Battle of Vilcapugio
The Battle of Vilcapugio was an action fought on October 1, 1813 during the second Campaign of Upper Peru in the Argentine War of Independence, where the republican forces led by General Manuel Belgrano were defeated by a royalist army, led by Joaquin de la Pezuela. After the Army of the North's victories during the Battles of Tucumán and Salta, the campaign against the royalists in Upper Peru was restarted upon the insistence of the government in Buenos Aires. Despite being ill with malaria and having to command a company of new conscripts with insufficient artillery, Belgrano accepted the commanding post. Belgrano's army was supported from Oruro province by Colonel Baltasar Cárdenas and the 2,000 poorly organized natives under his command, Colonel Cornelio Zelaya with forces from Cochabamba. Both colonels had orders to raise the aboriginal populations against the Spanish authorities. Knowing that the royalist army did not have enough mules to move its artillery and provisions, Belgrano planned to use a pincer movement to attack, confidently believing that Pezuela's lack of mobility would be a decisive factor.
At the end of September 1813, most of Belgrano's army arrived to the plain of Vilcapugio, a plateau surrounded by high mountains several miles north of Potosí. The royalist troops were encamped further west at Condo-Condo under the orders of Pazuela and Major Saturnino Castro, which allowed them to take by surprise and utterly defeat Cárdenas' native troops at Ancacato, 23 km north of Belgrano's headquarters. Castro obtained documents from Cárdenas giving instructions to Belgrano. With these documents Pezuela was able to interrupt Belgrano's plans and began his advance on the mountains on 1 October, long before Zelaya's cavalry from Cochabamba could join the republican army at Vilcapugio. Belgrano's army veterans from the North contained the left flank and center column of the royalist army and forced them to back down to the point that Pezuela had in mind, by a moment, to send a message to the Viceroy of Peru intimating that the battle had been lost, his own left flank, remained in action and defeated Belgrano's right column.
Had the Northern army continued to persist in pursuing the Spanish troops, victory would have been secured, but the arrival of the royalist cavalry commanded by Saturnino Castro made the rebels panic, causing them to disperse. The royalist army reorganized itself and appropriated all of its artillery, continuously shelling the few soldiers left in Belgrano's encampment; as result of the battle, 350 rebels and some 200 royalists were killed. Belgrano and Eustaquio Díaz Vélez had decided that Vélez would march to the south to Potosí to reunite with the dispersed troops, while Belgrano would gathered the remains of his army near the town of Macha, some 65 km to the east. Díaz Vélez took command over the troops in Potosí after Vilcapugio with the rest of the army on the left flank of the enemy. At this point the troops reorganized themselves to pursue the Campaign of Alto Perú according to the orders from the government of Buenos Aires. Battle of Pequereque Action of Tambo Nuevo Battle of Ayohuma
Flag of Macha
The flag of Macha is the name given to a pair of flags of Argentina found at a chapel in the hamlet of Titiri, near the village of Macha, north of Potosí, Bolivia. They are considered to be the first physical flags created by Manuel Belgrano, who in November 1813 hid the standards to prevent them from falling into enemy hands, they were discovered in 1885. Bolivia kept one of those flags at Sucre. Tucumán Province has used it as provincial flag since 2010; the flag preserved in Argentina is a triband of blue and blue bands, like the modern flag of Argentina, but the one kept in Bolivia is a triband of white and white. The Flag of Argentina was created by Manuel Belgrano during the Argentine War of Independence. After concluding the Paraguay campaign, he moved to Rosario to build artilleries. While being in the village he noticed that both the royalist and patriotic forces were using the same colors, Spain's yellow and red, he requested to the First Triumvirate a new cockade, approved by a decree on February 18, 1812.
The colours of this cockade were light blue. Encouraged by this success, he created a flag of the same colours nine days later; the flag was first flown, for the soldiers to swear allegiance to it, on 27 February 1812, on the Batería Libertad, by the Paraná River. Although it is known that this first flag had white and light blue colours, the design is unknown by historians, could be either a blue-white-blue triband, or white-blue-white. Belgrano wrote a letter to the Triumvirate to inform it of the new flag, saying that "...being in need to raise a flag, not having one, I made it to be done white and light blue according to the colours of the national cockade...". Still uninformed of this, the Triumvirate dispatched Belgrano to Salta, to reinforce the Army of the North; this gave room to another unclear detail: whenever Belgrano left the physical flag in Rosario, or took it with him to the North. Belgrano dispatched a letter addressed to the First Triumvirate, informing them of the newly created flag.
