St. Louis–San Francisco Railway
The St. Louis–San Francisco Railway known as the Frisco, was a railroad that operated in the Midwest and South Central U. S. from 1876 to April 17, 1980. At the end of 1970 it operated 4,547 miles of road on 6,574 miles of track, not including subsidiaries Quanah and Pacific Railway or the Alabama and Northern Railroad, it was purchased and absorbed into the Burlington Northern Railroad in 1980. Despite its name, it never came close to San Francisco; the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway was incorporated in Missouri on September 7, 1876, it was formed from the Missouri Central Division of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. This land grant line was one of two railroads authorized to build across Indian Territory; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad, interested in the A&P right of way across the Mojave Desert to California, took the road over until the larger road went bankrupt in 1893. After bankruptcy the Frisco emerged as the St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad, incorporated on June 29, 1896, which went bankrupt.
On August 24, 1916 the company was reorganized as the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway, though the line never went west of Texas, terminating more than 1,000 miles from San Francisco; the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway had two main lines: St. Louis–Tulsa–Oklahoma City and Kansas City–Memphis–Birmingham; the junction of the two lines was in Springfield, home to the company's main shop facility and headquarters. Other lines included: Springfield–Kansas City Monett, Missouri –Wichita, Kansas Monett, Missouri–Hugo, Oklahoma–Paris, Texas St. Louis–River Junction, Arkansas Tulsa, Oklahoma–Dallas, Texas Tulsa, Oklahoma–Avard, Oklahoma Lakeside, Oklahoma–Hugo, Oklahoma–Hope, Arkansas. From March 1917, through January 1959, the Frisco, in a joint venture with the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad, operated the Texas Special; this luxurious train, a streamliner from 1947, ran from St. Louis to Dallas, Texas, Ft. Worth and San Antonio, Texas, it was the last passenger railroad to end segregation of passengers by race.
The Frisco merged into the Burlington Northern Railroad on November 21, 1980. The city of Frisco, was named after the railroad and uses the former railroad's logo as its own logo; the logo is modeled after a stretched-out raccoon skin. While the Texas Special was the most famous passenger train the Frisco operated, it had an entire fleet of named trains; these included: Black Gold Firefly General Wood Kansas City–Florida Special Memphian Meteor Oil Fields Special Oklahoman Southland Sunnyland Texas Flash Texas Special Will Rogers "Chadwick Flyer" The core of the former Frisco system continues to be operated by BNSF Railway as high-density mainlines. Other secondary and branchlines have been sold to shortline operators or have been abandoned altogether. Kansas City – Springfield – Memphis – Birmingham: Operated by BNSF St. Louis – Springfield – Tulsa – Dallas: Operated by BNSF Fort Scott, Kansas to Afton, Oklahoma: Operated by BNSF St. Louis to Memphis, Tennessee: Operated by BNSF Tulsa, Oklahoma to Avard, Oklahoma: Operated by BNSF Fredonia, Kansas to Cherryvale, Kansas to Columbus, Kansas: Operated by South Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad Cherokee, Kansas to Pittsburg, Kansas: Operated by South Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad Fredonia, Kansas to Ellsworth, Kansas: Abandoned Cherokee, Kansas to Cherryvale, Kansas: Abandoned Monett, Missouri to Fort Smith, Arkansas: Operated by Arkansas and Missouri Railroad Lakeside, Oklahoma to Hope, Arkansas: Operated by Kiamichi Railroad Tulsa, Oklahoma to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Operated by Stillwater Central Railroad Oklahoma City to Snyder, Oklahoma: Operated by Stillwater Central Railroad Snyder, Oklahoma to Quanah, Texas: Operated by BNSF Enid, Oklahoma to Frederick, Oklahoma: Operated by Grainbelt/Farmrail Amory, Mississippi to Pensacola, Florida: Operated by Alabama and Gulf Coast Railway Springfield to Kansas City: Abandoned Monett to Carthage, Missouri: Out of service Carthage, Missouri to Wichita, Kansas: Mostly abandoned Chaffee, Missouri to Poplar Bluff, Missouri to Hoxie, Arkansas: Abandoned Frisco 19, a 2-8-0 Consolidation-type built in 1910 and on static display on in Frisco, Texas Frisco 13
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Tupelo is a city in, the county seat of, Lee County, United States. With an estimated population of 38,114 in 2017, Tupelo is the seventh-largest city in Mississippi and is considered a commercial and cultural hub of North Mississippi. Tupelo was incorporated in 1867, although the area had earlier been settled as "Gum Pond" along the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. On February 7, 1934, Tupelo became the first city to receive power from the Tennessee Valley Authority thus giving it the nickname "The First TVA City." Much of the city was devastated by a major tornado in 1936 that still ranks as one of the deadliest tornadoes in American history. Following electrification, Tupelo boomed as a regional manufacturing and distribution center and was once considered a hub of the American furniture manufacturing industry. Although many of Tupelo's manufacturing industries have declined since the 1990s, the city has continued to grow due to strong healthcare and financial service industries. Tupelo is the smallest city in the United States, the headquarters of more than one bank with over $10 billion in assets.
