India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
For the village in Azerbaijan, see Hovari. Haveri is a town in Karnataka, India, It is the administrative headquarters of Haveri District; the name Haveri is derived from the Kannada words keri, which means place of snakes. Haveri is famous for its cardamom garlands, it is said. One of the famous mathas is Hukkeri Math. Haveri is famous for marketing Byadagi red chillies, which are well known all over India. Around 25 km away, there is a place called Bada, the birthplace of the poet Kanakadasa. Haveri is 7 hours away from Bangalore by train, it is the middle way stop between Davanagere. It is 72 km after Davanagere. By road, it is about 340 km from Bangalore on NH-4 towards Mumbai, it is located 307 km north of the port city Mangalore. Core area of Western Chalukya monuments includes the places Badami, Annigeri, Mahadeva Temple, Lakkundi, Dambal, Bankapura, Kuruvatti, Balligavi, Chaudayyadanapura, Hangal, it was possible. Haveri comes under Core area of Western Chalukya architectural activity; the district is proud to be the birthplace of Santa Shishunala Sharif, the great saint Kanakadasaru, Hanagal Kumara Shivayogigalu, Wagish Panditaru, Writer Galaganatharu, Ganayogi Panchakshari Gavayigalu, Gnyana Peetha Awardee Dr.
V. K. Gokak and many more; the freedom fighters Gudleppa Hallikere. History of Haveri district dates to pre-historic period. About 1300 stone writings of different rulers like Chalukyas, Rastrakutas are found in the district. Bankapura Challaketaru, Guttavula Guttaru, Kadambas of Hangal and Nurumbad are some of the well known Samanta Rulers. Devendramunigalu the teacher of Kannada Adikavi Pampa and Ajitasenacharya the teacher of Ranna Chavundaraya lived in Bankapura; this was the second capital of Hoysala Vishnuvardhana. Guttaru ruled during latter part of the 12th century and up to end of the 13th century from Guttavol village as Mandaliks of Chalukya, independently for some time and as Mandaliks of Seunas of Devagiri. Shasanas found in Chaudayyadanapura, a village near Guttal, reveal that Mallideva was Mandalika of 6th Vikramaditya of Chalukyas. Jatacholina, under the leadership of Mallideva built the Mukteshwar temple at Chaudayyadanapura. Kadambas of Nurumbad during the period of Kalyani Chalukyas ruled about 100 villages with Rattihalli as their capital.
Siddhesvara Temple The centre of Western Chalukya architectural developments was the region including present-day Bagalkot, Koppal and Dharwad districts. Miniature decorative dravida and nagara style towers at Siddhesvara Temple in Haveri Basavanna Temple Utsav Rock Garden is situated at Gotgodi on NH-4 Shiggaon Taluk, it is blended with both art where more than 1000 real life size sculptures are present. It has got 8 world records, it is a unique garden in the whole world. Dargah Of Irshad Ali Baba, P. B. Road, Haveri. St Anne's Church at Hangal Road, Bharathi Nagar, Haveri Siddheshwar temple at Haveri Recently, a Mini Vidhana Soudha was constructed on Devagiri hill; the Mini Vidhana Soudha hosts major government offices. The main office among these is the District Commissioner's office. Haveri is located at 14.8°N 75.4°E / 14.8. It has an average elevation of 572 metres; the masters' Shri Rajiv Gandhi Karnataka University P G Centre, Haveri is the developing educational institution. There are three major colleges in Haveri.
One is Govt. First Grade College, Gudleppa Hallikeri College, C. B. Kolli Polytechnic. Among other colleges are S. S. Women's Degree College, SJM Pre-University College, SMS Pre-University College. Govt. Engineering College was started. C. B. Collipolytechnic CBSE Schools Karnataka Public School, Hanagal Road, Haveri K. L. E's English Medium CBSE School Convent Schools Sri Vivekananda Convent School Tumminakkati, New Cambridge Convent School TumminakattiHigh schools Karnataka Public School, Hanagal Road, Haveri K. L. E's English Medium CBSE School Gandhi Grameena Gurukula Hosarithi Lions English Medium School St. Michael English Medium School J. G. S. S. High School J. P. Rotary School Hukkerimath Shivabasaveshwar High School S M S Girls High School H. L. V. English Medium School Savanur Mrutyunjaya High School Kurubagonda Shri Kalidasa High School, Kaginele bus stand, Haveri S J M Primary and High School, Haveri St. Ann's English Medium School. Haveri S V S high school Abalur Sri Sangana Basaveshwara High School, Tumminakatti.
Govt High School Tumminakattii Govt High School, Tumminakatti. Colleges and places Gudleppa Hallikeri College Parivartana PU Science and Commerce College C B Kolli Polytechnic Govt. Engg. College Govt. Majeed College Savanur S. J. M PU College, Haveri Sri Sangana Basaveshwara PU College, Tumminakatti. Sri hukkerimata shivabasaveshwar high school haveri Government First Grade College, Haveri Government Women's First Grade College, Haveri lions English girls commerce College, haveri As of 2011 India census, Haveri had a population of 67102. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Haveri has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76%, female literacy is 64%. In Haveri, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Sachin kumar born in 1992
Bangalore division is one of the four divisions of the State of Karnataka, India. The division comprises the districts of Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Chitradurga, Kolar, Ramanagara and Tumakuru; the Eaton Democrat and The Sydney Mail reported from The Sun that a hunter said that he and his companions traveled about 30.0 miles to the north-west of Bangalore, encamped on the bank of a creek near a depopulated village that extended for about 0.5 miles along it, in a hilly, timbered forest. He said that the creek had water about 2.0 ft deep, was about 10.0 ft wide, emptied into the Cauvery River about 20.0 miles below. That night, they heard noises from the panther, lion, wolf and jackal; the village, besides others, had been depopulated due to a fever plague. For this reason, no shooting had occurred in this area for years, this allowed animals, such as lions and tigers, to be plentiful here, or come here from areas where they had been driven out. In the hunter's party was a native who lived near Seringapatam, had been informed about the abundance of lions and tigers in this place, why they came here.
The next day, after leaving the camp, he came across a big, black snake, heard an animal in the thicket. Alarmed, he prepared his rifle, kept a watch on his surroundings as he went to the village. There, he entered a large hut. After kicking the skull, a dark, venomous creature bit his left wrist, forcing him to treat himself for about 15 minutes. Recovering, he rejoiced, but when he looked northwards, he noticed a lion and tiger, much to his surprise; the two beasts, which were stalking him, were on opposite sides of an adobe wall that extended for about 300.0 ft, was about 4.0 ft tall. Due to excitement for hunting the witness, they did not notice each other at first. After they became aware of each other's presence, the lion and tiger fought bitterly, without winning. Bayalu Seeme Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary Deccan Plateau Deccan thorn scrub forests Districts of Karnataka South Karnataka Kenneth Anderson Major General Richard Stewart Dobbs
Shimoga district is a district in the Karnataka state of India. A major part of Shimoga district lies in the Sahyadri. Shimoga city is its administrative centre. Jog Falls is a major tourist attraction; as of 2011 Shimoga district has a population of 1,755,512. There are seven taluks: Bhadravathi, Sagara, Shikaripura and Thirthahalli. Shimoga was known as Mandli. There are legends about. According to one, the name Shivamogga is related to the Hindu God Shiva. Shiva-Mukha, Shivana-Moogu or Shivana-Mogge can be the origins of the name "Shivamogga". Another legend indicates that the name Shimoga is derived from the word Sihi-Moge which means sweet pot. According to this legend, Shimoga once had the ashram of the sage Durvasa, he used to boil sweet herbs in an earthen pot. Some cowherds, found this pot and after tasting the sweet beverage named this place Sihi-Moge. During Treta yuga, Lord Rama killed Maricha, in the disguise of a deer at Mrugavadhe near Thirthahalli; the Shimoga region formed a part of the Mauryan empire during the 3rd century.
The district came into the control of Satavahanas. The Satakarni inscription has been found in the Shikaripur taluk. After the fall of the Shatavahana empire around 200 CE, the area came under the control of the Kadambas of Banavasi around 345 CE; the Kadambas were the earliest kingdom. The Kadambas became feudatories of the Badami Chalukyas around 540 CE. In the 8th century Rashtrakutas ruled this district; the Kalyani Chalukyas overthrew the Rashtrakutas, the district came into their rule. Balligavi was a prominent city during their rule. In the 12th century, with the weakening of the Kalyani Chalukyas, the Hoysalas annexed this area. After the fall of the Hoysalas, the entire region came under the Vijayanagar Empire; when the Vijayanagar empire was defeated in 1565 CE in the battle of Tallikota, the Keladi Nayakas who were feudatory of the Vijayanagar empire took control, declared sovereignty, ruled as an independent kingdom for about two centuries. In 1763 Haider Ali captured the capital of Keladi Nayakas and as a result the district came into the rule of the Kingdom of Mysore and remained a part of it till India acquired independence from the British.
Shimoga district is a part of the malnad region of Karnataka and is known as the'Gateway to Malnad' or'Malenaada Hebbagilu' in Kannada. The district is landlocked and bounded by Haveri, Chikmagalur and Uttara Kannada districts; the district ranks 9th in terms of the total area among the districts of Karnataka. It is spread over an area of 8465 km2. Shimoga lies between the latitudes 13°27' and 14°39' N and between the longitudes 74°38' and 76°04' E at a mean altitude of 640 metres above sea level; the peak Kodachadri hill at an altitude of 1343 metres above sea level is the highest point in this district. Rivers Kali, Gangavati and Tadadi originate in this district; the two major rivers that flow through this district are Tunga and Bhadra which meet at Koodli near Shimoga city to gain the name of Tungabhadra, which joins River Krishna. As the district lies in the tropical region, rainy season occurs from June to October. In the years 1901–1970, Shimoga received an average annual rainfall of 1813.9 mm with an average of 86 days in the year being rainy days.
The average annual temperature of Shimoga District is around 26 °C. The average temperature has increased over the years. In some regions of the district, the day temperature can reach 40 °C during summer; this has led to other problems. The major soil forms found in the Shimoga district are red gravelly clay soil; the major minerals found in the district are limestone. The plain land of the district is suitable for agriculture. Foundry and animal husbandry are the major contributors to the economy of Shimoga district; the crops cultivated in this district are paddy, cotton, oil seeds, pepper, ginger, Ragi. Karnataka is the largest producer of arecanut in India, the majority of, cultivated in the Shimoga district; the farmers have cultivated crops like Jatropha that has yielded high monetary benefits. Iron, Agriculture and Engineering are the major industries in Shimoga district. Foundry activity has Pearlite Liners Led. One of the oldest industries of Karnataka, is the largest private-sector employer in the district.
As of 2000, there were about 9800 industrial units in Shimoga District, with more than 41,000 employees. Major investments are made in food. Other rural industries in this district are carpentry, leather, beekeeping, stone cutting, handlooms and sandalwood carving. Karnataka government has created industrial regions to encourage industrialisation of the district: Nidige Industrial area in Bhadravathi taluk. Major industries in Shimoga district are VISL and MPM. Shimoga district is divided into seven taluks: Shimoga, Thirthahalli, Shikaripura and Hosanagara; the district administration is headed by the deputy commissioner who has the additional role of a district magistrate. Assistant commissioners, shirastedars, rev
Uttara Kannada/ North Canara is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is bordered by the state of Goa and Belagavi District to the north, Dharwad District and Haveri District to the east, Shivamogga District and Udupi District to the south, the Arabian Sea to the west; the city of Karwar is the administrative headquarters of the district. Sirsi and Bhatkal are other major towns in the district; the district has 2 agroclimatic divisions, namely: The coastal plain, consisting of Karwar, Kumta and Bhatkal taluks. The Malenadu, consisting of Sirsi, Yellapur, Haliyal and Mundgod taluks; the first known dynasty from Uttar Kannada District are Chutus of Banavasi. Uttara Kannada was the home of the Kadamba kingdom from the 350 to 525, they ruled from Banavasi. After the subjugation of the Kadambas by the Chalukyas, the district came under successive rule of empires like Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagar empire. Famous Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta is said to have stayed for a time in the district under the protection of Nawayath Sultan Jamal Al-Din at Hunnur.
This place is located in the town of Honnavar. Ruins of an old mosque and its minaret can still be seen in the village; the district came under the rule of Maratha Empire in the 1750s and part of Mysore Kingdom, who ceded it to the British at the conclusion of the Fourth Mysore War in 1799. It was initilally part of Kanara district in Madras Presidency; the district was divided to North and South Kanara districts in 1859. The British transferred Uttara Kannada district to Bombay Presidency in 1862. After India's independence in 1947, Bombay Presidency was reconstituted as Bombay State. In 1956 the southern portion of Bombay State was added to Mysore State, renamed Karnataka in 1972. Significant and picturesque, the Sadashivgad fort of historical importance is now a popular tourist destination located by the Kali river bridge, built at the confluence of the river and the Arabian Sea; the renowned Bengali poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, who visited Uttara Kannada in 1882, dedicated an entire chapter of his memoirs to this town.