However, unlike with the cockade, the Triumvirate did not accept the use of the flag: the international policy at the time was to state that the government was ruling on behalf of Ferdinand VII king of Spain captive of Napoleon, whereas the creation of a flag was a clear independentist act. Thus, the triumvirate sent a warning to Belgrano not to fight under the flag, but by the time the reply had arrived, Belgrano had moved to the north, following the previous orders that requested him to strengthen the patriotic position in the Upper Peru after the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the Battle of Huaqui. Still unaware about the Triumvirate's refusal, Belgrano raised the flag at San Salvador de Jujuy and had it blessed by the local church on the second anniversary of the May Revolution. Belgrano accepted the orders from the Triumvirate by time they arrived to Salta and ended using the flag; as soldiers had made oaths to the new flag, Belgrano said that he was saving it for the circumstance of a great victory.
The First Triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate, with a more liberal ideology, who called the Asamblea del Año XIII. This assembly authorized to use the flag as a War flag, but not as a national one; the first oath to the newly approved flag was on February 13, 1813, next to the Salado River, known since as "Río Juramento". The first battle fought with the approved flag was the Battle of Salta, a decisive patriotic victory that achieved the complete defeat of royalist Pío Tristán; the army was defeated at the battles of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma. After those defeats, the army retreated to the South. Fearing that the enemy armies got the flags, he left them to the care of the parish priest of Macha, which hid them behind a Saint Teresa of Avila's portrait in a chapel near the small hamlet of Titiri. Belgrano was summoned back to Buenos Aires, sent to Europe in diplomatic mission, the flags was considered to be lost; the flags were discovered many decades in 1885. The new priest was cleaning and restoring the chapel, found them.
The flags were moved to the "Museum of the Independence" in Sucre. The other was delivered to Argentina in 1896, after a request from Argentine ambassador to Bolivia Adolfo Carranza; this last one is kept at the National Historical Museum. The National Historical Museum started making a study of it. María Pía Tamborini and Patricia Lissa were in charge of the restoration; the flag is made of silk, only the 70% of it remains. It was kept under bad conditions over the years, the silk used was not of high quality either. For this reason, the original colours could not be restored, which were ivory white; the flag is kept at a room with low lights. It was made available to the view of the public in year of the Argentina Bicentennial. Flag of Argentina Manuel Belgrano Torres, Eduardo Pérez. Bandera de Macha: La Bandera de Belgrano. Salta: Hanne. ISBN 978-987-1264-34-6. Goman, Adolfo Mario. Enigmas sobre las primeras banderas argentinas. Cuatro Vientos. ISBN 987-564-702-0
Flag of Argentina
The flag of Argentina is a triband, composed of three wide horizontal bands coloured light blue and white. There are multiple interpretations on the reasons for those colors; the flag was created by Manuel Belgrano, in line with the creation of the Cockade of Argentina, was first raised at the city of Rosario on February 27, 1812, during the Argentine War of Independence. The National Flag Memorial was built on the site; the First Triumvirate did not approve the use of the flag, but the Asamblea del Año XIII allowed the use of the flag as a war flag. It was the Congress of Tucumán which designated it as the national flag, in 1816. A yellow Sun of May was added to the center in 1818; the full flag featuring the sun is called the Official Ceremonial Flag. The flag without the sun is considered the Ornamental Flag. While both versions are considered the national flag, the ornamental version must always be hoisted below the Official Ceremony Flag. In vexillological terms, the Official Ceremonial Flag is the civil and war flag and ensign, while the Ornamental Flag is an alternative civil flag and ensign.
There is controversy of the true colour of the first flag, between scientist and the descendants of Manuel Belgrano between blue and pale blue. The flag of Argentina was created by Manuel Belgrano during the Argentine War of Independence. While in Rosario he noticed that both the royalist and patriotic forces were using the same colors, Spain's yellow and red. After realizing this, Belgrano created the Cockade of Argentina, approved by the First Triumvirate on February 18, 1812. Encouraged by this success, he created a flag of the same colors nine days later, it used the colors that were used by the Criollos during the May Revolution in 1810. However, recent research and studies would indicate that the colors were chosen from the Spanish Order of Charles III symbolizing the allegiance to the rightful, captive King Ferdinand VII of Spain. Most portraits about the creation or first uses of the flag show the modern design of it, but the flag of Macha, a early design kept at the House of Freedom in Sucre, Bolivia was instead a vertical triband with two white bands and a light blue one in the middle.