Tupelo has a deep connection to Mississippi's music history, being associated with artists as diverse as Elvis Presley, Rae Sremmurd, Diplo. The city is home to multiple art and cultural institutions, including the Elvis Presley Birthplace and the 10,000-seat BancorpSouth Arena, the largest multipurpose indoor arena in Mississippi. Tupelo is the only city in the Southern United States to be named an All-America City five times, most in 2015; the Tupelo micropolitian area contains Lee and Pontotoc counties and had a population of 140,081 in 2017. Indigenous peoples lived in the area for thousands of years; the historic Chickasaw and Choctaw, both Muskogean-speaking peoples of the Southeast, occupied this area long before European encounter. French and British colonists traded with these indigenous peoples and tried to make alliances with them; the French established towns in Mississippi on the Gulf Coast. At times, the European powers came into armed conflict. On May 26, 1736, the Battle of Ackia was fought near the site of present-day Tupelo.
The French, under Louisiana governor Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, had sought to link Louisiana with Acadia and the other northern colonies of New France. In the early 19th century, after years of trading and encroachment by European-American settlers from the United States, conflicts increased as the US settlers tried to gain land from these nations. In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and authorized the relocation of all the Southeast Native Americans west of the Mississippi River, completed by the end of the 1830s. In the early years of settlement, European-Americans named this town Gum Pond due to its numerous tupelo trees, known locally as blackgum; the city still hosts the annual Gumtree Arts Festival. During the Civil War and Confederate forces fought in the area in 1864 in the Battle of Tupelo. Designated the Tupelo National Battlefield, the battlefield is administered by the National Park Service. In addition, the Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield, about ten miles north, commemorates another American Civil War battle.
After the war, a cross-state railroad for northern Mississippi was constructed through the town, which encouraged industry and growth. With expansion, the town changed its name in honor of the battle, it was incorporated in 1870. By the early twentieth century, the town had become a site of cotton textile mills, which provided new jobs for residents of the rural area. Under the state's segregation practices, the mills employed only white children. Reformers attempted to protect them through labor laws; the last known bank robbery by Machine Gun Kelly, a Prohibition-era gangster, took place on November 30, 1932 at the Citizen's State Bank in Tupelo. After the robbery, the bank's chief teller said of Kelly, "He was the kind of guy that, if you looked at him, you would never thought he was a bank robber."During the Great Depression, Tupelo was electrified by the new Tennessee Valley Authority, which had constructed dams and power plants throughout the region to generate hydroelectric power for the large, rural area.
The distribution infrastructure was built with federal assistance as well, employing many local workers. In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt visited this "First TVA City". In 2007, the nearby village of Blue Springs was selected as the site for Toyota's eleventh automobile manufacturing plant in the United States. In 2013 Gale Stauffer of the Tupelo Police Department died in a shootout following a bank robbery the first officer killed in the line of duty in the Department's history; the spring of 1936 brought Tupelo one of its worst-ever natural disasters, part of the Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak of April 5–6 in that year. The storm leveled 48 city blocks and over 200 homes, killing 216 people and injuring more than 700 persons, it struck at night. Among the survivors was Elvis Presley a baby. Obliterating the Gum Pond neighborhood, the tornado dropped most of the victims' bodies in the pond; the storm has since been rated F5 on the modern Fujita scale. The Tupelo Tornado is recognized as one of the deadliest in U.
S. history. The Mississippi State Geologist estimated a final death toll of 233 persons, but 100 whites were still reported as hospitalized at the time; because the white newspapers did not publish news about blacks until the 1940s and 1950s, historians have had difficulty learning the fates of blacks i
Lee County, Mississippi
Lee is a county in Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 82,910; the county seat is Tupelo. Lee County is included in the Tupelo Micropolitan Statistical Area. Lee County was established on October 26, 1866, named for Robert E. Lee, General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States, it was carved from Pontotoc. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 453 square miles, of which 450 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water. Interstate 22 U. S. Highway 45 U. S. Highway 78 Natchez Trace Parkway Mississippi Highway 6 Prentiss County Itawamba County Monroe County Chickasaw County Pontotoc County Union County Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield As of the census of 2000, there were 75,755 people, 29,200 households, 20,819 families residing in the county; the population density was 168 people per square mile. There were 31,887 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.66% White, 24.51% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races.
1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 29,200 households out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.60% were married couples living together, 14.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.70% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 30.50% from 25 to 44, 21.80% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,165, the median income for a family was $43,149. Males had a median income of $31,039 versus $22,235 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,956.
About 10.50% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 15.50% of those age 65 or over. Lee County has the ninth highest per capita income in the State of Mississippi. Baldwyn Saltillo Tupelo Verona Barrett Ridge Guntown Nettleton Plantersville Shannon Sherman Mooreville Brewer Eggville Ellistown Jug Fork Belden Lee County is served by the Baldwyn, Lee County and Tupelo school districts. List of counties in Mississippi List of memorials to Robert E. Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Mississippi GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral information Geographic data related to Lee County, Mississippi at OpenStreetMap Lee-Itawamba Library System at SirsiDynix
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid