A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a recorded, commercially released song. Before the onset of rock'n' roll in the 1950s, songs were published and several records of a song might be brought out by singers of the day, each giving it their individual treatment. Cover versions could be released as an effort to revive the song's popularity among younger generations of listeners after the popularity of the original version has long since declined over the years. On occasion, a cover can become more popular than the original, such as Elvis Presley's version of Carl Perkins' original "Blue Suede Shoes", Santana's 1970 version of Peter Green's and Fleetwood Mac's 1968 "Black Magic Woman", Johnny Cash's version of Nine Inch Nails' "Hurt", Whitney Houston's versions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You" and of George Benson's "The Greatest Love of All", Glenn Medeiros's version of George Benson's "Nothing's Gonna Change My Love for You" or Jimi Hendrix's version of Bob Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower".
The Hendrix recording, released six months after Dylan's original, became a Top 10 single in the UK in 1968 and was ranked 48th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Another famous example is the Beatles' cover of "Twist and Shout" by the Top Notes, their cover of the song, "Til There Was You", by Meredith Willson, among many others; the term "cover" goes back decades when cover version described a rival version of a tune recorded to compete with the released version. The Chicago Tribune described the term in 1952: "trade jargon meaning to record a tune that looks like a potential hit on someone else's label". Examples of records covered include Paul Williams' 1949 hit tune "The Hucklebuck" and Hank Williams' 1952 song "Jambalaya". Both had numerous hit versions. Before the mid-20th century, the notion of an original version of a popular tune would have seemed odd – the production of musical entertainment was seen as a live event if it was reproduced at home via a copy of the sheet music, learned by heart or captured on a gramophone record.
In fact, one of the principal objects of publishing sheet music was to have a composition performed by as many artists as possible. In previous generations, some artists made successful careers of presenting revivals or reworkings of once-popular tunes out of doing contemporary cover versions of current hits. Musicians now play what they call "cover versions" of songs as a tribute to the original performer or group. Using familiar material is an important method of learning music styles; until the mid-1960s most albums, or long playing records, contained a large number of evergreens or standards to present a fuller range of the artist's abilities and style. Artists might perform interpretations of a favorite artist's hit tunes for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song or collection of tunes. A cover band plays such "cover versions" exclusively. Today three broad types of entertainers depend on cover versions for their principal repertoire: Tribute acts or bands are performers who make a living by recreating the music of one particular artist or band.
Bands such as Björn Again, Led Zepagain, The Fab Four, Australian Pink Floyd Show, The Iron Maidens and Glory Days are dedicated to playing the music of ABBA, Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Iron Maiden and Bruce Springsteen respectively. Some tribute acts salute the Who, many other classic rock acts. Many tribute acts target artists who remain popular but no longer perform, allowing an audience to experience the "next best thing" to the original act; the formation of tribute acts is proportional to the enduring popularity of the original act. Many tribute bands attempt to recreate another band's music as faithfully as possible, but some such bands introduce a twist. Dread Zeppelin performs reggae versions of the Zeppelin catalog and Beatallica creates heavy metal fusions of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. There are situations in which a member of a tribute band will go on to greater success, sometimes with the original act they tribute. One notable example is Tim "Ripper" Owens who, once the lead singer of Judas Priest tribute band British Steel, went on to join Judas Priest himself.
Cover acts or bands are entertainers who perform a broad variety of crowd-pleasing cover songs for audiences who enjoy the familiarity of hit songs. Such bands draw from current Top 40 hits and/or those of previous decades to provide nostalgic entertainment in bars, on cruise ships and at such events as weddings, family celebrations and corporate functions. Since the advent of inexpensive computers, some cover bands use a computerized catalog of songs, so that the singer can have the lyrics to a song displayed on a computer screen; the use of a screen for lyrics as a memory aid can increase the number of songs a singer can perform. Revivalist artists or bands are performers who are inspired by an entire genre of music and dedicate themselves to curating and recreating the genre and introducing it to younger audiences who have not experienced that music first hand. Unlike tribute bands and cover bands who rely on audiences seeking a nostalgic experience, revivalist bands seek new young audiences for whom the music is fresh and has no nostalgic value.
For example, Sha Na Na
Over the Rainbow
"Over the Rainbow" is a ballad composed by Harold Arlen with lyrics by Yip Harburg. It was written for the movie The Wizard of Oz and was sung by actress Judy Garland in her starring role as Dorothy Gale, it became Garland's signature song. About five minutes into the film, Dorothy sings the song after failing to get Aunt Em, Uncle Henry, the farm hands to listen to her story of an unpleasant incident involving her dog and the town spinster, Miss Gulch. Aunt Em tells her to "find yourself a place where you won't get into any trouble"; this prompts musing to Toto, "Some place where there isn't any trouble. Do you suppose there is such a place, Toto? There must be. It's not a place you can get to by a train. It's far away. Behind the moon, beyond the rain...", at which point she begins singing. The "Over the Rainbow" and Kansas scenes were directed by the uncredited King Vidor; the song was deleted from the film after a preview in San Luis Obispo because MGM chief executive Louis B. Mayer and producer Mervyn LeRoy thought it "slowed down the picture" and sounded "like something for Jeanette MacDonald, not for a little girl singing in a barnyard".
But the song was returned to the film due to the persistence of associate producer Arthur Freed and Roger Edens, Judy Garland's vocal coach and mentor. At the start of the film, part of the song is played by the MGM orchestra over the opening credits. A reprise of it was deleted after being filmed. An additional chorus was to be sung by Dorothy while she was locked in the Witch's castle, helplessly awaiting death as the hourglass ran out. However, although the visual portion of that reprise is lost, the soundtrack of it survives and was included in the 2-CD Deluxe Edition of the film's soundtrack released by Rhino Entertainment in 1995. In that intense rendition, Dorothy cries her way through it, unable to finish, concluding with, "I'm frightened, Auntie Em, I'm frightened!" This phrase was retained in the film and is followed by Aunt Em's brief appearance in the crystal ball, where she is soon replaced by the visage of the witch and taunting Dorothy before turning toward the camera to cackle.
Another instrumental version is played in the underscore in the final scene and over the closing credits. On October 7, 1938, Judy Garland recorded the song on the MGM soundstage with an arrangement by Murray Cutter. In September 1939, a studio recording of the song, not from the film soundtrack, was recorded and released as a single for Decca. In March 1940, that same recording was included on a Decca 78 four-record studio cast album entitled The Wizard of Oz. Although this isn't the version that appeared in the film, Decca continued to release the "cast album" into the 1960s after it was reissued on disc, a 331⁄3-rpm album; the film version of "Over the Rainbow" was unavailable to the public until the soundtrack was released by MGM in 1956 to coincide with the television premiere of The Wizard of Oz. The soundtrack version has been re-released several times over the years, including a deluxe edition by Rhino in 1995. After The Wizard of Oz appeared in 1939, "Over the Rainbow" became Garland's signature song.
She performed it for thirty years. She said she wanted to remain true to the character of Dorothy and to the message of being somewhere over the rainbow. An introductory verse, omitted from the film is sometimes used in theatrical productions of The Wizard of Oz and is included in the piano sheet music from the film, it was used in versions by Tony Bennett, Al Bowlly, Doris Day, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, Sarah Vaughan, Trisha Yearwood, Norma Waterson. Judy Garland sang the introductory verse only once, on a 1948 radio broadcast of The Louella Parsons Show. Lyrics for a second verse appeared in the British edition of the sheet music. In March 2017, "Over the Rainbow" sung by Judy Garland was entered in the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress as music, "culturally or artistically significant"; the Recording Industry Association of America and the National Endowment for the Arts ranked it number one on their Songs of the Century list. The American Film Institute named it best movie song on the AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs list.
"Over the Rainbow" was given the Towering Song Award by the Songwriters Hall of Fame and was sung at its dinner on June 12, 2014, by Jackie Evancho. In April 2005, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp honoring Yip Harburg that includes a lyric, it was sent as an audio wakeup call to astronauts about the STS-88 space shuttle mission on Flight Day 4, dedicated to astronaut Robert D. Cabana by his daughter Sara. "Over the Rainbow" reached number 12 on the Billboard Hot Digital Tracks chart during the week of January 31, 2004. In the U. S. it was certified Platinum for 1,000,000 downloads sold. As of October 2014 it had sold over 4.2 million digital copies. In the UK, "Over the Rainbow" was released as a single under the title "Somewhere Over the Rainbow", it entered the UK Official Singles Chart in April 2007 at number 68. In Germany, the single returned to the German Singles Chart in September 2010. After two weeks on that chart, it received gold status for selling 150,000 copies.
In October 2010, it reached number one on the German charts. In 2011 was certified 5x gold for selling over 750,000 copies, it stayed 12 non-consecutive weeks at the top spot and was the most successful single in Germany in 2010. In March 2010 it was the second best-selling download in Germany with digital sales betw
La Ciudad de los Árboles
La Ciudad de los Árboles is the eighth studio album by Spanish folk metal group Mägo de Oz, it was released on 6 November 2007. It comes in Digibook format and includes a DVD; the first single of the album is "a tribute to Mexico in ranchera style. The second single of the album is "Deja de Llorar" El Espíritu del Bosque - 1:46 La Ciudad de los Árboles - 6:02 Mi Nombre es Rock & Roll - 6:03 El Rincón de los Sentidos - 4:39 Deja de Llorar - 4:18 La Canción de los Deseos - 4:01 Y Ahora Voy a Salir - 3:53 Runa Llena* - 4:46 Resacosix en la Barra - 3:47 No Queda sino Batirnos - 4:19 Sin Ti, Sería Silencio - 4:42 Si Molesto, Me Quedo - 4:38 El Espíritu del Bosque II - 1:15* A play on the phrase "Full Moon", in Spanish "Luna Llena"
Leño was a Spanish hard rock band created in 1978 in Madrid. The band members were Rosendo Mercado as guitarist and vocalist, Chiqui Mariscal as bassist and Ramiro Penas on drums; when they started to record their first album Leño, Chiqui Mariscal left the band and Tony Urbano entered as the new bassist in order to complete the recording. This line up would continue until their break-up in 1983 at their peak of popularity. In 2012 the band was ranked number 13 on Rolling Stone's "50 Greatest Spanish rock bands". After finishing the compulsory military service in 1975, Rosendo took part recording the first album for the band Ñu. Molina and he were not on good terms, so Rosendo left the group in 1977, formed Leño, playing the guitar and singing. Chiqui Mariscal and Ramiro Penas left Ñu to join him in Leño, they made their debut as supporting band in a concert of Asfalto. They had been hired by Vicente Romero, setting up Chapa Discos, published the collective disc Viva el Rollo, Vol. II. Rock del Manzanares, including two songs: Este Madrid and Aprendiendo a escuchar.
In 1979 they published their first album, titled Leño. The album, produced by Teddy Bautista, contains songs with long instrumental sections, among which El tren and Este Madrid are remarkable. During the recording Mariscal left the group, was substituted by Tony Urbano, as portrayed in the disc cover, it would be ranked as the 106th best Rock en Español album according to American magazine Al Borde. In 1980 they published Más madera. Teddy Bautista's influence can have a lighter style. In 1981 they recorded; the disc sold well though the recording quality was not good. This disc includes one of Rosendo's best-known songs, Maneras de vivir. Luz Casal and Teddy Bautista play with them; the last official disc of Leño, ¡Corre, corre!, was made with more resources, thanks to the success of their previous one. It was recorded at Ian Gillan's recording studio located in London, with the production of Carlos Narea. Notable songs include Sorprendente and ¡Qué desilusión!. The intention was to achieve prestige both inside and outside Spain but when the critics of Kerrang!
Evaluated the album, the result was awful. Some of them claimed, impossible to rate the album because of the language. In 2012 the album would be ranked number 19 on Rolling Stone's "50 Greatest Spanish rock albums". In 1983 they took part in Rock de una noche de verano, a tour organized by Miguel Ríos that would become a milestone in the Spanish rock history, by organizing a long series of concerts all around Spain, with big sound and light resources. In the 1983 fall, in their best success moment, they decided to break up. Chiqui Mariscal died in 2008. In 2010, the band reunited for the release of their album tribute Bajo la corteza: 26 canciones de Leño to perform a short concert. Leño – 1979 Más madera – 1980 ¡Corre, corre! – 1982 En Directo – 1981 Vivo'83 – 2006 Este Madrid / Aprendiendo a escuchar – 1978 El tren – 1980 El oportunista – 1980 La noche de que te hablé / Sin solución" – 1980 Maneras de vivir / Todo es más sencillo* – 1981 Corre, corre / Sorprendente – 1982 Que tire la toalla! / Sorprendente – 1982 Maneras de vivir – 1997 Maneras de vivir – 1997 Indirecto – 1992 Nos va la marcha – 1978 Bajo la corteza: 26 canciones de Leño – 2010 Leño 1978-1983 – 2013 BABAS, Kike, y TURRÓN, Kike: La Sana Intención.
Conversaciones con Rosendo. Zona de Obras / SGAE. Madrid, 2003 FERNÁNDEZ, Iñaki: Rosendo. Historia del rock urbano. Editorial La máscara. Valencia, 1997. ISBN 84-7974-250-X. VV. AA.: Rosendo. Publicaciones y Ediciones SGAE. Madrid, 1997. Rosendo's Official website
Mägo de Oz (album)
Mägo de Oz was Mägo de Oz's debut album. Juanma: voice Mohamed: violin Carlitos: lead guitar Chema: rhythm guitar Salva: bass Txus: drums, voice on "Lo que el viento se dejó" and "Yankees go home"
Víctor García (Spanish singer)
Víctor García is the lead vocalist and songwriter for the heavy metal band WarCry. He is the central figure and sole original member of WarCry and a former Avalanch lead vocalist, being considered one of the best Spanish metal singers. García has cited that his biggest and most important influences are Stryper and Virgin Steele. Víctor García discovered his passion for metal music around 1987, after listening to Europe's Final Countdown, some other bands like Bon Jovi. In 1992 he created a band with some friends, named War-Cry. In 1994, Asturian power metal band Avalanch asked García to join them as rhythm guitarist, they gave some concerts in various localities around Asturias. After leaving Avalanch in February 1996 he reformed the group as WarCry, this time acting as songwriter and lead singer, recorded the demo Demon 97. In 1998 Avalanch expelled their lead vocalist Juan Lozano in the middle of the tour in support of La Llama Eterna, invited García to re-join them as lead vocalist. García tried to keep working with both bands, but decided to break up War-Cry and go up with his work on Avalanch.
Now as the new Avalanch front man, they recorded Llanto De Un Héroe in 1999 where he received songwriting credits on two songs, "Por mi Libertad" and "Aquí Estaré". After the successful tour on support of the album, Avalanch recorded their first live work, entitled Días De Gloria and released in 2000; the band was going through a great moment, entered the studio in late 2000 to record El Ángel Caído, with the vocals contribution of Leo Jiménez in the song "Las Ruinas del Edén". The album became the band's most successful and acclaimed album. García along with Avalanch drummer Alberto Ardines decided to release an album aside from the band with the songs they had been composing in their spare time. Both members were expelled from Avalanch with the excuse that they were working on a project behind the band's back. Víctor García replied he showed many songs for the albums, but only two were recorded, "Aquí Estaré" and "Por Mi Libertad", becoming "Aquí Estaré", one of the band's hymns, so he decided "to release a couple of songs, but never with the idea of leaving Avalanch."
At the end of the tour on support of El Ángel Caído, Víctor García and Avalanch's drummer decided to record an album with the songs they had composed in their spare time. Most of, written during the 1990s with lyrics in English; the pair translated the lyrics into Spanish and produced the album themselves, with Victor singing as well as playing bass guitar, rhythm guitar, keyboards. Fernando Mon, who had worked for Avalanch, Pablo García of Relative Silence, collaborated on the album by recording guitar solos. Upon learning of Víctor and Ardines' project, Avalanch disapproved of it and expelled them from the band. García stated that he presented many of his song ideas to Avalanch, but received writing credit on only two released songs: "Aquí Estaré" and "Por Mi Libertad". "Aquí Estaré" had been accepted by the band but went on to become one of Avalanch's most popular songs, so he decided "to release a couple of songs, but never with the idea of leaving Avalanch." After being expelled from Avalanch, García showed Ardines the logo of WarCry.
Ardines felt that those were "fantastic", that they should continue working on their new musical project using the WarCry name as they had an "open path". They were joined by Pablo García and Fernando Mon, recorded their debut album WarCry, released in April 2002. Shortly after the album's recording they were joined by bassist Alvaro Jardón of Darna; the album received several positive reviews. WarCry started composing new songs instead of touring in support of the album, so that they would have a larger repertoire to perform. WarCry's second album, El Sello De Los Tiempos, was released in December 2002 through Avispa. Receiving better critics than the debut album; the band performed their first live concert on 13 December 2002 in Avilés, Asturias as the start of their El Sello De Los Tiempos tour. The tour lasted a year, during which WarCry played with many other heavy metal acts such as Moonspell, Barón Rojo and Rage. Jardón left the band following the tour, citing personal issues. In August 2003 they began recording a third album, produced by Víctor García and Ardines with the collaboration of Slaven Kolak.
The album, Alea Jacta Est, was mixed and edited in the band's own recording studio Jaus Records, was released on 1 January 2004 through Avispa Music. It was their first album to include writing contributions from each band member, as Víctor García had written all of the songs on the previous two albums. Alea Jacta Est reached #3 on the FNAC sales list within twelve days of its release. On the first concert for the tour, WarCry presented Roberto García of Avalanch, as their new bassist. WarCry — official website Víctor García on Myspace WarCry on Myspace