The flag was first flown for soldiers to swear allegiance to it on 27 February 1812, on the Batería Libertad, by the Paraná River. On that day, Belgrano said the following words: Soldiers of the Fatherland, we have heretofore had the glory of wearing the national cockade. Let us swear to defeat our enemies and external, South America will become the temple of Independence and Freedom. In testament that you so swear it, say with me: LONG LIVE THE FATHERLAND! "Lord Captain and troops chosen for the first time for the Independence Battery: go, take possession of it and fulfill the oath you have just sworn today. Belgrano dispatched a letter addressed to the First Triumvirate, informing them of the newly created flag. However, unlike with the cockade, the Triumvirate did not accept the use of the flag: policy at the time was to state that the government was ruling on behalf of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, captive of Napoleon, whereas the creation of a flag was a clear independentist act. Thus, the triumvirate sent a warning to Belgrano not to fight under the flag, but by the time the reply had arrived, Belgrano had moved to the north, following the previous orders that requested him to strengthen the patriotic position in the Upper Peru after the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the Battle of Huaqui.
Meanwhile, the flag was hoisted for the first time in Buenos Aires atop the Church of Saint Nicholas of Bari on August 23, 1812. Still not knowing about the Triumvirate's refusal, Belgrano raised the flag at San Salvador de Jujuy and had it blessed by the local church on the second anniversary of the May Revolution. Belgrano accepted the orders from the Triumvirate by time they arrived to Salta and ceased using the flag; as soldiers had made oaths to the new flag, Belgrano said that he was saving it for the circumstance of a great victory. The First Triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate, with a more liberal ideology, who called the Asamblea del Año XIII. Despite being one of its original goals, it did not declare independence, so did not approve the use of a national flag either; the first oath to the newly approved flag was on February 13, 1813, next to the Salado River, which became known as the "Río Juramento". The first battle fought with the approved flag was the Battle of Salta, a decisive patriotic victory that achieved the complete defeat of royalist Pío Tristán.
The flag would be declared the national flag by the Congress of Tucumán on July 20, 1816, shortly after the declaration of independence. The proposal was made by the deputy Juan José Paso and the text written by the deputy of Charcas, José Serrano. On February 25, 1818, the Congress included the Sun of May in the war flag, after the proposal of deputy Chorroarín; the sun was copied after the one that the first Argentine coin featured in 1813. It was subsequently decided to keep it as part of the regular flag afterwards, thus the sun no longer represents war. José de San Martín was aware of the new flag, but did not employ it during the crossing of the Andes in 1817. Being a joint operation of both Argentine and Chilean forces, he thought that a new flag would be a
The Paraguay campaign was the attempt by a Buenos Aires-sponsored militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, to win the royalist Intendency of Paraguay for the cause of May Revolution. In Paraguay it is considered as their War of Independence; the first battles fought were the Battle of Campichuelo and Battle of Campo Maracana, in which Argentinians claimed victory. However, they were vanquished in the subsequent Battle of Paraguarí and Battle of Tacuarí; the campaign ended in a military failure and Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown just two months after Belgrano's withdrawal, starting its course towards full independence. Three months after the creation of the Primera Junta, Manuel Belgrano was appointed Chief Commander of an army destined to gather support at Corrientes, Santa Fe, Paraguay and the Banda Oriental territories. A few days his goal was made more specific: he must aim for Paraguay; the junta had been informed that the patriotic party was strong there, a small army would suffice to take control.
Trusting such information, Belgrano moved towards Paraguay with two possible goals—to guarantee loyalty for the junta in Paraguay or promote a new government that would stay on friendly terms with Buenos Aires. Belgrano headed north with nearly 200 men, expecting to gather more soldiers on his way to the Paraná River. Soldiers from the Blandengues regiments of San Nicolás and Santa Fe did join him en route, the junta sent reinforcements of another 200 soldiers; the army was welcomed by most of the population they encountered along the way, receiving donations and new recruits in most villages. The small army grew to nearly 950 men, consisting of infantry and cavalry, divided into four divisions with one piece of artillery each. "This Congress will not discuss whether it's his weak son, our ruler. None of them have anymore power upon Paraguay; this Congress must discuss the way of protecting our independence from Brasil, Buenos Aires and Lima... Paraguay is free, is independent and it is a Republic..."
Paraguay was a rather isolated region of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, which made the ideas of regional independence stronger than in other provinces of the Viceroyalty. The road to Paraguayan independence began at the Congress of July 24, 1810, called by the last colonial governor to express the province's loyalty to the Spanish crown. Paraguayans indeed refused to pledge themselves to the Primera Junta of Buenos Aires and agreed to remain loyal to the King of Spain—yet the process of independence started here, as many Paraguayans, led by José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia and other patriots, took control of the situation and started working to obtain independence, both from the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata and the Kingdom of Spain. Belgrano ignored all this when he invaded Paraguay, believing that he would find a favorable political situation. There were three main political tendencies in Paraguay: those who supported the Spanish Regency Council, those who supported the Junta of Buenos Aires and those who supported independence.
By the end of October Belgrano's army stopped at Curuzú Cuatiá, where an old border conflict between Corrientes and Yapeyu was solved. He set the territories that would belong to Curuzu Cuatiá and Mandisoví, organized their urban layout around the chapel and the school. By November 1810 the army reached the Paraná River near Apipé island, there Belgrano took measures to benefit the natives that were living in missions. With his authority as representative of the junta he gave them full civil and political rights, granted lands, authorized commerce with the United Provinces and lifted the inability to take public or religious office. However, the junta requested that he seek authorization for such changes in the future. From that point the army moved to Candelaria, used as a stronghold for the attack on Paraguay; the terrain gave a clear advantage to Velazco's Paraguayan troops, who confronted Belgrano: the Paraná River, nearly 1,000 m. wide, was an effective natural barrier. Swamps, hills and lakes would force the army to march making a possible retreat difficult.
The Parana was crossed with several boats on December 19, a force of 54 Paraguayan soldiers was forced to flee during the battle of Campichuelo. Belgrano saw Velazco's army from the Mbaé hill, despite being outnumbered he ordered the attack anyway, trusting in the moral strength of his soldiers; when the battle of Paraguarí started, Belgrano's troops had an initial advantage, but Velazco's numerical superiority prevailed, thanks to the intervention of the Paraguayan patriots, around 3,500 men, resulting in the combined Paraguayan forces vastly ouotnumbering the Argentines. With casualties of ten dead and 120 taken prisoner, Belgrano wanted to keep on fighting, but his officers convinced him to retreat, his intent to continue was based on sound military tactics: while the Paraguayan forces outnumbered his, he knew that they were armed, while his troops had full equipment and supplies. The army left for Tacuarí, being watched by the combined armies of Fulgencio Yegros and Manuel Atanasio Cabañas.
Those two armies consisted of nearly 3000 troops, while Belgrano was left with 400. They were attacked from many sides during the Battle of Tacuarí on March 9. Outnumbered and losing an unequal fight, Belgrano was requested to surrender, but refused to do so, he reorganized his remaining 235 men and ordered his secretary to burn all his documents and personal papers to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. He arranged for the troops and artillery to fire f
National Flag Memorial (Argentina)
The National Flag Memorial in Rosario, Argentina, is a monumental complex built near the shore of the Paraná River. It was inaugurated on June 20, 1957, the anniversary of the death of Manuel Belgrano, creator of the Argentine flag, who raised it for the first time on an island on the opposite shore of the river on February 27, 1812; the complex has a total area of about 10,000 square metres, was built using stone from the Andes, under the direction of architects Ángel Guido and Alejandro Bustillo, the sculptors José Fioravanti, Alfredo Bigatti and Eduardo Barnes. The Monumento has three parts: the Tower or mast, 70 metres high, which commemorates the Revolution of May 1810 and houses Manuel Belgrano's crypt in its base. Under the Propylaeum there is the Honour Room for the Flags of America; the complex faces Belgrano Avenue, is delimited by Córdoba St. and Santa Fe St. which slope down towards the river at this point. The Propylaeum can be accessed from the pedestrian passage called Pasaje Juramento, which starts at Buenos Aires St. between the municipal building and the Cathedral, in front of Plaza 25 de Mayo.
The passage is flanked by statues by famous sculptor Lola Mora. The Memorial and the National Flag Park located in front of it are the seat of the main celebrations of Flag Day on June 20; the 50th anniversary of the inauguration of the complex, in 2007, was marked by a special celebration and by the unveiling of a new lighting system. Flag of Argentina Manuel Belgrano List of buildings List of National Historic Monuments of Argentina Virtual Visit to the Flag memorial View map location Monumento Histórico Nacional a la Bandera Argentina. Works and sites of patrimonial value, Municipality of Rosario. Works and sites of patrimonial value of the municipality of Rosario
Battle of Tacuarí
The Battle of Tacuarí was a battle in Southern Paraguay between revolutionary forces under the command of General Manuel Belgrano, member of the Primera Junta government of Argentina, Paraguayan troops under colonel Manuel Atanasio Cabañas, at the time at the service of the royalists. After the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the Primera Junta government invited the other cities and provinces to join the revolution. Any intent of preserving the local governments previous to the revolution were considered hostile. General Manuel Belgrano, a member of the Junta, was named commander of the expedition with only 700 men, half of them without military experience. Though his forces were small, the extreme prudence of Velasco got them to fight first at Paraguarí, near Asunción, where he was defeated with relative ease. Forced to retreat, Belgrano marched to the Tebicuary river, where he was joined by 400 men from the Guaraní militias from Yapeyú and some men from the Fatherland Cavalry Regiment.
As noted in his Memoirs, the Paraguayans did not pursue, he could continue retreating to the town of Santa Rosa. There he received news that the situation was worsening at the Banda Oriental, so the Junta was ordering him to end the Paraguay campaign soon so he could help in the new theater of operations. On his part Belgrano requested reinforcements and decided to stop the retreat at the Tacuarí river and establish a defensive position, he was confident. The help sent by the Junta consisted of a small naval squadron travelling north on the Paraná River; this flotilla, composed of three small ships under the command of Juan Bautista Azopardo was defeated on March 2, 1811 at San Nicolás de los Arroyos, so Belgrano was left without reinforcements. The Paraguayans advanced after Belgrano, expecting he would retread without combat after the defeat at Paraguarí; the vanguard was under the command of Fulgencio Yegros and the main army under General Manuel Cabañas, with a total of 3,000 men, plus a reinforcement of three pieces of artillery.
Velazco had communicated to Cabañas by letter on January 29:...repel them to the other side of the Paraná river or further to obtain a communication between Montevideo and Portugal... The Paraguayan forces under Cabañas consisted of a total of 10 artillery pieces. Cabañas directly commanded 1.000 men with a division under commander Blas José de Rojas, 200 men from Villarrica with 7 pieces of artillery, an advance force under commander Fulgencio Yegros with two squadrons of cavalry and five companies of infantry under captain Pedro Juan Caballero, captain Antonio Tomás Yegros, commander García, commander José Mariano Recalde and sub-lieutenant Pedro Pablo Miers. These forces were complemented by 400 men under commander Juan Manuel Gamarra with three pieces of artillery under the command of Pascual Urdapilleta. On the morning of March 7 the Paraguayan troops joined in one place with the arrival of Gamarra's forces to the right side of the Tacuary river. Cabañas wrote that day to Velazco:... I'll be ready from tomorrow to commence hostilities on the enemy with no respite until Saturday when I plan to subject him to three attacks... is to go by the bridge... with four pieces of artillery and a thousand men and attack if possible in that area and in front... from a raft and two boats I have posted at the mouth of the Tacuary.
On March 8 a bridge over the river was finished and the Paraguayan troops commenced to cross. On March 9, the Paraguayans attacked the front of Belgrano's position, he was reinforced behind the Tacuarí river, forcing Cabañas's forces to cross the river under enemy fire, but Cabañas left only part of his forces to cross directly, including all the artillery, advanced with the rest through a man-made path through the jungle. Through a path opened for this operation, Cabañas attacked the enemy at their flank. Colonel José Machain moved to the side to repel them, but was surrounded by Paraguayan cavalry and forced to surrender. Therefore, Belgrano marched to help Machain. Commanding the defenders at the river crossing was major Celestino Vidal, left blind by cannon fire. Belgrano refused to surrender under Cabañas request, maintained a steady resistance, which forced the Paraguayans to stop their advance. Belgrano retreated with the remainder of his army to a nearby hill. From there he sent a communication to Cabañas, saying "the forces of Buenos Aires had come to help not conquer Paraguay.
Seeing they reject their liberators by force, I have decided to evacuate the province, crossing the Paraná river with the army under my command..." Cabañas took that communique as a request for armistice, ordered Belgrano to abandon the province in one day. Though his army suffered a serious defeat, there are some accomplishments by Belgrano from his defense at Tacuarí. In first place, he succeeded in extracting an important part of the army from Paraguay, about 400 men, including the prisoners captured with Machain; these men would form the future United Provinces army that would fight at the Banda Oriental, supporting the local militia commanded by José Artigas. Belgrano wrote a proposal that general Cabañas took to Asunción to form the base for a peace treaty between Asunción and B
The Yatasto relay was the handover of the command of the Army of the North by Manuel Belgrano to José de San Martín, in January 1814, during the Argentine War of Independence. It is named after the Yatasto relay, a horse relay at the modern Salta Province, but modern historians consider it could have taken place elsewhere. Buenos Aires, a colony city of Spain in South America, ousted the Spanish viceroy in the 1810 May Revolution and began the Argentine War of Independence, sending armies to other areas still loyal to the Spanish monarchy. One of those areas was the Upper Peru, but Manuel Belgrano prevented the royalist armies from marching to Buenos Aires with his victories at Tucumán and Salta. However, he was defeated when he tried at Vilcapugio and Ayohuma. José de San Martín, Carlos María de Alvear and other veterans of the Peninsular War reinforced the armies of Buenos Aires, they influenced the local politics, causing the Revolution of October 8, 1812. San Martín had a military victory at the Battle of San Lorenzo against a raid from Montevideo.
When Belgrano was defeated, San Martín was appointed his successor as the commander of the Army of the North. Historian Bartolomé Mitre considers it the result of a plot by Alvear, who sought to remove San Martín from the politics of Buenos Aires by sending him to a distant mission. Historians as Norberto Galasso consider instead that, despite the dangers, heading that army was an honour, pointing that Alvear sought to do so at a point. Juan Canter points as well that the mailings of the supreme director Gervasio Antonio de Posadas to San Martín were respectful. San Martín left Buenos Aires in December, 1813, he had order to relieve Belgrano and send him back to the city, to be judged for the defeats in the Upper Peru. They knew each other before the meeting by mailing each other, with the intermediation of the Spanish José Milá de la Roca. Both of them shared their rejection to absolutism and belonged to the faction of the late Mariano Moreno, it is considered that they met at the Yatasto relay, to the point that the event is named after the place.
Portraits and other art allusions use that name as well. However, historian Julio Arturo Benencia considers that the meeting could have taken place at the "Algarrobos" relay, two leagues to the west of Yatasto; the exact date in unclear as well, could have been at either January 30 or January 17. San Martín resisted the instructions related to Belgrano: he considered that he was the best military leader in the army, that his departure would have negative effects on the morale of the troops. Posadas insisted two months and Belgrano left the army; as his health was delicate, he did not return to Buenos Aires, moving instead to Cordoba to await the news there. After leaving, Belgrano wrote again to San Martín, advising him to abide to the local religious customs. José de San Martín was agnostic, Belgrano feared that the royalists may use this as propaganda against him, as it was done before against Juan José Castelli during the ill-fated first Upper Peru campaign. Manuel Belgrano stayed in Luján to await the trial, wrote his autobiography during that time.
All charges against him were dismissed a short time as nobody formulated a definite accusation. He was sent to a diplomatic mission to Europe. San Martín stayed only a couple of months in the Army of the North, he considered that guerrilla warfare was a better option to face the royalists, entrusted Martín Miguel de Güemes to direct the operations in Salta, while the Army of the North stayed in Tucumán. San Martín would move to Mendoza, where he raised the Army of the Andes with Chilean expatriates; the successful crossing of the Andes allowed San Martín to avoid the harsh terrain of the Upper Peru and attack Lima by sea. Galasso, Norberto. Seamos libres. Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-950-581-779-5. Luna, Félix. Grandes protagonistas de la Historia Argentina: Manuel Belgrano. Buenos Aires: Grupo Editorial Planeta. ISBN 950-49-1247-8