenches for the planting of seeds or bulbs.
The Paxton hoe is similar with a more rounded rectangular blade. The flower hoe has a small blade, rendering it useful for light weeding and aerating around growing plants, so as not to disturb their shallow roots while removing weeds beyond the reach of the gardener's arm; the hoedad denominated the hoedag or hodag, is a hoe-like tool used to plant trees. According to Hartzell, "The hoedag called skindvic hoe... Hans Rasmussen, legendary contractor and timber farm owner, is credited with having invented the curved, round-nosed hoedag blade, used today"; the mortar hoe is a tool specific to the manual mixing of mortar and concrete, has the appearance of a typical square-bladed draw hoe with the addition of large holes in the blade. The Dutch hoe is designed to be pushed or pulled through the soil to cut the roots of weeds just under the surface. A Dutch hoe has a blade "sharp on every side so as to cut either forwards and backwards"; the blade must be set in a plane upwardly inclined in relation to the dual axis of the shaft.
The user pushes the handle to move the blade forward, forcing it below the surface of the soil and maintaining it at a shallow depth by altering the angle of the handle while pushing. A scuffle hoe can cultivate soil and remove weeds from the surface layer; the hoop hoe known as the "action hoe", hula, pendulum weeder, or "swivel hoe") has a double-edge blade that bends around to form a rectangle attached to the shaft. Weeds are cut just below the surface of the soil as the blade is pulled; the back and forth motion is effective at cutting weeds in loose or friable soil. The width of the blade ranges between 3-7 inches; the head is a loop of sharpened strap metal. However, it is not as efficient as a draw hoe for moving soil; the collinear hoe or collineal hoe has a narrow, razor-sharp blade, used to slice the roots of weeds by skimming it just under the surface of the soil with a sweeping motion. It was designed by Eliot Coleman in the late 1980s; the swoe hoe is a one-sided cutting hoe, being a variant of the Dutch hoe.
Hoes resembling neither draw nor scuffle hoes include: Wheel hoes are, as the name suggests, a hoe or pair of hoes attached to one or more wheels. The hoes are interchangeable with other tools. Horse hoes, resembling small ploughs, were a favourite implement of agricultural pioneer Jethro Tull, claiming in his book "Horse Hoeing Husbandry" that "the horse-hoe will, in wide intervals, give wheat throughout all the stages of its life, as much nourishment as the discreet hoer pleases"; the modern view is that, rather than nutrients being released, the crop benefits from the removal of competing plants. The introduction of the horse hoe, together with the better-known seed drill, brought about the great increase farming productivity seen during the British Agricultural Revolution. Fork hoes, are hoes, their use is to loosen the soil, prior to planting or sowing. Clam hoes, made for clam digging Adze hoes, with the basic hoe shape but heavier and stronger and with traditional uses in trail making.
Pacul or cangkul Gang hoes for powered use. Hoes a
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
Gars are members of the Lepisosteiformes, an ancient holosteian order of ray-finned fish. The family Lepisosteidae includes seven living species of fish in two genera that inhabit fresh and marine, waters of eastern North America, Central America and the Caribbean islands. Gars have elongated bodies that are armored with ganoid scales, fronted by elongated jaws filled with long, sharp teeth. All of the gars are large fish, but the alligator gar is the largest, as specimens have been reported to be 3 m in length. Unusually, their vascularised swim bladders can function as lungs, most gars surface periodically to take a gulp of air. Gar flesh is edible and the hard skin and scales of gars are used by humans; the name gar was used for a species of needlefish found in the North Atlantic and taking its name from the Old English word for "spear". Belone belone is now more referred to as the "garfish" or "gar fish" to avoid confusion with the North American gars of the family Lepisosteidae. Confusingly, the name "garfish" is used for a number of other species of the related genera Strongylura and Xenentodon of the family Belonidae.
The genus name Lepisosteus comes from the Greek lepis meaning "scale" and osteon meaning "bone". Atractosteus is derived from Greek, in this case from atraktos, meaning arrow. Fossil gars are found in Europe, South America, North America, indicating that in times past, these fish had a wider distribution than they do today. Gars are considered to be a remnant of a group of bony fish that flourished in the Mesozoic, are most related to the bowfin; the distribution of the Gar Lepisosteidae in North America, lies in the shallow, brackish waters off of Texas and Louisiana, off the eastern coast of Mexico. A few populations are present in the Great Lakes region of the United States, living in similar shallow waters. Gar bodies are elongated armored with ganoid scales, fronted by elongated jaws filled with long, sharp teeth, their tails are heterocercal, the dorsal fins are close to the tail. As their vascularised swim bladders can function as lungs, most gars surface periodically to take a gulp of air, doing so more in stagnant or warm water when the concentration of oxygen in the water is low.
Experiments on the swim bladder has shown that the temperature of the water affects which respiration method the gar will use: aerial or aquatic. They will increase the aerial breathing rate. Gars can live submerged in oxygenated water without access to air and remain healthy while being able to survive in deoxygenated water if allowed access to air; this adaptation can be the result of behavioral factors. As a result of this organ, they are resilient and able to tolerate conditions that most other fish could not survive in; the gar has paired appendages, including pectoral fins, pelvic fins, while having an anal fin, caudal fin, a dorsal fin. The bone structures within the fins are important to study as they can show homology throughout the fossil record; the pelvic girdle resembles that of other actinopterygians yet still having some of its own characteristics. Gars have a postcleithrun -, a bone, lateral to the scapula, but do not have postpectorals. Proximally to the postcleithrum, the supracleithrum is important as it plays a critical role in opening the gar's jaws.
This structure has a unique internal coracoid lamina only present in the Gar species. Proximal to the supracleithrum is the posttemporal bone, smaller than other actinopterygians. Gars have no clavicle bone, although there have been observations of elongated plates within the area. All the gars are large fish, but the alligator gar Atractosteus spatula is the largest; the largest alligator gar caught and recorded was 8 ft 5 1⁄4 in long, weighed 327 lb, was 47 in around the girth. The smaller species, such as Lepisosteus oculatus, are large reaching lengths of over 60 cm, sometimes much more. Gars tend to be slow-moving fish except, they prefer the shallow and weedy areas of rivers and bayous congregating in small groups. They are voracious predators, catching their prey with their needle-like teeth, obtained with a sideways strike of the head, they feed extensively on invertebrates such as crabs. Gars are found across much of North America. Although gars are found in freshwater habitats, several species enter brackish waters and a few, most notably Atractosteus tristoechus, are sometimes found in the sea.
Some gars travel from rivers through sewers to get to ponds. The gar family contains seven extant species, in two genera: Family Lepisosteidae Genus Atractosteus Rafinesque, 1820 †Atractosteus africanus Atractosteus spatula Atractosteus tristoechus Atractosteus tropicus Gill, 1863 Genus Lepisosteus Linnaeus, 1758 †Lepisosteus bemisi Grande, 2010 †Lepisosteus cominatoi Santos, 1984 †Lepisosteus fimbriatus †Lepisosteus indicus Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell, 1864 †Lepisosteus opertus Estes, 1964 Lepisosteus osseus (Lon
Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species alive, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraíba of South America, to detritivores, to a tiny parasitic species called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbels. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance. Many of the smaller species the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal. Extant catfish species live in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at another. Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe.
More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar and New Guinea, they are found in freshwater environments. Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are troglobitic. One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the Southern United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of slang names, such as "mud cat", "polliwogs", or "chuckleheads"; these nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname "chucklehead", while in another state or region, that nickname refers to the blue catfish. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting and food resource. However, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna.
Walking catfish have been introduced in the freshwaters of Florida, with the voracious catfish becoming a major alien pest there. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages. Pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have established feral populations in many warm waters around the world. Most catfish are bottom feeders. In general, they are negatively buoyant, which means that they will sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder and a heavy, bony head. Catfish have a variety of body shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoil; some contains no incisiform teeth. However, some families, notably Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, have a suckermouth that allows them to fasten themselves to objects in fast-moving water. Catfish have a maxilla reduced to a support for barbels. Catfish may have up to four pairs of barbels: nasal and two pairs of chin barbels though pairs of barbels may be absent depending on the species.
Catfish barbels always come as pairs. Many larger catfish have chemoreceptors across their entire bodies, which means they "taste" anything they touch and "smell" any chemicals in the water. "In catfish, gustation plays a primary role in the orientation and location of food". Because their barbels and chemoreception are more important in detecting food, the eyes on catfish are small. Like other ostariophysans, they are characterized by the presence of a Weberian apparatus, their well-developed Weberian apparatus and reduced gas bladder allow for improved hearing as well as sound production. Catfish do not have scales. In some species, the mucus-covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its skin. In some catfish, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes. In loricarioids and in the Asian genus Sisor, the armor is made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates. Similar plates are found in large specimens of Lithodoras; these plates may be supported by vertebral processes, as in scoloplacids and in Sisor, but the processes never fuse to the plates or form any external armor.