The 22-year-old Rabindranath Tagore stayed with his brother, Satyendranath Tagore, the district judge in Uttara Kannada. There is a substantial amount of Chardo families in this area as they had migrated due to the persecution of the Portuguese in Goa. Cintacora known as Chitrakul and Sindpur, was known to the Portuguese as a old port; when Sadashivgad was built in this area, the village came to be known by that name. Pir fort, named for the Dargah of Shahkaramuddin, was captured and burnt by the Portuguese in 1510; the creek at the mouth of the Kali River was a trading center which came into greater prominence after Sadashivgad was built and the Portuguese realised the advantages of its sheltered harbor. In 1638 a rival English trading body, the Courteen Association, established a factory at Uttara Kannada, it was a trade port frequented by traders from Africa. Baitkhol port was famous for its natural harbour; the name Baithkhol is Bait-e-kol, meaning bay of safety. Muslin was the chief commodity purchased but Uttara Kannada was a source for pepper, cardamom and coarse blue cotton cloth.
Situated on India's west coast, 50 miles south-east of Goa, Uttara Kannada was noted for its safe harbour. In 1649 the Courteen Association united with the British East India Company and Uttara Kannada became a company factory. In the Treaty of Mangalore signed in 1784, between Tipu Sultan and the East India Company, one finds reference to Uttara Kannada and Sadashivgad written as Karwar and Sadasewgude respectively. Bhatkal and Honnavar were the chief ports of Tippu Sultan in the district; the British made Uttara Kannada their district headquarters in 1862. Since 1862, the time from which it came under Bombay Presidency, Uttara Kannada was described as a first rate harbor between Bombay and Colombo, it became a part of Maratha territory. It was a part of the Bombay Presidency until 1950; the main geographic feature of the district is the Western Ghats or Sahyadri range, which runs from north to south through the district. Between the Sahyadris and the sea is a narrow coastal strip, known as the Payanghat, which varies from 8 to 24 kilometres in width.
Behind the coastal plain are flat-topped hills from 60 to 100 meters in height, behind the hills are the ridges and peaks of the Sahyadris. East of the Sahyadris is part of the vast Deccan plateau. Moisture-bearing winds come from the west, yearly rainfall averages 3,000 millimetres on the coast, as high as 5,000 millimetres on the west-facing slopes of the Sahyadris. East of the crest is the rain shadow of the Sahyadris, which receive as little as 1,000 millimetres annually. Much of the rain falls in the June–September monsoon. Five major rivers drain westwards from the crest of the Sahyadris to the sea; these rivers form numerous waterfalls, the most famous of, Jog falls, on upper reaches of the Sharavati in neighboring Shimoga district, other famous waterfalls include Unchalli Falls, where the river Aghanashini drops 116 meters, Magod Falls, where the Bedti river plunges 180 meters in two leaps, Shivganga falls, where the river Sonda drops 74 meters, Lalguli falls and Mailmane falls on the river Kali.
In the lowlands, these rivers form wide estuaries, extending several kilometers inland from the coast. The
Bangalore Urban district
Bangalore Urban is a district of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is surrounded by the Bangalore Rural district on the east and north, the Ramanagara district on the west and the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu on the south. Bangalore Urban district came into being in 1986, with the partition of the erstwhile Bangalore into Bangalore Urban and Bangalore Rural districts. Bangalore Urban has five taluks: Yelahanka, Bangalore North, Bangalore East, Bangalore South and Anekal; the city of Bangalore is situated in the Bangalore Urban district. The district has 668 villages and 9 municipal corporations. Electronics City is situated in Anekal Taluk; the district had a population of 6,537,124 of which 88.11% is urban as of 2001. As of Census 2011, its population has increased to 9,588,910, with a sex-ratio of 908 females/males, the lowest in the state and its density is 4,378 people per square km; the climate here is moderate. The lowest average temperature is about 16–18 °C. According to the 2011 census Bangalore Urban district has a population of 9,588,910 equal to the nation of Belarus or the US state of North Carolina.
This gives it a ranking of 3rd in India. The district has a population density of 4,378 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 46.68%. Bangalore has a sex ratio of 908 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 88.48%. Gavi Gangadhareshwara Temple Dodda Basavana Gudi Halasuru Someshwara Temple, Bangalore ISKCON Temple Bangalore Kote Venkataramana Temple, Bangalore Banashankari Amma Temple Rajarajeshwari Temple, Shanmukha Temple, Nimishamba Temple - in the vicinity of D. I. E. T. Ajjanahalli, Bangalore South Bangalore Division Official website of Bangalore Urban District
Chikmagalur or Chikkamagaluru is a district in the state of Karnataka. Coffee was first cultivated in India in Chikmagalur; the mountains in Chikmagalur which are a part of the Western Ghats are the source of rivers like Tunga and Bhadra. Mullayanagiri, the highest peak in Karnataka is located in the district, it is a tourist's paradise containing hill stations like Kemmanagundi and Kudremukh and waterfalls like Manikyadhara, Kallathigiri. Chikmagalur district has a rich history. Wildlife enthusiasts would be interested in the Kudremukh National Park and Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary present in this district. Keresanthe Srimahalakshmi temple keresanthe kadur tq is a religious center for devotes. Chikmagalur district gets its name from its headquarters of Chikmagalur town, it is alternatively spelt as Chikmagalur. Chikmagalur means "The town of the younger daughter" in the Kannada language; the town is said to have been given as a dowry to the younger daughter of Rukmangada, the legendary chief of Sakkarepatna and hence the name.
As one can guess, there is indeed a town called Hiremagaluru which means "The town of the elder daughter", about 5 km from Chikmagalur town. Chikmagalur is the region where the Hoysala rulers started and spent the early days of their dynasty. According to a legend, it was at Sosevur, now identified with Angadi in Mudigere Taluk that Sala, the founder of the Hoysala dynasty, killed the legendary tiger, immortalised in the Hoysala crest, it is known that Veera Ballala II, the great king of Hoysala empire, has built the Amriteshwara temple at Amrithapura in Tarikere Taluk. Coffee was introduced into India through the Chikmagalur district when the first coffee crop was grown in the baba budan giri range during 1670 AD. According to the article Origins of Coffee, the saint Baba Budan on his pilgrimage to Mecca travelled through the seaport of Mocha, Yemen where he discovered coffee. To introduce its taste to India, he wrapped seven coffee beans around his belly and got them out of Arabia. On his return home, he planted the beans in the hills of Chikmagalur.
In recent history, Chikmagalur was the centre of global attention in the year 1978 when the former Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi contested for elections here and got elected to Lok Sabha, the Indian Parliament. Chikmagalur, the headquarters of Chikmagalur district, is 251 kilometres from the state capital of Bangalore, is surrounded by the Chandra Drona hills and dense forests; the district is between 12° 54´ 42´´ and 13° 53´ 53´´ North latitude and between 75° 04´ 46´´ and 76° 21´ 50´´ east longitude. Its greatest length from east to west is about 138.4 kilometers and from north to south 88.5 kilometers. The district receives normal average rainfall of 1925 mm; the highest point in the district is Mullayanagiri, 1,926 m above sea level, the highest point in the state of Karnataka. 30% of the district is covered with forests. The district borders Shimoga to the north, Davanagere to the north-east and Tumkur districts to the east, Hassan to the south, Dakshina Kannada to the south-west and Udupi to the west.
The rivers Bhadra, Hemavathi and Vedavathi flow all year round. The district is rich in iron and granite deposits. Black soil is found around Baba Budan Giri Hills whereas Red and Gravel soil are found in the southern parts of the district. According to the 2011 census, Chikmagalur district has a population of 1,137,753 equal to the nation of Cyprus or the US state of Rhode Island; this gives it a ranking of 408th in India. The district has a population density of 158 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was −0.28%. Chikmagalur has a sex ratio of 1005 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 79.24%.81% of the population resides in rural area with the remaining 19% being the urban population. Among taluks, Sringeri taluk has the least population whereas Chikmagalur taluk has the highest population. Kannada is the language spoken in this district. Chikmagalur district falls under the Mysore Division of Karnataka, it is divided into Chikmagalur Sub-Division and Tarikere Sub-Division.
Chikmagalur Sub-Division comprises the taluks of Chikmagalur, Koppa and Sringeri whereas the Tarikere Sub-Division comprises the taluks of Tarikere and Narasimharajapura. The Deputy Commissioner is the functional head of the district; each Sub-Division has Assistant Commissioners and each Taluk has Tahsildars who work under the control and supervision of the Deputy Commissioner. The current administrative setup of the district can be viewed here. Agriculture is the economical back bone of the Chikmagalur district with coffee cultivation forming the major part of it. Agricultural production in the district is spread over three seasons — namely Kharif and Summer. Important crops grown are cereals, i.e. rice, jowar and minor millets, pulses like red gram, horse gram, green gram, black gram and Bengal gram. Oil seeds like groundnut, sunflower and commercial crops like sugarcane and tobacco are grown here; the Coffee Board located in Chikmagalur town is the government authority that oversees the production and marketing of coffee cultivated in the district.
Coffee is cultivated in Chikmagalur district in an area of around 85,465 hectares with Arabica being the dominant variety grown in upper hills and Robusta being the major variety in the low level hills. There are around 15000 coffee growers in this district with 96% of them being small growers with holdings of less than or e