By contrast, in the subfamily Doumeinae and in hoplomyzontines, the armor is formed by expanded vertebral processes that form plates. The lateral armor of doradids and hoplomyzontines consists of hypertrophied lateral line ossicles with dorsal and ventral lamina. All catfish, except members of Malapteruridae, possess a strong, bony leading spine-like ray on their dorsal and pectoral fins; as a defense, these spines may be locked into place so that they stick outwards, which can inflict severe wounds. In several species catfish can use these f
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, Pub. L. 101-601, 25 U. S. C. 3001 et seq. 104 Stat. 3048, is a United States federal law enacted on 16 November 1990. The Act requires federal agencies and institutions that receive federal funding to return Native American "cultural items" to lineal descendants and culturally affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations. Cultural items include human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, objects of cultural patrimony. A program of federal grants assists in the repatriation process and the Secretary of the Interior may assess civil penalties on museums that fail to comply. NAGPRA establishes procedures for the inadvertent discovery or planned excavation of Native American cultural items on federal or tribal lands. While these provisions do not apply to discoveries or excavations on private or state lands, the collection provisions of the Act may apply to Native American cultural items if they come under the control of an institution that receives federal funding.
Lastly, NAGPRA makes it a criminal offense to traffic in Native American human remains without right of possession or in Native American cultural items obtained in violation of the Act. Penalties for a first offense may reach a $100,000 fine; the intent of the NAGPRA legislation is to address long-standing claims by federally recognized tribes for the return of human remains and cultural objects unlawfully obtained from prehistoric, historic and current Native American homelands. Interpretation of human and indigenous rights, prehistoric presence, cultural affiliation with antiquities, the return of remains and objects can be controversial and contested, it includes provisions that delineate the legal processes by which museums and federal agencies are required to return certain Native American cultural items—human remains, gravesite materials, other objects of cultural patrimony—to proven lineal descendants, culturally related Native American tribes, Native Hawaiian groups. Outcomes of NAGPRA repatriation efforts are slow and cumbersome, leading many tribes to spend considerable effort documenting their requests.
NAGPRA was enacted at the insistence and by the direction of members of Native American nations. Tribes had many reasons based in law that made legislation concerning tribal grave protection and repatriation necessary. State Statutory Law: Historically, states only regulated and protected marked graves. Native American graves were unmarked and did not receive the protection provided by these statutes. Common Law: The colonizing population formed much of the legal system that developed over the course of settling the United States; this law did not take into account the unique Native American practices concerning graves and other burial practices. It did not account for government actions against Native Americans, such as removal, the relationship that Native Americans as different peoples maintain with their dead, sacred ideas and myths related to the possession of graves. Equal Protection: Native Americans, as well as others found that the remains of Native American graves were treated differently from the dead of other races.
First Amendment: As in most racial and social groups, Native American burial practices relate to their religious beliefs and practices. They held that when tribal dead were desecrated, disturbed, or withheld from burial, their religious beliefs and practices are being infringed upon. Religious beliefs and practices are protected by the first amendment. Sovereignty Rights: Native Americans hold unique rights as sovereign bodies, leading to their relations to be controlled by their own laws and customs; the relationship between the people and their dead is an internal relationship, to be understood as under the sovereign jurisdiction of the tribe. Treaty: From the beginning of the U. S. government and tribe relations, the tribe maintained rights unless divested to the U. S. government in a treaty. The U. S. government does not have the right to disturb Native American graves or their dead, because it has not been granted by any treaty. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act is a law that establishes the ownership of cultural items excavated or discovered on federal or tribal land after November 16, 1990.
The act applies to land transferred by the federal government to the states under the Water Resources Department Act. However, the provisions of the legislation do not apply to private lands; the Act states that Native American remains and associated funerary objects belong to lineal descendants. If lineal descendants cannot be identified those remains and objects, along with associated funerary and sacred objects, objects of cultural patrimony belong to the tribe on whose lands the remains were found or the tribe having the closest known relationship to them. Tribes find the burden of proof is on them, if it becomes necessary to demonstrate a cultural relationship that may not be well-documented or understood. Nowhere has this issue been more pronounced than in California, where many small bands were extinguished before they could be recognized, only a handful today, have obtained federal recognition as Native Americans and descendants of Native American bands. Congress attempted to "strike a balance between the interest in scientific examination of skeletal remains and the recognition that Native Americans, like people from every culture around the world, have a religious and spiritual reverence for the remains of their ancestors."The act requires each federal agency, museum, or institution that receives federal funds to prepare an inventory of remains